initial development
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 491-508
Maria Fgênia Saldanha Diógenes ◽  
Vander Mendonça ◽  
Luciana Freitas de Medeiros Mendonça ◽  
Elias Ariel de Moura ◽  

The initial development of pitayas may be limited by a few factors, among them, water deficit. Agricultural hydrogels can be used as an alternative to enhance the retention and availability of water and nutrients in the soil. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of irrigation frequency and hydrogel doses on the development of white pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) seedlings to establish a time interval in days between irrigations that provides better seedling development and determine the hydrogel dose that provides a reduction of water consumption without damaging seedling development. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks in a 4 x 4 factorial arrangement, in which the treatments corresponded to 4 hydrogel doses (0, 2, 4, and 6 g/plant of Biogel Hidro Plus) incorporated into the substrate and four irrigation frequencies (1, 3, 5, and 7 days of interval). The biometric characteristics, photosynthetic pigments, and organic and inorganic solutes of the plants were evaluated after 120 days. The use of daily irrigation negatively influenced the growth and biomass accumulation of the aerial part of the seedlings and, consequently, provided the lowest values of cladodes of the pitaya seedlings. Pitaya seedlings had greater development when using an irrigation frequency of around 3 days. The application of 6 g/plant of hydrogel provided the highest averages for accumulation of dry biomass, photosynthetic pigments, and organic and inorganic solutes at irrigation levels of 3.6, 4, and about 3.8 days of intervals, respectively. Hydrogel incorporation allowed increasing the interval between irrigations by 1 day without damages to the seedling development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (12) ◽  
Eiderson Silva Cabral ◽  
Maíra Jéssica Gomes de Souza ◽  
Rafael José De Oliveira ◽  
Ronaldo Rodrigues Coimbra ◽  
Fernando Mayer Pelicice ◽  

We evaluated the influence of Parkia platycephala on plant assemblages under its crown and surrounding areas in a disturbed Brazilian Savanna, as well as the effects of aqueous extracts of its leaves on the germination and development of three species, under the hypothesis that P. platycephala might work as a nurse species. Eleven areas of direct (ADIs) and indirect (AIIs) influence of P. platycephala and 11 control areas (COs) were delineated. All tree and shrub species present in these areas, including seedlings, were sampled. Richness, composition and abundance of woody taxa were determined. Laboratory studies analyzed the effects of P. platycephala aqueous leaf extracts on the germination and initial development of Dipteryx alata, Enterolobium gummiferum and Magonia pubescens, which in the field exhibited different abundance levels under its crown. Regarding plant assemblages, no differences in terms of richness and abundance of woody taxa were detected among the areas. However, we recorded a gradient of species composition and abundance ranks from ADI to CO areas. The number of seedlings also differed, with higher values near P. platycephala. Soil characteristics were similar among areas, but shading, plant height and diameter differed. The aqueous leaf extract at 25% provided the best germination of M. pubescens. The extract at 75% favored the initial development of this species in terms of root length. These results indicate that the presence of P. platycephala affects the structure of neighboring plant assemblages, possibly working as a facilitator for some species in areas undergoing restoration.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 556
Hang Thi-Thuy Le ◽  
Eleonora Riva Sanseverino ◽  
Dinh-Quang Nguyen ◽  
Maria Luisa Di Silvestre ◽  
Salvatore Favuzza ◽  

Vietnam became the world’s third largest market for solar photovoltaic energy in 2020. Especially after the Vietnamese government issued feed-in tariffs for grid-connected solar photovoltaic systems, the installed capacity of solar photovoltaic applications exploded in 2019. From studies carried out in the relevant literature, it can be said that support policies are highly important for the initial development of the renewable energy industry in most countries. This is especially true in emerging countries such as Vietnam. This paper reviews the feed-in tariffs issued and deployed in different regions of Vietnam for grid-connected solar photovoltaic applications. Moreover, the paper takes a closer look at the costs of electricity production from these systems in relation to the feed-in tariffs issued in Vietnam. The results show that the gap between the levelized cost of electricity and the feed-in tariff for solar photovoltaic electricity is relatively high, particularly in regions with a lower irradiation potential.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
Isaneli Batista dos Santos ◽  
Arthur Prudêncio de Araújo Pereira ◽  
Adijailton José de Souza ◽  
Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira Cardoso ◽  
Flaviana Gonçalves da Silva ◽  

