circulatory support
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 927
Giovanni Civieri ◽  
Laura Iop ◽  
Francesco Tona

Angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) and endothelin-1 receptor type A (ETAR) are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed on the surface of a great variety of cells: immune cells, vascular smooth cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts express ETAR and AT1R, which are activated by endothelin 1 (ET1) and angiotensin II (AngII), respectively. Certain autoantibodies are specific for these receptors and can regulate their function, thus being known as functional autoantibodies. The function of these antibodies is similar to that of natural ligands, and it involves not only vasoconstriction, but also the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (such as interleukin-6 (IL6), IL8 and TNF-α), collagen production by fibroblasts, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) release by fibroblasts and neutrophils. The role of autoantibodies against AT1R and ETAR (AT1R-AAs and ETAR-AAs, respectively) is well described in the pathogenesis of many medical conditions (e.g., systemic sclerosis (SSc) and SSc-associated pulmonary hypertension, cystic fibrosis, and allograft dysfunction), but their implications in cardiovascular diseases are still unclear. This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the effects of AT1R-AAs and ETAR-AAs in cardiovascular pathologies, highlighting their roles in heart transplantation and mechanical circulatory support, preeclampsia, and acute coronary syndromes.

Kidney360 ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 10.34067/KID.0003382021
Carl P. Walther ◽  
Andrew B. Civitello ◽  
Kenneth K. Liao ◽  
Sankar D. Navaneethan

Durable and temporary mechanical circulatory support (MCS) use is growing for a range of cardiovascular indications. Kidney dysfunction is common in persons evaluated for or receiving durable or temporary MCS, and portends worse outcomes. This kidney dysfunction can be due to pre-existing kidney chronic kidney disease (CKD), acute kidney injury (AKI) related to acute cardiovascular disease necessitating MCS, AKI due to cardiac procedures, and due to acute and chronic MCS effects and complications. Durable MCS, with implantable continuous flow pumps, is used for long-term support in advanced HF refractory to guideline directed medical and device therapy, either permanently or as a bridge to heart transplantation. Temporary MCS-encompassing in this review intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABPs), axial flow pumps, centrifugal flow pumps, and venoarterial ECMO-is used for diverse situations: high risk percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), acute decompensated heart failure (HF), cardiogenic shock, and resuscitation following cardiac arrest. The wide adoption of MCS makes it imperative to improve understanding of the effects of MCS on kidney health/function, and of kidney health/function on MCS outcomes. The complex structure and functions of the kidney, and the complex health states of individuals receiving MCS, makes investigations in this area challenging, and current knowledge is limited. Fortunately, the increasing nephrology toolbox of non-invasive kidney health/function assessments may enable development and testing of individualized management strategies and therapeutics in the future. We review technology, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical considerations, and future directions in MCS and nephrology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Vasileios Panoulas ◽  
Charles Ilsley

Introduction. We aimed to identify the independent “frontline” predictors of 30-day mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and propose a rapid cardiogenic shock (CS) classification and management pathway. Materials and Methods. From 2011 to 2019, a total of 11439 incident ACS patients were treated in our institution. Forward conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the “frontline” predictors of 30 day mortality. The C-statistic assessed the discriminatory power of the model. As a validation cohort, we used 431 incident ACS patients admitted from January 1, 2020, to July 20, 2020. Results. Independent predictors of 30-day mortality included age (OR 1.05; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.07, p < 0.001 ), intubation (OR 7.4; 95% CI 4.3 to 12.74, p < 0.001 ), LV systolic impairment (OR severe_vs_normal 1.98; 95% CI 1.14 to 3.42, p = 0.015 , OR moderate_vs_normal 1.84; 95% CI 1.09 to 3.1, p = 0.022 ), serum lactate (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.41, p < 0.001 ), base excess (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.07, p < 0.001 ), and systolic blood pressure (OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.982 to 0.999, p = 0.024 ). The model discrimination was excellent with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.879 (0.851 to 0.908) ( p < 0.001 ). Based on these predictors, we created the SAVE (SBP, Arterial blood gas, and left Ventricular Ejection fraction) ACS classification, which showed good discrimination for 30-day AUC 0.814 (0.782 to 0.845) and long-term mortality p log − rank < 0.001 . A similar AUC was demonstrated in the validation cohort (AUC 0.815). Conclusions. In the current study, we introduce a rapid way of classifying CS using frontline parameters. The SAVE ACS classification could allow for future randomized studies to explore the benefit of mechanical circulatory support in different CS stages in ACS patients.

2022 ◽  
Thomas Kander ◽  
Martin F. Bjurström ◽  
Attila Frigyesi ◽  
Magnus Jöud ◽  
Caroline U. Nilsson

Abstract Background. Previous studies have demonstrated an association between ABO blood groups and many types of disease. The present study primarily aimed to identify associations between ABO blood groups, RhD groups and mortality/morbidity outcomes in critically ill patients both in a main cohort and in six pre-defined subgroups. The secondary aim was to investigate any differences in transfusion requirement between the different ABO blood groups and RhD status.Methods. Adult patients admitted to any of the five intensive care units (ICUs) in Skåne, Sweden, between February 2007 and April 2021 were eligible for inclusion. The outcomes were mortality analysed at 28– and 90–days as well as at the end of observation and morbidity measured using days alive and free of (DAF) invasive ventilation (DAF ventilation) and DAF circulatory support, including vasopressors or inotropes (DAF circulation), maximum Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (SOFAmax) the first 28 days after admission and length of stay. All outcomes were analysed in separate multivariable regression models (adjusted for age and sex), generating odds or hazard ratios for each blood group and RhD status using blood group O and RhD negative as reference. Transfusion requirements were also investigated.Results. In total, 29 512 unique patients were included in the analyses. There were no significant differences for any of the outcomes between non-O blood groups and blood group O, or between RhD groups. In five pre-defined subgroups (sepsis, septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, cardiac arrest and trauma) there were no differences in mortality between non-O blood groups and blood group O or between the RhD groups. The Covid-19 cohort was not investigated given the low number of patients. Furthermore, we could not demonstrate any differences in the number of transfused patients between the ABO blood groups or between the RhD groups.Conclusions. ABO blood type and RhD status do not appear to influence mortality or morbidity in a general critically ill patient population. There were no differences in the number of transfused patients between the ABO blood groups or between the RhD status groups.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 18
Johannes Weichsel ◽  
Benito Baldauf ◽  
Hendrik Bonnemeier ◽  
Ernest W. Lau ◽  
Sven Dittrich ◽  

