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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. A. F. Khan ◽  
M. Sohaib ◽  
S. Iqbal ◽  
M. S. Haider ◽  
M. Chaudhry

Abstract The present study was carried out to determine incidence of overweight and obesity in Pakistani servicemen with reference to their area of duty, feeding habits and also to identify risk factors. Accordingly, 2,501 servicemen selected from all over Pakistan using multiple stage stratified sampling protocol. Nutrition assessment performed using body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and dietary assessment using food frequency questionnaire. Collected data was analyzed using the SPSS version 25. Regression was used to find risk factors of obesity and WHR. Results indicated that about 1/4th of servicemen were smokers. Approximately, 1/5th of them were overweight and about one quarter were eating fruits and vegetables for <3 days/ week and <4 days/week, respectively. Only 1/3rd of them were physically active for at least <40 minutes per day. Age and fruits intake were significantly predicting BMI with a direct relation and vegetable intake was negatively correlated to BMI of the servicemen. Age and rank were significant predictors of WHR while, physical activity was negatively correlated to WHR. It is concluded and suggested from our study that there is a need to modify eating patterns and habits as well as improving physical activity on daily basis for healthy and long life of the servicemen.

2023 ◽  
Vol 55 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-35
Deqiang Li ◽  
Qianmu Li ◽  
Yanfang (Fanny) Ye ◽  
Shouhuai Xu

Malicious software (malware) is a major cyber threat that has to be tackled with Machine Learning (ML) techniques because millions of new malware examples are injected into cyberspace on a daily basis. However, ML is vulnerable to attacks known as adversarial examples. In this article, we survey and systematize the field of Adversarial Malware Detection (AMD) through the lens of a unified conceptual framework of assumptions, attacks, defenses, and security properties. This not only leads us to map attacks and defenses to partial order structures, but also allows us to clearly describe the attack-defense arms race in the AMD context. We draw a number of insights, including: knowing the defender’s feature set is critical to the success of transfer attacks; the effectiveness of practical evasion attacks largely depends on the attacker’s freedom in conducting manipulations in the problem space; knowing the attacker’s manipulation set is critical to the defender’s success; and the effectiveness of adversarial training depends on the defender’s capability in identifying the most powerful attack. We also discuss a number of future research directions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-26
Chandra Maddila ◽  
Nachiappan Nagappan ◽  
Christian Bird ◽  
Georgios Gousios ◽  
Arie van Deursen

Modern, complex software systems are being continuously extended and adjusted. The developers responsible for this may come from different teams or organizations, and may be distributed over the world. This may make it difficult to keep track of what other developers are doing, which may result in multiple developers concurrently editing the same code areas. This, in turn, may lead to hard-to-merge changes or even merge conflicts, logical bugs that are difficult to detect, duplication of work, and wasted developer productivity. To address this, we explore the extent of this problem in the pull-request-based software development model. We study half a year of changes made to six large repositories in Microsoft in which at least 1,000 pull requests are created each month. We find that files concurrently edited in different pull requests are more likely to introduce bugs. Motivated by these findings, we design, implement, and deploy a service named Concurrent Edit Detector (ConE) that proactively detects pull requests containing concurrent edits, to help mitigate the problems caused by them. ConE has been designed to scale, and to minimize false alarms while still flagging relevant concurrently edited files. Key concepts of ConE include the detection of the Extent of Overlap between pull requests, and the identification of Rarely Concurrently Edited Files . To evaluate ConE, we report on its operational deployment on 234 repositories inside Microsoft. ConE assessed 26,000 pull requests and made 775 recommendations about conflicting changes, which were rated as useful in over 70% (554) of the cases. From interviews with 48 users, we learned that they believed ConE would save time in conflict resolution and avoiding duplicate work, and that over 90% intend to keep using the service on a daily basis.