Burkholderia sp. is a bacterial genus extremely versatile in the environment and has been reported for a great potential to promote plant growth via different mechanisms. Here we evaluate the plant growth-promoting mechanisms in twenty-six Burkholderia strains. Strains were evaluated for their ability to promote plant growth by means of: indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production under different conditions of pH, salt stress and the presence or absence of L-tryptophan; exopolysaccharides (EPS) production and quorum sensing (ALH). The strains were also characterized in terms of their genetic variability and species identification through Sanger sequencing. Then, the bacteria most responsive in the greatest number of plant-growth promotion mechanisms were selected for a corn seed germination test. All bacteria synthesized IAA in medium with 0.0 or 5.0 mM of L-tryptophan in combination with either 1 or 5% of NaCl, and pH values of either 4.5 or 7.2. The EPS production was confirmed for 61.54% of the bacterial strains. Quorum sensing also occurred in 92.3% of the selected bacteria. The Jaccard similarity coefficient revealed 16 clusters with high genetic variability between bacterial strains. Bacterial strains were assigned to seven species: B. anthina, B. cepacia, B. gladioli, B. ambifaria, B. graminis, B. heleia, and Burkholderia spp. The corn seed bacterization did not affect the germination velocity index (GSI), as well as the first count of germinated seeds (FC). However, inoculations formulated with B. heleia strain G28, B. gladioli strain UAGC723, and B. graminis strain UAGC348 promoted significant increases in root length, seedling height and fresh and dry seedling phytomass, respectively. These results indicate the high biotechnological potential of several strains in the genus Burkholderia sp. as seed inoculants, favoring germination and seedling initial development.

2022 ◽  
Alistair Malcolm Roy ◽  
Graeme Henry Allan ◽  
Corrado Giuliani ◽  
Shakeel Ahmad ◽  
Charlotte Giraud ◽  

Abstract The Greater Clair area, Europe's largest oilfield, has two existing platforms, Clair Phase 1 and Clair Ridge, on production with future potential for a third platform targeting undeveloped Lower Clair Group to the South of Ph1. Clair Phase 1 was the initial development of Clair, targeting Lower Clair Group (LCG) reservoir consisting of a complex Devonian sandstone in six units. Most Phase 1 wells penetrated relatively good quality reservoir enhanced by natural fractures, while more recently Clair Ridge wells took a similar approach targeting natural fractures, however that strategy is continually being evaluated. In some areas however low matrix quality and lack of natural fractures were the dominant characteristics resulting in lower production rates. A brief comparison of the range of production outcomes will be presented, including potential downsides of reliance on natural fractures. Given the large oil volumes in areas of known poorer rock quality, alongside variable production results, a hydraulic fracturing trial was initiated in 2017. Well 206/08-A23 (A23) targeted previously under-developed, poor-quality Unit VI within the Phase 1 Graben area where natural fractures are absent. A pre-frac production test established baseline production of 900BOPD in December 2018. The A23 objectives included subsequent hydraulically fracturing the well to test this techniques ability to unlock production from tight, matrix dominated formation. Detailed analysis of core, log and limited vertical well fracturing data (from initial fracturing trials of 1980's vintage), yielded robust designs. Key challenges included overcoming very low KV/KH ratios with fracture heights exceeding 300ft. The resulting detailed designs provided consistent and predictable hydraulic fracturing execution in A23 in 2019, including placement of four planned 500klbs treatments combined with coil clean-outs after each stage to unload solids and fluids from the well. Initial fracture designs were conservative in terms of pad and proppant scheduling which, alongside learnings around operational logistics offshore West of Shetlands and completion design, offer significant optimisations for future hydraulic fractures. Post frac A23 became the highest non-natural fractured producer across Clair. Initially a six-fold production increase was observed with monitoring of transient production ongoing. Tracer analysis confirmed production contribution from all zones. Proving fracturing technology brings opportunities to unlock poorer Phase 1 and Ridge reservoir areas. Additionally, significant portions of the undeveloped Lower Clair Group to the South of Ph1 comprises lower permeability reservoir with higher viscosity oil and reduced natural fracture presence. Hydraulic fracturing is therefore a crucial completion technique for developing this lower quality reservoir and brings significant value enhancement to the project. Efficient delivery of numerous large fractures in a harsh offshore environment West of Shetlands presents significant challenges. The influence of how the A23 fracturing results and learnings are guiding future hydraulic fracturing concept are detailed, including optimising platform engineering design to facilitate efficient fracturing operations while maintaining the required productivity in this challenging scenario.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jeff A. Beeler ◽  
Nesha S. Burghardt

