dietary patterns
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Athina I. Amanatidou ◽  
Andriana C. Kaliora ◽  
Charalampia Amerikanou ◽  
Stefan Stojanoski ◽  
Natasa Milosevic ◽  

Whereas the etiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is complex, the role of nutrition as a causing and preventive factor is not fully explored. The aim of this study is to associate dietary patterns with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters in a European population (Greece, Italy, and Serbia) affected by NAFLD. For the first time, iron-corrected T1 (cT1), proton density fat fraction (PDFF), and the liver inflammation fibrosis score (LIF) were examined in relation to diet. A total of 97 obese patients with NAFLD from the MAST4HEALTH study were included in the analysis. A validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess the quality of diet and food combinations. Other variables investigated include anthropometric measurements, total type 2 diabetes risk, physical activity level (PAL), and smoking status. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify dietary patterns. Six dietary patterns were identified, namely “High-Sugar”, “Prudent”, “Western”, “High-Fat and Salt”, “Plant-Based”, and “Low-Fat Dairy and Poultry”. The “Western” pattern was positively associated with cT1 in the unadjusted model (beta: 0.020, p-value: 0.025) and even after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), PAL, smoking, the center of the study, and the other five dietary patterns (beta: 0.024, p-value: 0.020). On the contrary, compared with low-intake patients, those with medium intake of the “Low-Fat Dairy and Poultry” pattern were associated with lower values of cT1, PDFF, and LIF. However, patients with a “Low-Fat Dairy and Poultry” dietary pattern were negatively associated with MRI parameters (cT1: beta: −0.052, p-value: 0.046, PDFF: beta: −0.448, p-value: 0.030, LIF: beta: −0.408, p-value: 0.025). Our findings indicate several associations between MRI parameters and dietary patterns in NAFLD patients, highlighting the importance of diet in NAFLD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Jeonghee Lee ◽  
Tung Hoang ◽  
Seohyun Lee ◽  
Jeongseon Kim

Background:The prevalence of dyslipidemia among Korean women differs significantly according to menopausal status. This study aimed to identify major dietary patterns among Korean women and examine their associations with the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its components.Methods:This study recruited 6,166 women from the Cancer Screenee Cohort 2007–2019 from the National Cancer Center of Korea. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between dietary patterns and the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its components, including hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypo-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and hyper-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Stratification analyses were performed for the premenopausal and postmenopausal subgroups.Results:The factor analysis identified three main dietary patterns, including traditional, western, and prudent dietary patterns. Compared with those with the lowest pattern scores, those with the highest pattern scores of the traditional (OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.05–1.67) and western (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.11–1.78) diets had a higher prevalence of hyper-LDL cholesterol. When accounting for menopausal status in the analysis, traditional (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.10–1.89) and western (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.09–1.88) diets were still associated with hyper-LDL cholesterol in postmenopausal women. Additionally, consumption of a traditional diet was associated with a decreased prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.54–0.99), and consumption of a western diet was associated with an increased prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.11–1.79) but a reduced prevalence of hypo-HDL cholesterol (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.36–0.99). However, the prudent dietary pattern was not significantly associated with dyslipidemia and its components in the group of all women or the subgroups according to menopausal status.Conclusion:There were significant associations between the traditional and western dietary patterns and hyper-LDL cholesterol in the entire group and postmenopausal subgroup of women. In the perspective of energy restriction, our findings recommend women not to eat either traditional or western diets excessively or too frequently. Menopause may induce the effect of both the traditional diet on triglyceride reduction and the western diet on increasing total cholesterol.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 348
Carlota Castro-Espin ◽  
Antonio Agudo

Cancer survival continues to improve in high-income countries, partly explained by advances in screening and treatment. Previous studies have mainly examined the relationship between individual dietary components and cancer prognosis in tumours with good therapeutic response (breast, colon and prostate cancers). The aim of this review is to assess qualitatively (and quantitatively where appropriate) the associations of dietary patterns and cancer prognosis from published prospective cohort studies, as well as the effect of diet interventions by means of randomised controlled trials (RCT). A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, and a total of 35 prospective cohort studies and 14 RCT published between 2011 and 2021 were selected. Better overall diet quality was associated with improved survival among breast and colorectal cancer survivors; adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated to lower risk of mortality in colorectal and prostate cancer survivors. A meta-analysis using a random-effects model showed that higher versus lower diet quality was associated with a 23% reduction in overall mortality in breast cancer survivors. There was evidence that dietary interventions, generally combined with physical activity, improved overall quality of life, though most studies were in breast cancer survivors. Further cohort and intervention studies in other cancers are needed to make more specific recommendations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Minghua Tang ◽  
Kinzie L. Matz ◽  
Lillian M. Berman ◽  
Kathryn N. Davis ◽  
Edward L. Melanson ◽  