Marouane El Midaoui ◽  
Mohammed Qbadou ◽  
Khalifa Mansouri

Multiple diseases require a blood transfusion on daily basis. The process of a blood transfusion is successful when the type and amount of blood is available and when the blood is transported at the right time from the blood bank to the operating room. Blood distribution has a large portion of the cost in hospital logistics. The blood bank can serve various hospitals; however, amount of blood is limited due to donor shortage. The transportation must handle several requirements such as timely delivery, vibration avoidance, temperature maintenance, to keep the blood usable. In this paper, we discuss in first section the issues with blood delivery and constraint. The second section present routing and scheduling system based on artificial intelligence to deliver blood from the blood-banks to hospitals based on single blood bank and multiple blood banks with respect of the vehicle capacity used to deliver the blood and creating the shortest path. The third section consist on solution for predicting the blood needs for each hospital based on transfusion history using machine learning and fuzzy logic. The last section we compare the results of well-known solution with our solution in several cases such as shortage and sudden changes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-74
Owain Parry ◽  
Gregory M. Kapfhammer ◽  
Michael Hilton ◽  
Phil McMinn

Tests that fail inconsistently, without changes to the code under test, are described as flaky . Flaky tests do not give a clear indication of the presence of software bugs and thus limit the reliability of the test suites that contain them. A recent survey of software developers found that 59% claimed to deal with flaky tests on a monthly, weekly, or daily basis. As well as being detrimental to developers, flaky tests have also been shown to limit the applicability of useful techniques in software testing research. In general, one can think of flaky tests as being a threat to the validity of any methodology that assumes the outcome of a test only depends on the source code it covers. In this article, we systematically survey the body of literature relevant to flaky test research, amounting to 76 papers. We split our analysis into four parts: addressing the causes of flaky tests, their costs and consequences, detection strategies, and approaches for their mitigation and repair. Our findings and their implications have consequences for how the software-testing community deals with test flakiness, pertinent to practitioners and of interest to those wanting to familiarize themselves with the research area.

2022 ◽  
Sarwat Ishaq ◽  
Ghazala Jabeen ◽  
Farkhanda Manzoor

On a daily basis, our environment is exposed to tons of a composite of industrial effluents, which has a negative impact on commercial fish production and, as a result, on humans. Present study was designed to evaluate the acute, sub-chronic, and chronic toxicity of a composite of raw industrial effluent from Sunder Industrial Estate in the freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus biosystem by investigating at the histopathological changes in different organs such as heart, kidney, and muscle after exposure. Fish was exposed to 1/3 rd , 1/5 th and 1/10 th of predetermined LC 50 . Significant histopathological alterations in heart (myocarditis, pericardium bending and lifting) kidney (renal tube degeneration, glomerulus structural alteration and necrotic proximal tubule) and muscle (inflammation, atrophy and tumor) were observed in treated groups. After the sub-lethal exposure histological alteration index (HAI) was highest in chronic group as compared to the acute and sub-chronic group as HAI group D ? HAI group C ? HAI group B. Moreover physic-chemical parameters of water were found to be out of the range of the APHA standard approach.

Mayuri S. Bawankar ◽  
Damini S. Mahanubhav ◽  
Prachi M. Suryawanshi ◽  
Nandkumar M. Salunke

Background: In patients’ overall perception of their hospital experience it is widely recognized that food and other aspects of foodservice delivery are important elements and health care teams have committed to deliver appropriate food to their patients on daily basis. The provision of hospital foodservice should not only meet, but, also exceed patients’ expectations so as to gain the patients’ confidence in hospital food. Nutrition is an important element of care. A balanced nutrition is extremely important for patients who have been infected with COVID-19.Methods: To see the feedbacks of COVID-19 patients admitted in dedicated COVID hospital, the present hospital based cross sectional study was undertaken in various wards of dedicated COVID hospital of metropolitan city of western Maharashtra.Results: Mean age of participants was 41 years. Mean duration of hospital stay was 9.1 days. 60% patients were in age group between 31 to 60 whereas only 3% participants were above 80 years of age. 59% were male, 85% were from urban area. 55% participants were taking mix diet. 54% participants stayed for 8 to 10 days. 58% participants were presented with different co morbidities. 73.07% participants had normal diet during their stay in the hospital. Variables like age, gender and hospital stay had significant association with the feedback to nutritional services (p<0.05).Conclusions: Participants were satisfied towards nutrition and nutritional services provided in dedicated COVID hospital.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Usman Rauf Kamboh ◽  
Muhammad Rehman Shahid ◽  
Hamza Aldabbas ◽  
Ammar Rafiq ◽  
Bader Alouffi ◽  

