Abstract The inheritance of the seedless fruit characteristic of Annona squamosa has not yet been explained. Molecular techniques may aid breeding programs, mainly in the assisted selection of the target gene. The INO gene may be related to seed development in these fruits. The objective of the present paper was to investigate the inheritance of seedlessness in the 'Brazilian seedless' sugar apple and INO gene conservation in Annona squamosa and Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa genotypes by assessing their homology with the INO database genes. The F1 generation was obtained by crossing the mutant 'Brazilian seedless' (male genitor) (P1) with the wild-type A. squamosa with seeds (M1 and M2, female genitors). The INO gene was studied in mutant and wild-type A. squamosa (P1, M1, M2 and M3) and in the Gefner atemoya (A. cherimola x A. squamosa) (M4) cultivar. The DNA was extracted from young leaves, and four sets of specific primers flanking the INO gene were amplified. The seedless characteristic was identified as stenospermatic in the fruits of parental P1, suggesting monogenic inheritance with complete dominance. High sequence similarity of the INO gene amplifications in the sugar apple accessions (M1, M2, M3) and the atemoya cultivar Gefner (M4) reinforces the hypothesis of their conservation.
Angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) and endothelin-1 receptor type A (ETAR) are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed on the surface of a great variety of cells: immune cells, vascular smooth cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts express ETAR and AT1R, which are activated by endothelin 1 (ET1) and angiotensin II (AngII), respectively. Certain autoantibodies are specific for these receptors and can regulate their function, thus being known as functional autoantibodies. The function of these antibodies is similar to that of natural ligands, and it involves not only vasoconstriction, but also the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (such as interleukin-6 (IL6), IL8 and TNF-α), collagen production by fibroblasts, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) release by fibroblasts and neutrophils. The role of autoantibodies against AT1R and ETAR (AT1R-AAs and ETAR-AAs, respectively) is well described in the pathogenesis of many medical conditions (e.g., systemic sclerosis (SSc) and SSc-associated pulmonary hypertension, cystic fibrosis, and allograft dysfunction), but their implications in cardiovascular diseases are still unclear. This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the effects of AT1R-AAs and ETAR-AAs in cardiovascular pathologies, highlighting their roles in heart transplantation and mechanical circulatory support, preeclampsia, and acute coronary syndromes.
Biofilms have been established as an important lifestyle for bacteria in nature as these structured communities often enable survivability and persistence in a multitude of environments. Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacterium found throughout much of the northern hemisphere. However, biofilm formation remains understudied and poorly understood in F. tularensis as non-substantial biofilms are typically observed in vitro by the clinically relevant subspecies F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. holarctica (Type A and B, respectively). Herein, we report conditions under which robust biofilm development was observed in a stochastic, but reproducible manner in Type A and B isolates. The frequency at which biofilm was observed increased temporally and appeared switch-like as progeny from the initial biofilm quickly formed biofilm in a predictable manner regardless of time or propagation with fresh media. The Type B isolates used for this study were found to more readily switch on biofilm formation than Type A isolates. Additionally, pH was found to function as an environmental checkpoint for biofilm initiation independently of the heritable cellular switch. Multiple colony morphologies were observed in biofilm positive cultures leading to the identification of a particular subset of grey variants that constitutively produce biofilm. Further, we found that constitutive biofilm forming isolates delay the onset of a viable non-culturable state. In this study, we demonstrate that a robust biofilm can be developed by clinically relevant F. tularensis isolates, provide a mechanism for biofilm initiation and examine the potential role of biofilm formation.
Introduction The inner diaphyseal diameter of the distal femur, at 20 cm from the lateral joint line, is the strongest risk factor for predicting aseptic loosening in total knee arthroplasty using rotating hinge prosthesis. In this context, the Citak classification has been introduced presenting three different types of the distal femur anatomy. The aim of the study is to develop a novel classification system for the proximal tibia. Materials and Methods Two-hundred patients with standard knee antero-posterior radiographs were included in this study. We measured the inner diameter of the tibia 16 cm distally from the tibial plateau and 3 cm distally from the tibial spine. The ratio between these two measurements was applied as the novel index ratio. Results According to the 25th and 75th percentiles, three groups can be clustered for each gender. A higher distribution of the type B pattern was found in female and male patients. However, type A with a narrow inner diaphyseal diameter was less common in female patients The median intra-observer reliability for rater 1 was 0.997. The inter-observer reliability was high (ICC 0.998). There was a moderate correlation between the AP diameter and height (r = 0,568); a low correlation between the AP diameter and weight (r = 0.376). The novel index shows no significant correlation between the index ratio and height (r = 0.082), weight (r = 0.014) or BMI (r= - 0.038). The novel index shows no statistically significant correlation between the index ratio and height (r = 0.082) or weight (r = 0.014) or BMI (r= - 0.038). Conclusion The novel classification presents three different types of tibia for each gender: type C has a wider inner diaphyseal diameter compared to type A with a narrow inner diaphyseal diameter. Type B has the widest distribution among the subjects.