Background: An urgent need exists for evidence-based dietary guidance early in life, particularly regarding protein intake. However, a significant knowledge gap exists in the effects of protein-rich foods on growth and development during early complementary feeding.Methods: This is a randomized controlled trial of infant growth and gut health (primary outcomes). We directly compare the effects of dietary patterns with common protein-rich foods (meat, dairy, plant) on infant growth trajectories and gut microbiota development (monthly assessments) during early complementary feeding in both breast- and formula-fed infants. Five-month-old infants (up to n = 300) are randomized to a meat-, dairy-, plant-based complementary diet or a reference group (standard of care) from 5 to 12 months of age, with a 24-month follow-up assessment. Infants are matched for sex, mode of delivery and mode of feeding using stratified randomization. Growth assessments include length, weight, head circumference and body composition. Gut microbiota assessments include both 16S rRNA profiling and metagenomics sequencing. The primary analyses will evaluate the longitudinal effects of the different diets on both anthropometric measures and gut microbiota. The secondary analysis will evaluate the potential associations between gut microbiota and infant growth.Discussion: Findings are expected to have significant scientific and health implications for identifying beneficial gut microbial changes and dietary patterns and for informing dietary interventions to prevent the risk of overweight and later obesity, and promote optimal health.Clinical Trial, identifier: NCT05012930.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (12) ◽  
pp. 416-425
Brajesh Brajesh ◽  
Chander Shekhar

Background: Maternal dietary diversity during pregnancy is a major determinant of birth weight and birth size of infant. During pregnancy, mother diet is highly dependent on their topographical, cultural, and sociodemographic circumstances. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the association between the maternal dietary intake with child birth weight and birth size along with the sociodemographic factors in India. Materials and Methods: The data for this study were drawn from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), 2005 to 2006 and 2015 to 2016 held in India. Inferential statistical analysis Chi-square was built to test was used to examine the association between maternal dietary patterns, and logistic regression model was used to analyze the effect of mother’s dietary patterns on child birth weight and size by controlling the sociodemographic factors. Results: Mother’s daily intake of fish, meat, green leafy vegetables, and fruits was associated with higher birth weight or size and lower risk of intrauterine growth retardation. Women with ?2 dietary diversity categories had significantly higher proportion of low birth weight (LBW) and size of babies comparatively to those in the ?2 dietary diversity categories, there were lesser chance of LBW and small size of babies with women’s dietary diversity 3 (odds ranges from 1.09 to 1.44) or ?4 (odds ranges from 1.15 to 1.59). Furthermore, low birth order, mother’s underweight status, low maternal education, and wealth status significantly have positive association with the poor birth outcomes. Conclusion: The birth weight and size of newborns were found positively associated with the mother’s dietary intake. To meet the aim of maternal dietary diversity and to achieve the double bonus, the government should focus more on supplementation and food security programs during pregnancy that also include nutritional education as well as behavioral and social change interventions strategies.

2022 ◽  
pp. 026010602110709
Selby Nichols ◽  
Nequesha Dalrymple ◽  
Patrice Prout ◽  
Anisa Ramcharitar-Bourne

Background: Diet is a significant contributor to health and wellbeing of individuals. Aim: In this study we investigated patterns of dietary intakes, levels of nutrient inadequacies and associated sociodemographic, anthropometric and lifestyle factors among adults in Trinidad and Tobago. Method: The study was cross-sectional in nature. A convenience sample of 11783 persons from districts throughout Trinidad and Tobago completed a self-administered questionnaire comprising socio-demographic and lifestyle items. Anthropometry was self-reported with 15% of participants having measurements done according to recommended procedures. Dietary patterns were determined by principal component analysis (PCA) while nutrient intakes and adequacy were assessed using the NutriGenie 7.0 software and nutrient adequacy ratio (MAR) respectively. Foods were categorised as unprocessed/minimally processed and processed/ultra-processed. The University of The West Indies Ethics Committee approved the study. Results: Approximately 72.5% of participants met the Goldberg criteria for plausible reporting. The three predominant dietary patterns ‘Typical’, ‘Fruits and Vegetables’, and ‘High Fat’ explained 45% of the total variance in foods consumed. Processed/ultra-processed foods accounted for most of the energy (80%) and nutrients consumed. Nutrient inadequacies were observed for potassium, vitamins B12, D, E, K, fibre, magnesium; and iron among females. The mean adequacy ratio (MAR) for participants was 67%. MAR was positively associated with predominant dietary patterns independent of socioe demographic and lifestyle factors (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Irrespective of their nature, the predominant dietary pattern was associated with nutrient adequacy among participants. Reducing the risk of inadequate nutrient intakes may be addressed by increasing availability, access and consumption of appropriate sources of these micronutrients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Mostafa Dianatinasab ◽  
Elaheh Forozani ◽  
Ali Akbari ◽  
Nazanin Azmi ◽  
Dariush Bastam ◽  

