modifiable factors
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Eetu N. Suominen ◽  
Antti J. Sajanti ◽  
Eero A. Silver ◽  
Veerakaisa Koivunen ◽  
Anton S. Bondfolk ◽  

Abstract Purpose Clinicians have increasingly encountered traumatic brain injuries (TBI) related to electric scooter (ES) accidents. In this study, we aim to identify the modifiable risk factors for ES-related TBIs. Methods A retrospective cohort of consecutive patients treated for ES-related traumatic brain injuries in a tertiary university hospital between May 2019 and September 2021 was identified and employed for the study. The characteristics of the accidents along with the clinical and imaging findings of the injuries were collected from the patient charts. Results During the study period, 104 TBIs related to ES accidents were identified. There was a high occurrence of accidents late at night and on Saturdays. In four cases, the patient’s helmet use was mentioned (3.8%). Seventy-four patients (71%) were intoxicated. At the scene of the accident, seventy-seven (74%) of the patients had a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13–15, three patients (3%) had a score of 9–12, and two patients (2%) had a score of 3–8. The majority (83%) of TBIs were diagnosed as concussions. Eighteen patients had evidence of intracranial injuries in the imagining. Two patients required neurosurgical procedures. The estimated population standardized incidence increased from 7.0/100,000 (95% CI 3.5–11/100,000) in 2019 to 27/100,000 (95% CI 20–34/100,000) in 2021. Conclusions Alcohol intoxication and the lack of a helmet were common in TBIs caused by ES accidents. Most of the accidents occurred late at night. Targeting these modifiable factors could decrease the incidence of ES-related TBIs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (6) ◽  
pp. 889-899
O. B. Shvabskaia ◽  
O. V. Izmailova ◽  
N. S. Karamnova ◽  
O. M. Drapkina

The association of hyperuricemia (HU) with cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and kidney disease has been demonstrated in numerous studies. НU is the main pathogenetic factor in the development of gout and is associated with an increase in overall and cardiovascular mortality. НU is included in the list of factors determining cardiovascular risk. According to epidemiological studies, there is a high prevalence of HU in the world and its increase in recent decades. A number of factors have been identified that contribute to the increased risk of НU. Non-modifiable factors include gender, age, genetic factors, and modifiable factors include diet and lifestyle. Nutritional unbalances, increased life expectancy, increased prevalence of obesity, and increased use of drugs (especially diuretics) are seen as contributing factors to the rise in НU. The review was carried out to summarize the available information on the effect of dietary habits, individual foods and nutrients on serum uric acid (SUA) levels and the risk of developing HU. The review presents the results of scientific studies demonstrating the relationship of НU with the consumption of foods rich in purines (offal, red meat, fish, seafood, legumes), alcohol consumption, drinks sweetened with fructose, coffee, dairy products, vegetables and fruits. Diet correction is an important and necessary step in the prevention and treatment of НU. The article reviews the basic principles of dietary management in HU and provides dietary recommendations for patients. For effective prevention and treatment of НU, a mandatory correction of the diet is required.

Jill J. Savla ◽  
Mary E. Putt ◽  
Jing Huang ◽  
Samuel Parry ◽  
Julie S. Moldenhauer ◽  

BACKGROUND Children with single ventricle heart disease have significant morbidity and mortality. The maternal–fetal environment (MFE) may adversely impact outcomes after neonatal cardiac surgery. We hypothesized that impaired MFE would be associated with an increased risk of death after stage 1 Norwood reconstruction. METHODS AND RESULTS We performed a retrospective cohort study of children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (and anatomic variants) who underwent stage 1 Norwood reconstruction between 2008 and 2018. Impaired MFE was defined as maternal gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and/or smoking during pregnancy. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the association between impaired MFE and death while adjusting for confounders. Hospital length of stay was assessed with the competing risk of in‐hospital death. In 273 children, the median age at stage 1 Norwood reconstruction was 4 days (interquartile range [IQR], 3–6 days). A total of 72 children (26%) were exposed to an impaired MFE; they had more preterm births (18% versus 7%) and a greater percentage with low birth weights <2.5 kg (18% versus 4%) than those without impaired MFE. Impaired MFE was associated with a higher risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], 6.05; 95% CI, 3.59–10.21; P <0.001) after adjusting for age at surgery, Hispanic ethnicity, genetic syndrome, cardiac diagnosis, surgeon, and birth era. Children with impaired MFE had almost double the risk of prolonged hospital stay (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.41–2.70; P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS Children exposed to an impaired MFE had a higher risk of death following stage 1 Norwood reconstruction. Prenatal exposures are potentially modifiable factors that can be targeted to improve outcomes after pediatric cardiac surgery.

