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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ji-Eun Oh ◽  
Seung-Nam Kim

So far, a number of acupuncture studies have shown anti-inflammatory effects of acupuncture treatment, mostly known at specific point ST36. However, there is no literature that oversaw the inflammation-regulatory effects of acupuncture in each tissue. Therefore, we investigated how acupuncture at specific acupoint ST36 regulates inflammation and its underlying mechanisms. We searched literatures on PubMed until July 2021 using the keywords “animal, acupuncture, ST36, inflammation, immune,” and 292 literatures were searched. We ultimately selected 69 studies to determine the anti-inflammatory actions of acupuncture at ST36 and classified the changes of inflammatory mediators according to target regions. Forty-three studies were included in body fluids, 27 studies in the digestive system, 17 studies in the nervous system, and 30 studies in other tissues or organs. In this review, we found that acupuncture at ST36 has clinical benefits in relieving inflammation through several mechanisms such as vagus nerve activation, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/NF-κB signaling, macrophage polarization, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, and cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. We expect that these data will inform further studies related to ST36 acupuncture on inflammation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 333
Nada Sabourdin ◽  
Julien Burey ◽  
Sophie Tuffet ◽  
Anne Thomin ◽  
Alexandra Rousseau ◽  

The clinical benefits to be expected from intraoperative nociception monitors are currently under investigation. Among these devices, the Analgesia Nociception-Index (ANI) has shown promising results under sevoflurane anesthesia. Our study investigated ANI-guided remifentanil administration under propofol anesthesia. We hypothesized that ANI guidance would result in reduced remifentanil consumption compared with standard management. This prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blinded, bi-centric study included women undergoing elective gynecologic surgery under target-controlled infusion of propofol and remifentanil. Patients were randomly assigned to an ANI or Standard group. In the ANI group, remifentanil target concentration was adjusted by 0.5 ng mL−1 steps every 5 min according to the ANI value. In the Standard group, remifentanil was managed according to standard practice. Our primary objective was to compare remifentanil consumption between the groups. Our secondary objectives were to compare the quality of anesthesia, postoperative analgesia and the incidence of chronic pain. Eighty patients were included. Remifentanil consumption was lower in the ANI group: 4.4 (3.3; 5.7) vs. 5.8 (4.9; 7.1) µg kg−1 h−1 (difference = −1.4 (95% CI, −2.6 to −0.2), p = 0.0026). Propofol consumption was not different between the groups. Postoperative pain scores were low in both groups. There was no difference in morphine consumption 24 h after surgery. The proportion of patients reporting pain 3 months after surgery was 18.8% in the ANI group and 30.8% in the Standard group (difference = −12.0 (95% CI, −32.2 to 9.2)). ANI guidance resulted in lower remifentanil consumption compared with standard practice under propofol anesthesia. There was no difference in short- or long-term postoperative analgesia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 348
Matteo Pagnesi ◽  
Luca Baldetti ◽  
Alberto Aimo ◽  
Riccardo Maria Inciardi ◽  
Daniela Tomasoni ◽  

Background: The new heart failure (HF) therapies of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), vericiguat, and omecamtiv mecarbil do not act primarily through the neuro-hormonal blockade, but have shown clinical benefits in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, their respective efficacies remain unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the relative efficacy of new drugs for HFrEF. Methods: We performed a network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing SGLT2i, vericiguat, omecamtiv mecarbil, and placebo in HFrEF patients. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death (CVD) or HF hospitalization (CVD-HF); secondary endpoints were CVD, all-cause death, and HF hospitalization (HFH). Results: Twelve RCTs (n = 23,861 patients) were included. A significant reduction in CVD-HF was observed with SGLT2i compared with placebo (risk ratio (RR) 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71–0.83), vericiguat (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.75–0.93), and omecamtiv mecarbil (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.72–0.88). No significant difference was observed between vericiguat and omecamtiv mecarbil (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.87–1.04). SGLT2i were superior to placebo and omecamtiv mecarbil for all individual secondary endpoints (CVD, all-cause death, and HFH), and also to vericiguat for HFH. SGLT2i ranked as the most effective therapy for all endpoints, and vericiguat, omecamtiv mecarbil, and placebo ranked as the second, third, and last options, respectively, for the primary endpoint. Conclusions: In patients with HFrEF on standard-of-care therapy, SGLT2i therapy was associated with a reduced risk of CVD-HF compared to placebo, vericiguat, and omecamtiv mecarbil. Furthermore, SGLT2i were superior to placebo and omecamtiv mecarbil for CVD, all-cause death, and HFH, and also to vericiguat for HFH.