Dopamine has long been implicated as a critical neural substrate mediating anorexia nervosa (AN). Despite nearly 50 years of research, the putative direction of change in dopamine function remains unclear and no consensus on the mechanistic role of dopamine in AN has been achieved. We hypothesize two stages in AN– corresponding to initial development and entrenchment– characterized by opposite changes in dopamine. First, caloric restriction, particularly when combined with exercise, triggers an escalating spiral of increasing dopamine that facilitates the behavioral plasticity necessary to establish and reinforce weight-loss behaviors. Second, chronic self-starvation reverses this escalation to reduce or impair dopamine which, in turn, confers behavioral inflexibility and entrenchment of now established AN behaviors. This pattern of enhanced, followed by impaired dopamine might be a common path to many behavioral disorders characterized by reinforcement learning and subsequent behavioral inflexibility. If correct, our hypothesis has significant clinical and research implications for AN and other disorders, such as addiction and obesity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Cecilia Luz Balderas-Vazquez ◽  
Blandina Bernal-Morales ◽  
Eliud Alfredo Garcia-Montalvo ◽  
Libia Vega ◽  
Emma Virginia Herrera-Huerta ◽  

Background: The prevalence of anxiety and depression in young students is associated with biosocial factors and scholastic stress. However, few studies have evaluated emotional-affective symptoms that are related to the immune system and antioxidant parameters in young individuals without diagnoses of affective disorders.Aim: This study aims to assess the relationship between emotional-affective symptoms and glutathione concentrations and CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte counts in college students.Methods: College students (n = 177) completed standardized psychometric instruments, including the Perceived Stress Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Familiar Social and Friends Support Scale, and Rosenberg Scale. Blood samples were biochemically analyzed. Analyses of variance were conducted between four groups according to symptom severity.Results: A considerable prevalence of stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms was observed and negatively correlated with self-esteem and socio-familiar support. Perceived stress was sexually dimorphic. Although biochemical parameters were within reference ranges, glutathione, CD4, and CD8 tended to be lower in participants with anxiety and depression symptoms, which may be of predictive value.Conclusion: The relationship between antioxidant/immune parameters and socio-affective scores is latent in undiagnosed college students who might develop affective disorders. The findings suggest that during the initial development of affective disorders, stress management strategies should be implemented to help college students cope with the academic load and monitor negative changes in their physiological state.

2022 ◽  
Vol 51 (6) ◽  
pp. 22-30
V. I. Alexeeva ◽  
A. Z. Platonova

The results of biological evaluation of awnless bromegrass varieties in different agroclimatic zones of Yakutia are presented. A total of 143 collection varieties of awnless bromegrass from the genetic collection of VIR, other research institutions and local wild specimen were used in the research. The varieties studied are highly winter-hardy, the breeding specimen numbers to a greater extent. The drought tolerance of the varieties grown in the three zones of Yakutia is evaluated. A close relationship between winter hardiness and drought tolerance (water retention capacity) in awnless bromegrass was established. The correlation coefficient averaged 0.74. The intensity of transpiration in awnless bromegrass cultivars is evaluated. Analysis of the daily dynamics of transpiration revealed that during the initial development phase of generative shoots (emergence into a tube), the minimum intensity of transpiration occurred in the evening and the maximum in the morning and afternoon hours. During the earing and flowering phase, the intensity of transpiration depends on weather conditions. It has been established that high winter hardiness of awnless bromegrass accounts for high hay yield; low water-holding capacity accounts for winter hardiness and maximum hay yield in the conditions of Yakutia's cryolithozone. The correlation coefficients between winter hardiness, drought tolerance parameters and hay yield at different herbage levels averaged –0,85… –0,24. The standard variety of awnless bromegrass Kamalinsky 14 is stable and highly adapted to the conditions of Yakutia, and is recommended as a seed parent in the selection process for awnless bromegrass. When selecting varieties of awnless bromegrass, attention should be paid to varieties from local breeding, as well as populations of expeditionary collections across Yakutia, which have high seed yields.

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