2022 ◽  
pp. 152692482110648
Stefan Jobst ◽  
Jonas Schaefer ◽  
Christina Kleiser ◽  
Christiane Kugler

Introduction Acknowledging the evolved landscape in thoracic transplantation, professional employment becomes an important outcome measure to quantify the success of this costly procedure. Objective We aimed to assess rates of and characterize factors associated with professional employment in patients following thoracic transplantation, and create an evidence-base on the relationship between professional employment and relevant outcome parameters. Methods We systematically searched Medline, Cinahl, and GoogleScholar to identify studies published between 1998 and 2021 reporting on professional employment following heart and lung transplantation. Results Twenty-two studies from 11 countries with varying sample sizes (N = 27; 10 066) were included. Employment rates ranged from 19.7% to 69.4% for heart, and from 7.4% to 50.8% for lung transplant recipients. Most frequently reported positively associated factors with employment after transplant were younger age, higher education, and history of pretransplant employment. Longer duration of unemployment prior to transplantation and Medicaid coverage were the most frequently reported negatively associated factors. Relationships between professional employment and clinical outcomes included lower rates of acute and chronic rejection, less infection episodes, and better quality of life among working patients; one study reported a lower 5-year-mortality rate. Reasons not to work were “physical or mental health-related,” “employment-related,” “financial reasons,” and “lifestyle choices.” Discussion Substantial proportions of patients following thoracic transplantation are not professionally employed, potentially diminishing the success of transplantation on individual and societal levels. Considering adverse clinical outcomes in employed transplant recipients were low, more efforts are needed to identify modifiable factors for employment in these populations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Naina Kumar ◽  
Amit Kant Singh

Abstract Background Worldwide rising trend in infertility has been observed in the past few years with male infertility arising as a major problem. One main reason for the rise in male infertility cases is declining semen quality. It was found that any factor that affects semen quality can affect male fertility. There are several modifiable factors affecting semen quality including air pollution, use of pesticides and harmful chemicals, exposure to excessive heat, and can lead to decreased male fertility. Main body The present review focuses on some of these environmental factors that affect semen quality and hence, can cause male infertility. The literature from 2000 till June 2021 was searched from various English peer-reviewed journals and WHO fact sheets using the USA National Library of Medicine (PubMed) database, the regional portal of Virtual Health Library, and Scientific Electronic Library Online. The search terms used were: “Air pollution and male fertility”, “Chemicals and male infertility”, “Heat exposure and infertility”, “heavy metals and male fertility”. Conclusion Adverse environmental factors have a significant impact on semen quality, leading to decreased sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, viability, and increased abnormal sperm morphology, sperm DNA fragmentation, ultimately causing male infertility. However, all these factors are modifiable and reversible, and hence, by mere changing of lifestyle, many of these risk factors can be avoided.