Arianne Clare C Agdamag ◽  
Daniel Gonzalez ◽  
Katie Carlson ◽  
Suma Konety ◽  
William C McDonald ◽  

Abstract Background The BNT162b2 vaccine received emergency use authorization from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the prevention of severe COVID-19 infection. We report a case of biopsy and MRI-proven severe myocarditis that developed in a previously healthy individual within days of receiving the first dose of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine. Case Summary An 80-year-old female with no significant cardiac history presented with cardiogenic shock and biopsy-proven fulminant myocarditis within 12 days of receiving the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine. She required temporary mechanical circulatory support, inotropic agents and high-dose steroids for stabilization and management. Ultimately her cardiac function recovered, and she was discharged in stable condition after 2 weeks of hospitalization. A repeat cardiac MRI 3 months after her initial presentation demonstrated stable biventricular function and continued improvement in myocardial inflammation. Discussion Fulminant myocarditis is a rare complication of vaccination. Clinicians should stay vigilant to recognize this rare, but potentially deadly complication. Due to the high morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19 infection, the clinical benefits of the BNT162b2 vaccine greatly outweighs the risks of complications.

Maria-Eleni Alexandrou ◽  
Marieta P. Theodorakopoulou ◽  
Pantelis A. Sarafidis

Background: Volume overload is the main mechanism of BP elevation in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients undergoing hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis and has been linked to adverse outcomes and increased mortality in this population. Summary: This review discusses current knowledge on lung ultrasound as a tool for detection of extracellular volume overload through evaluation of extravascular lung water content. We describe the principles of lung US, the main protocols to apply it in clinical practice, and accumulated data evidence regarding its associations with cardiovascular events and mortality. We also summarize available evidence on the effect of lung-ultrasound guided volume management strategies on BP control, echocardiographic parameters and major outcomes in patients undergoing dialysis. Key Messages: Among interventions attempting to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in ESKD, effective management of volume overload represents an unmet clinical need. Assessment of hydration status by lung-ultrasound is a cheap, easy to employ and real-time technique that can offer accurate dry weight assessment leading to several clinical benefits.

Gut Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Harry Pickering ◽  
John D. Hart ◽  
Sarah Burr ◽  
Richard Stabler ◽  
Ken Maleta ◽  

Abstract Background Mass drug administration (MDA) with azithromycin is the primary strategy for global trachoma control efforts. Numerous studies have reported secondary effects of MDA with azithromycin, including reductions in childhood mortality, diarrhoeal disease and malaria. Most recently, the MORDOR clinical trial demonstrated that MDA led to an overall reduction in all-cause childhood mortality in targeted communities. There is however concern about the potential of increased antimicrobial resistance in treated communities. This study evaluated the impact of azithromycin MDA on the prevalence of gastrointestinal carriage of macrolide-resistant bacteria in communities within the MORDOR Malawi study, additionally profiling changes in the gut microbiome after treatment. For faecal metagenomics, 60 children were sampled prior to treatment and 122 children after four rounds of MDA, half receiving azithromycin and half placebo. Results The proportion of bacteria carrying macrolide resistance increased after azithromycin treatment. Diversity and global community structure of the gut was minimally impacted by treatment, however abundance of several species was altered by treatment. Notably, the putative human enteropathogen Escherichia albertii was more abundant after treatment. Conclusions MDA with azithromycin increased carriage of macrolide-resistant bacteria, but had limited impact on clinically relevant bacteria. However, increased abundance of enteropathogenic Escherichia species after treatment requires further, higher resolution investigation. Future studies should focus on the number of treatments and administration schedule to ensure clinical benefits continue to outweigh costs in antimicrobial resistance carriage. Trial registration, NCT02047981. Registered January 29th 2014,