Abstract Background Several studies have investigated the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of bladder cancer (BC) in different regions including Europe, the United States, and Asia, with no conclusive evidence. A meta-analysis was undertaken to integrate the most recent information on the relationship between a data-driven Western diet (WD), the Mediterranean diet (MD), and dietary-inflammatory-index (DII) and the risk of BC. Method We looked for published research into the relationship between dietary patterns and the incidence of BC in the PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Scopus databases up until February 2021. Using a multivariate random-effects model, we compared the highest and lowest categories of WD, MD and DII patterns and provided the relative risk (RR) or odds ratios (OR) and 95 percent confidence intervals (CIs) for the relevant relationships. Results The analysis comprised 12 papers that were found to be suitable after scanning the databases. Both case–control (OR 0.73, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.94; I2 = 49.9%, n = 2) and cohort studies (RR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.97; I2 = 63%, n = 4) found a substantial inverse association between MD and BC. In addition, although cohort studies (RR 1.53, 95% CI 1.37, 1.70; I2 = 0%, n = 2) showed a direct association between WD and BC, case–control studies (OR 1.33, 95% CI 0.81, 1.88; I2 = 68.5%, n = 2) did not. In cohort studies, we found no significant association between DII and BC (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.93, 1.12; I2 = 38.5%, n = 2). In case–control studies, however, a strong direct association between DII and BC was discovered (RR 2.04, 95% CI 1.23, 2.85; I2 = 0%, n = 2). Conclusion The current meta-analysis showed that MD and WD have protective and detrimental effects on BC risk, respectively. No significant association between DII and the risk of BC was observed. More research is still needed to confirm the findings. Additional study is warranted to better understand the etiological mechanisms underlying how different dietary patterns affect BC. Trial registration Protocol registration number:CRD42020155353. Database for protocol registration: The international prospective register of systematic reviews database (PROSPERO). Data of registration: August 2020.

Mohammad Sediq Sahrai ◽  
Inge Huybrechts ◽  
Carine Biessy ◽  
Sabina Rinaldi ◽  
Pietro Ferrari ◽  

Abstract Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) cause more than 70% of deaths worldwide and share modifiable risk factors including obesity and metabolic abnormalities. Over the past 15 years, many changes in lifestyle, dietary patterns, physical activity, and socioeconomic status have been observed in the Afghan population. This study aims to investigate which specific lifestyle factors, dietary patterns, and characteristics of Westernization are associated with an increased risk of being overweight or obese and with poor metabolic health in the Afghan population. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted where a total of 729 male and female participants were recruited. Face-to-face interviews and anthropometric measurements were conducted by trained health staff using standardized questionnaires which included information on socio-demographic and housing characteristics, income, occupation, ethnicity, personal and family medical history, stress, anthropometry, diet, and physical activity. Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) was used to estimate body composition, including overall body fatness. Physical activity was measured using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). For a comprehensive assessment of dietary intake, a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) specific to the Afghan population was developed which included all local food items relevant to the population. Lipid profile and fasting glucose were measured in a local laboratory. Biospecimens were collected using dried blood spots (DBS) and dried stool cards to perform microbiome and biomarker-based research. Discussion This is the first study which will assess dietary patterns, lifestyle factors, and their association with obesity and metabolic health in Afghanistan. Such a study will aid the development of dietary and lifestyle guidelines in Afghanistan which will promote better health and educate people to make healthy food choices. The findings will also help in designing and implementing effective public health strategies to promote a healthy lifestyle and prevent the epidemic of overweight and obesity, and, hence, reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases in the region.

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