Ventricular assist devices (VADs) are used to provide mechanical circulatory support to patients with end-stage heart failure. The driveline connecting the external power source to the pump(s) of the intra-corporal VAD breaches the protective skin barrier and provides a track for microbes to invade the interior of the patient’s body. Driveline infection constitutes a major and potentially fatal vulnerability of VAD therapy. Driveline infection cannot traditionally be salvaged and requires the extraction of the entire VAD system. We report here the successful eradication of a VAD driveline infection with a taurolidine-containing antimicrobial solution used for preventing the infection of cardiac implantable electronic devices. If replicated in more cases, the novel treatment concept described here may provide a valuable alternative management strategy of salvage rather than explantation for VAD driveline infection.

Gerald I Cohen ◽  
Theodore Schreiber ◽  
Hemindermeet Singh ◽  
Amir Kaki

Abstract Background We previously described percutaneous thrombectomy and right ventricular mechanical support of a COVID-19 patient with a massive pulmonary embolism. Here we present a detailed echocardiographic and clinical timeline with 1 year follow-up. Case Summary A 57-year-old female with COVID-19 went into shock from a massive pulmonary embolism. After percutaneous removal of a large thrombus burden (AngioVac system; AngioDynamics Inc, Latham, NY, USA), she became severely hypotensive, requiring CPR, and was resuscitated with an Impella RP device (Abiomed, Danvers, MA, USA). A pediatric TEE probe monitored the procedure because an adult probe would not pass (S7-3t—Philips Medical Systems, Andover, MA, USA). Post thrombectomy, surface imaging documented gradual resolution of right ventricular dysfunction, tricuspid regurgitation, and elevated pulmonary artery pressure. Her course was complicated by renal failure requiring temporary dialysis. She was discharged home on apixaban. Hypercoagulability work-up was negative. Two months later, vocal cord surgery was performed for persistent stridor. Esophagoscopy at that time was prevented by osteophyte obstruction. At 10 months, she received the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. At one year, the patient remains healthy on apixaban, and her echocardiogram is normal. Discussion This case illustrates the pivotal role of echocardiography in the diagnosis, percutaneous treatment, and near- and long-term follow-up and management of a patient with massive pulmonary embolism due to COVID-19 with documentation of complete recovery from severe right ventricular dysfunction and hemodynamic collapse. A pediatric TEE probe was a crucial alternative to the adult probe because of possible osteophyte obstruction.

Arianne Clare C Agdamag ◽  
Daniel Gonzalez ◽  
Katie Carlson ◽  
Suma Konety ◽  
William C McDonald ◽  

Abstract Background The BNT162b2 vaccine received emergency use authorization from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the prevention of severe COVID-19 infection. We report a case of biopsy and MRI-proven severe myocarditis that developed in a previously healthy individual within days of receiving the first dose of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine. Case Summary An 80-year-old female with no significant cardiac history presented with cardiogenic shock and biopsy-proven fulminant myocarditis within 12 days of receiving the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine. She required temporary mechanical circulatory support, inotropic agents and high-dose steroids for stabilization and management. Ultimately her cardiac function recovered, and she was discharged in stable condition after 2 weeks of hospitalization. A repeat cardiac MRI 3 months after her initial presentation demonstrated stable biventricular function and continued improvement in myocardial inflammation. Discussion Fulminant myocarditis is a rare complication of vaccination. Clinicians should stay vigilant to recognize this rare, but potentially deadly complication. Due to the high morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19 infection, the clinical benefits of the BNT162b2 vaccine greatly outweighs the risks of complications.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 87
Khalil Jawad ◽  
Alex Koziarz ◽  
Maja-Theresa Dieterlen ◽  
Jens Garbade ◽  
Christian D. Etz ◽  

Background: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare, life-threatening form of heart disease, frequently associated with gene alterations and, in some cases, presenting with advanced heart failure. Little is known about ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation in severe PPCM cases. We describe long-term follow-up of PPCM patients who were resistant to medical therapy and received mechanical circulatory support or heart transplant. Methods and results: A total of 13 patients were included with mean follow-up of eight years. Mean age of PPCM onset was 33.7 ± 7.7 years. All patients were initially treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers, and four received bromocriptine. Overall, five patients received VADs (three biventricular, two isolated left ventricular) at median 27 days (range: 3 to 150) following childbirth. Two patients developed drive line infection. Due to the short support time, none of those patients had a stroke or VAD thrombosis. In total, five patients underwent heart transplantation, of which four previously had implanted VADs. Median time to transplantation from PPCM onset was 140 days (range: 43 to 776), and time to transplantation from VAD implantation were 7, 40, 132, and 735 days, respectively. All patients survived until most recent follow up, with the exception of one patient who died following unrelated abdominal surgery two years after PPCM recovery. Conclusions: In patients with severe, life-threatening PPCM refractory to medical management, mechanical circulatory support with or without heart transplantation is a safe therapeutic option.

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