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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
M. Ghafar ◽  
S. Khwaja ◽  
M. Zahid ◽  
S. I. Hussain ◽  
A. Karim ◽  

Abstract The main purpose of this study was to find out a possible association between ABO blood groups or Rh and diabetes mellitus (DM) in the local population of eight (8) different towns of Karachi, Pakistan. For this purpose a survey was carried out in Karachi to have a practical observation of these towns during the period of 9 months from June 2019 to Feb. 2020. Out of eighteen (18) towns of Karachi, samples (N= 584) were collected from only eight (8) Towns of Karachi and gave a code-number to each town. Diabetic group sample was (n1=432) & pre-diabetes sample was (n2 =152). A standard Abbot Company Glucometer for Random Blood Sugar (RBS) and Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) tests, standard blood anti sera were used for ABO/Rh blood type. Health assessment techniques were performed ethically by taking informed consent from all registered subjects. Finally data was analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. In our current study, the comparison of ABO blood groups frequencies between diabetic and pre-diabetic individuals were carried out. The percentage values of blood Group-B as given as: (32% in DM vs. 31% in pre-diabetics), followed by blood Group-O as: (18% in DM vs. 11% in pre-diabetics). Contrary to Group-“B” & “O”, blood Group-A and Group-AB were distribution percentage higher pre-diabetic as compared to DM patients, as given as: Group-A (32% in pre-diabetics vs. 26% in DM) & Group-AB (26% in pre-diabetics vs. 24% in diabetic’s patients). In addition, percentage distribution of Rh system was also calculated, in which Rh+ve Group was high and more common in DM patients as compared to pre-diabetics; numerically given as: Rh+ve Group (80% in DM vs. 72% in pre-diabetics). Different views and dimensions of the research topic were studied through literature support, some have found no any association and some established a positive association still some were not clear in making a solid conclusion. It is concluded that DM has a positive correlation with ABO blood groups, and people with Group-B have increased susceptibility to DM disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Herbert F. Jelinek ◽  
Mira Mousa ◽  
Nawal Alkaabi ◽  
Eman Alefishat ◽  
Gihan Daw Elbait ◽  

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease severity differs widely due to numerous factors including ABO gene-derived susceptibility or resistance. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of the ABO blood group and genetic variations of the ABO gene with COVID-19 severity in a heterogeneous hospital population sample from the United Arab Emirates, with the use of an epidemiological and candidate gene approach from a genome-wide association study (GWAS).Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 646 participants who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were recruited from multiple hospitals and population-based (quarantine camps) recruitment sites from March 2020 to February 2021. The participants were divided into two groups based on the severity of COVID-19: noncritical (n = 453) and critical [intensive care unit (ICU) patients] (n = 193), as per the COVID-19 Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS) classification. The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated the association of ABO blood type as well as circulating anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies as well as A and B antigens, in association with critical COVID-19 hospital presentation. A candidate gene analysis approach was conducted from a GWAS where we examined 240 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (position in chr9: 136125788-136150617) in the ABO gene, in association with critical COVID-19 hospital presentation.Results: Patients with blood group O [odds ratio (OR): 0.51 (0.33, 0.79); p = 0.003] were less likely to develop critical COVID-19 symptoms. Eight alleles have been identified to be associated with a protective effect of blood group O in ABO 3'untranslated region (UTR): rs199969472 (p = 0.0052), rs34266669 (p = 0.0052), rs76700116 (p = 0.0052), rs7849280 (p = 0.0052), rs34039247 (p = 0.0104), rs10901251 (p = 0.0165), rs9411475 (p = 0.0377), and rs13291798 (p = 0.0377).Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there are novel allelic variants that link genetic variants of the ABO gene and ABO blood groups contributing to the reduced risk of critical COVID-19 disease. This study is the first study to combine genetic and serological evidence of the involvement of the ABO blood groups and the ABO gene allelic associations with COVID-19 severity within the Middle Eastern population.