2022 ◽  
Kyoung Suk Lee ◽  
Hyeongsuk Lee ◽  
Na Eun Min ◽  
Jae-Hyeong Park

Abstract Background: HF is a burden on healthcare resources due to the high cost of frequent readmissions. Predictive models have been reported for the post-discharge prognosis of HF. However, these models mostly included non-modifiable factors and their predictive accuracy was limited. This implies that potentially modifiable factors are needed, which could be attributed to the discharge process. This study aimed to explore the relationship between the discharge process and post-discharge events in patients with HF.Methods: Medical records were reviewed to identify patients who were admitted for HF exacerbation. Information related to the discharge process included post-discharge clinic appointments, educational contents before discharge, and family participation during patient education. HF-related events were defined as a composite of events, including emergency department visits, readmissions, or death. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to explore the association between the discharge process and HF-related events.Results: Of 201 patients, 41 had at least one HF-related event. Post-discharge clinic appointments were scheduled 8 days after discharge. Patients received their discharge education on average of one topic, and approximately the families of 70% of the patients participated in this educational activity. In the Cox regression model, family participation during education was independently associated with a longer time to HF events (hazard ratio: 2.105). However, and post-discharge follow-up appointments and the number of educational contents received were not associated with the time to HF events. Conclusion: We found that family participation during education is a protective factor for adverse prognosis in patients with HF. Our results highlight the importance of family engagement in HF management.

Gabriel Broocks ◽  
Maximilian Groffmann ◽  
Lukas Meyer ◽  
Sarah Elsayed ◽  
Helge Kniep ◽  

Abstract Purpose Evidence regarding the effect of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) of basilar artery occlusion (BAO) stroke is yet sparse. As successful recanalization has been suggested as major determinant of outcome, the early identification of modifiable factors associated with successful recanalization could be of importance to improve functional outcome. Hyperglycemia has been associated with enhanced thrombin generation and unfavorably altered clot features. Objective We hypothesized that serum baseline glucose is associated with likelihood of vessel recanalization mediated by collateral quality and clot burden in BAO stroke. Methods BAO stroke patients who received multimodal CT on admission were analyzed. The association of vessel recanalization defined using modified Thrombolysis in cerebral infarction scale (mTICI) scores 2b-3, and baseline imaging and clinical parameters were tested in logistic regression analyses. Collateral quality and clot burden were evaluated using the Basilar Artery on CT-Angiography (BATMAN) score. Results Out of 117 BAO patients, 91 patients (78%) underwent MT. In 70 patients (77%), successful recanalization could be achieved (mTICI 2b/3). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, only a higher BGL (aOR 0.97, 95% CI 0.96–0.99, p = 0.03) and higher BATMAN score (aOR 1.77, 95% CI 1.11–2.82, p = 0.02) were independently associated with vessel recanalization. Application of alteplase, or time from symptom onset-imaging revealed no independent association with recanalization status. Conclusion Higher BGL was significantly associated with reduced likelihood for recanalization success besides BATMAN score as a measure of collateral quality and clot burden. BGL could be tested as a modifiable parameter to increase likelihood for recanalization in BAO stroke, aiming to improve functional outcome.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Rosarito Clari ◽  
Jennifer Headley ◽  
Joseph Egger ◽  
Praxeda Swai ◽  
Paul Lawala ◽  

Abstract Background Globally, families play a critical role in providing care and support for persons living with schizophrenia. It is important to identify potentially modifiable factors that influence perceived caregiver burden in order to properly address the needs of caregivers. This is especially relevant in low-resource settings where psychiatric services are scarce and interventions could be most effective if targeted to both the individual living with schizophrenia and their caregiver. This study examines correlates of perceived burden among informal caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia in Tanzania, in particular, the association between burden and caregiver-reported family functioning. Methods This study used baseline data from an individually randomized controlled trial with 65 pairs of individuals with schizophrenia and their informal caregivers in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania. Caregiver burden was measured using the Burden Assessment Scale. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between caregiver burden and family functioning and to explore other correlates of burden. Results Sixty-three percent of caregivers reported experiencing high burden as a result of caring for a relative with schizophrenia. Multivariable regression analyses revealed that poor family functioning and the caregiver being employed were associated with high caregiver burden, while higher levels of hopefulness in the caregiver was associated with low caregiver burden. Conclusion Caregivers who were employed, reported poor family functioning, and/or had low levels of hopefulness were more likely to perceive high caregiver burden. Future interventions aiming to reduce caregiver burden may benefit from improving family functioning and nurturing hope among caregivers of individuals living with schizophrenia. Policies and programs should be cognizant of the needs of caregivers that work in addition to providing care for a relative with schizophrenia in order to better support them.

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