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Qingli Cui ◽  
Yanhui Hu ◽  
Qingan Cui ◽  
Daoyuan Wu ◽  
Yuefeng Mao ◽  

At present, treatment options for osimertinib resistance are very limited. Dual inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) significantly improved the progression-free survival (PFS) of advanced EGFR-mutant non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). After EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance, EGFR-TKI continuation combined with VEGF inhibitors still had clinical benefits. It is unclear whether the addition of bevacizumab after osimertinib progresses will prolong the duration of the osimertinib benefit. We screened 1289 patients with NSCLC and finally included 96 patients to evaluate osimertinib combined with bevacizumab (osi + bev) versus chemotherapy combined with bevacizumab (che + bev) for patients with acquired resistance to osimertinib. The overall response rate (ORR) for osi + bev and chem + bev was 15.8% (6 of 38) and 20.7% (12 of 58), respectively. The median PFS for osi + bev and che + bev was 7.0 and 4.9 months (HR 0.415 95%CI: 0.252–0.687 p = 0.001). The median OS for osi + bev and che + bev was 12.6 and 7.1 months (HR 0.430 95%CI: 0.266–0.696 p = 0.001). Multivariate analyses showed that no brain metastases and osi + bev treatment after osimertinib resistance correlated with longer PFS (p = 0.044, p = 0.001), while the median PFS of osimertinib less than 6 months (p = 0.021) had a detrimental effect on sequent treatment. Only osi + bev treatment was identified as an independent predictor of OS (p = 0.001). The most common adverse events (AEs) of grade ≥3 were hypertension (13.2%) and diarrhea (10.5%) in the osi + bevacizumab group. Neutropenia (24.1%) and thrombocytopenia (19%) were the most common grade ≥3 AEs in the che + bev group. The overall incidence of serious AEs (grade ≥3) was significantly higher in the chemotherapy plus bevacizumab group. Our study has shown the superiority of osi + bev compared to che + bev after the failure of osimertinib, making it a preferred option for patients with acquired resistance to osimertinib.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Cong Huang ◽  
Carolina Oi Lam Ung ◽  
Haishaerjiang Wushouer ◽  
Lin Bai ◽  
Tao Huang ◽  

Abstract Background In China, health technology assessment (HTA) has recently been adopted in pricing negotiation for medicine listing in the National Reimbursement Drug List. At present, how HTA is applied to inform the decision-making process remains underreported. In order to explore how the adoption of HTA was translated into listing and price negotiation results in light of the confidential nature of the negotiating process, this study aimed to compare the negotiated price and the clinical benefit of selected targeted anticancer medicines (TAMs) involved in the 2019 negotiation. Main text Among 16 TAMs successfully negotiated, only four TAMs representing four indication groups had appropriate reference medicines for comparison and were, therefore, included in the analysis. The price and clinical benefit of the four TAMs were compared against one or two reference medicines with the same initial indications. The sales prices for nine TAMs before and after the negotiation were extracted from the centralized medication procurement system. Clinical benefits were evaluated based on evidence from published articles and clinical guidelines. The results suggested that, despite the application of HTA, both rational and irrational decisions had been made about the reimbursement of TAMs in the 2019 negotiation, warranting further investigation. Conclusion While the development and adoption of HTA has seen significant progress in China, actions are needed to ensure that the adoption of HTA is effectively applied in decisions on the reimbursement of medicines.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (01) ◽  
pp. 9-27
Ahmed A. Farag ◽  
Abd El-Kafy Sharaf El-Din Ibrahim ◽  
Islam M. Alaghory

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