For the last two decades, cybercrimes are growing on a daily basis. To track down cybercrimes and radio network crimes, digital forensic for radio networks provides foundations. The data transfer rate for the next-generation wireless networks would be much greater than today’s network in the coming years. The fifth-generation wireless systems are considering bands beyond 6 GHz. The network design of the next-generation wireless systems depends on propagation characteristics, frequency reuse, and bandwidth variation. This article declares the channel’s propagation characteristics of both line of sight (LoS) and non-LOS (NLoS) to construct and detect the path of rays coming from anomalies. The simulations were carried out to investigate the diffraction loss (DL) and frequency drop (FD). Indoor and outdoor measurements were taken with the omnidirectional circular dipole antenna with a transmitting frequency of 28 GHz and 60 GHz to compare the two bands of the 5th generation. Millimeter-wave communication comes with a higher constraint for implementing and deploying higher losses, low diffractions, and low signal penetrations for the mentioned two bands. For outdoor, a MATLAB built-in 3D ray tracing algorithm is used while for an indoor office environment, an in-house algorithmic simulator built using MATLAB is used to analyze the channel characteristics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 41 (1) ◽  
Lauri Dietz ◽  
China M. Jenkins ◽  
Laura Cruz ◽  
Amber Handy ◽  
Rita Kumar ◽  

The global pandemic that began in 2020 amplified the chasm between higher education’s stated goals to advance diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) and the systemic realities that many students, instructors, and staff grapple with on a daily basis. We contend that attenuating the barriers to DEI outcomes means first acknowledging that DEI is a wicked problem, in that it is impossible to solve because of often competing, conflicting, and complex sociocultural forces from within and outside our institutions. We also contend that educational developers (EDs) are particularly well-situated within the higher education ecology to be key cultural influencers in how to mitigate DEI-related wicked problems by tapping into our deep commitment to lifelong learning as a means for honing and modeling an equity mindset.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Tamaki Mitsuno ◽  
Ayaka Kai Yanagisawa

PurposeThe present study obtained the topography of perceptible (a perfect-fit feeling) clothing pressures from the chest to groin, when a stretching material provided hoop tension to the body surface of participants. Furthermore, the allowable pressure level was examined for the abdomen, which is pressed by underclothes on a daily basis.Design/methodology/approachParticipants were nine women aged 21.3 ± 1.2 years. Each participant's perception of pressure while wearing the experimental band was obtained in a questionnaire using a visual analog scale. Clothing pressure was measured employing a hydrostatic pressure-balancing method as participants adjusted the band length themselves to achieve two conditions: a perfect-fit and tight-fit on the abdomen.FindingsThe range of comfortable clothing pressure tightening provided by a 2.5 cm-wide elastic band on the abdomen was 0–5.6 hPa for under the bust, waist and groin, and 4.4–9.3 hPa for the chest, lower waist and hips. A nerve plexus of the autonomic nervous system and arteries are distributed over the body surface of the former body parts, which were thus sensitive to tightening around the abdomen.Originality/valueThe topography of perceptible clothing pressure was obtained when stretching material provided hoop tension to the body surface of the participant. The results of a participant questionnaire agreed with clothing pressure obtained using a hydrostatic pressure-balancing method that has a short-time constant and sensitive resolution. Furthermore, allowable pressure levels were proposed.

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