How do language learners avoid the production of verb argument structure overgeneralization errors (*The clown laughed the man c.f. The clown made the man laugh), while retaining the ability to apply such generalizations productively when appropriate? This question has long been seen as one that is both particularly central to acquisition research and particularly challenging. Focussing on causative overgeneralization errors of this type, a previous study reported a computational model that learns, on the basis of corpus data and human-derived verb-semantic-feature ratings, to predict adults’ by-verb preferences for less- versus more-transparent causative forms (e.g., * The clown laughed the man vs The clown made the man laugh) across English, Hebrew, Hindi, Japanese and K’iche Mayan. Here, we tested the ability of this model (and an expanded version with multiple hidden layers) to explain binary grammaticality judgment data from children aged 4;0-5;0, and elicited-production data from children aged 4;0-5;0 and 5;6-6;6 (N=48 per language). In general, the model successfully simulated both children’s judgment and production data, with correlations of r=0.5-0.6 and r=0.75-0.85, respectively, and also generalized to unseen verbs. Importantly, learners of all five languages showed some evidence of making the types of overgeneralization errors – in both judgments and production – previously observed in naturalistic studies of English (e.g., *I’m dancing it). Together with previous findings, the present study demonstrates that a simple learning model can explain (a) adults’ continuous judgment data, (b) children’s binary judgment data and (c) children’s production data (with no training of these datasets), and therefore constitutes a plausible mechanistic account of the acquisition of verbs’ argument structure restrictions.
Background Total arch replacement with modified elephant trunk technique plays an important role in treating acute type A aortic dissection in China. We aim to summarize the therapeutic effects of this procedure in our center over a 17-year period. Methods Consecutive patients treated at our hospital due to type A aortic dissection from January 2004 to January 2021 were studied. Relevant data of these patients undergoing total arch replacement with modified elephant trunk technique were collected and analyzed. Results A total of 589 patients were included with a mean age of 53.1 ± 12.2 years. The mean of cardiopulmonary bypass, cross-clamping, and selected cerebral perfusion time were 199.6 ± 41.9, 119.0 ± 27.2, and 25.1 ± 5.0 min, respectively. In-hospital death occurred in 46 patients. Multivariate analysis identified four significant risk factors for in-hospital mortality: preexisting renal hypoperfusion (OR 5.43; 95% CI 1.31 – 22.44; P = 0.020), cerebral malperfusion (OR 11.87; 95% CI 4.13 – 34.12; P < 0.001), visceral malperfusion (OR 4.27; 95% CI 1.01 – 18.14; P = 0.049), and cross-clamp time ≥ 130 min (OR 3.26; 95% CI 1.72 – 6.19; P < 0.001). The 5, 10, and 15 years survival rates were 86.4%, 82.6%, and 70.2%, respectively. Conclusions Total arch replacement with modified elephant trunk technique is an effective treatment for acute type A aortic dissection with satisfactory perioperative results. Patients with preexisting renal hypoperfusion, cerebral malperfusion, visceral malperfusion, and long cross-clamp time are at a higher risk of in-hospital death.
Enteritis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in lorikeets that can be challenging to diagnose and treat. In this study, we examine gut microbiota in two lorikeet flocks with enteritis (Columbus Zoo and Aquarium—CZA; Denver Zoo—DZ). Since 2012, the CZA flock has experienced repeated outbreaks of enteritis despite extensive diet, husbandry, and clinical modifications. In 2018, both CZA and DZ observed a spike in enteritis. Recent research has revealed that the gut microbiota can influence susceptibility to enteropathogens. We hypothesized that a dysbiosis, or alteration in the gut microbial community, was making some lorikeets more susceptible to enteritis, and our goal was to characterize this dysbiosis and determine the features that predicted susceptibility.
We employed 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize the cloacal microbiota in lorikeets (CZA n = 67, DZ n = 24) over time. We compared the microbiota of healthy lorikeets, to lorikeets with enteritis, and lorikeets susceptible to enteritis, with “susceptible” being defined as healthy birds that subsequently developed enteritis. Based on sequencing data, culture, and toxin gene detection in intestinal contents, we identified Clostridium perfringens type A (CZA and DZ) and C. colinum (CZA only) at increased relative abundances in birds with enteritis. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry further identified the presence of gram-positive bacilli and C. perfringens, respectively, in the necrotizing intestinal lesions. Finally, using Random Forests and LASSO models, we identified several features (young age and the presence of Rhodococcus fascians and Pseudomonas umsongensis) associated with susceptibility to clostridial enteritis.
We identified C. perfringens type A and C. colinum associated with lorikeet necrohemorrhagic enteritis at CZA and DZ. Susceptibility testing of isolates lead to an updated clinical treatment plan which ultimately resolved the outbreaks at both institutions. This work provides a foundation for understanding gut microbiota features that are permissive to clostridial colonization and host factors (e.g. age, prior infection) that shape responses to infection.