2022 ◽  
Thomas Kander ◽  
Martin F. Bjurström ◽  
Attila Frigyesi ◽  
Magnus Jöud ◽  
Caroline U. Nilsson

Abstract Background. Previous studies have demonstrated an association between ABO blood groups and many types of disease. The present study primarily aimed to identify associations between ABO blood groups, RhD groups and mortality/morbidity outcomes in critically ill patients both in a main cohort and in six pre-defined subgroups. The secondary aim was to investigate any differences in transfusion requirement between the different ABO blood groups and RhD status.Methods. Adult patients admitted to any of the five intensive care units (ICUs) in Skåne, Sweden, between February 2007 and April 2021 were eligible for inclusion. The outcomes were mortality analysed at 28– and 90–days as well as at the end of observation and morbidity measured using days alive and free of (DAF) invasive ventilation (DAF ventilation) and DAF circulatory support, including vasopressors or inotropes (DAF circulation), maximum Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (SOFAmax) the first 28 days after admission and length of stay. All outcomes were analysed in separate multivariable regression models (adjusted for age and sex), generating odds or hazard ratios for each blood group and RhD status using blood group O and RhD negative as reference. Transfusion requirements were also investigated.Results. In total, 29 512 unique patients were included in the analyses. There were no significant differences for any of the outcomes between non-O blood groups and blood group O, or between RhD groups. In five pre-defined subgroups (sepsis, septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, cardiac arrest and trauma) there were no differences in mortality between non-O blood groups and blood group O or between the RhD groups. The Covid-19 cohort was not investigated given the low number of patients. Furthermore, we could not demonstrate any differences in the number of transfused patients between the ABO blood groups or between the RhD groups.Conclusions. ABO blood type and RhD status do not appear to influence mortality or morbidity in a general critically ill patient population. There were no differences in the number of transfused patients between the ABO blood groups or between the RhD status groups.

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 99
Joanna Szczepanek ◽  
Monika Skorupa ◽  
Agnieszka Goroncy ◽  
Joanna Jarkiewicz-Tretyn ◽  
Aleksandra Wypych ◽  

Background: COVID-19 vaccines induce a differentiated humoral and cellular response, and one of the comparable parameters of the vaccine response is the determination of IgG antibodies. Materials and Methods: Concentrations of IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were analyzed at three time points (at the beginning of May, at the end of June and at the end of September). Serum samples were obtained from 954 employees of the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (a total of three samples each were obtained from 511 vaccinated participants). IgG antibody concentrations were determined by enzyme immunoassay. The statistical analysis included comparisons between vaccines, between convalescents and COVID-19 non-patients, between individual measurements and included the gender, age and blood groups of participants. Results: There were significant differences in antibody levels between mRNA and vector vaccines. People vaccinated with mRNA-1273 achieved the highest levels of antibodies, regardless of the time since full vaccination. People vaccinated with ChAdOx1 nCoV-2019 produced several times lower antibody levels compared to the mRNA vaccines, while the antibody levels were more stable. In the case of each of the vaccines, the factor having the strongest impact on the level and stability of the IgG antibody titers was previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. There were no significant correlations with age, gender and blood type. Summary: mRNA vaccines induce a stronger humoral response of the immune system with the fastest loss of antibodies over time.

Rizki Ardianto Priramadhi ◽  
Denny Darlis

In this research, a Feed-Forward Artificial Neural Network design was implemented on Xilinx Spartan 3S1000 Field Programable Gate Array using XSA-3S Board and prototyped blood type classification device. This research uses blood sample images as a system input. The system was built using VHSIC Hardware Description Language to describe the feed-forward propagation with a backpropagation neural network algorithm. We use three layers for the feed-forward ANN design with two hidden layers. The hidden layer designed has two neurons. In this study, the accuracy of detection obtained for four-type blood image resolutions results from 86%-92%, respectively.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Rachida Boukhari ◽  
Adrien Breiman ◽  
Jennifer Jazat ◽  
Nathalie Ruvoën-Clouet ◽  
Salima Martinez ◽  

ABO blood groups appear to be associated with the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the underlying mechanisms and their real importance remain unclear. Two hypotheses have been proposed: ABO compatibility-dependence (neutralization by anti-ABO antibodies) and ABO-dependent intrinsic susceptibility (spike protein attachment to histo-blood group glycans). We tested the first hypothesis through an anonymous questionnaire addressed to hospital staff members. We estimated symptomatic secondary attack rates (SAR) for 333 index cases according to spouse ABO blood group compatibility. Incompatibility was associated with a lower SAR (28% vs. 47%; OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.27–0.69), but no ABO dependence was detected in compatible situations. For the second hypothesis, we detected no binding of recombinant SARS-CoV-2 RBD to blood group-containing glycans. Thus, although no intrinsic differences in susceptibility according to ABO blood type were detected, ABO incompatibility strongly decreased the risk of COVID-19 transmission, suggesting that anti-ABO antibodies contribute to virus neutralization.

Medicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 3
Ioannis Tsamesidis ◽  
Evangelia Stalika ◽  
Chinedu O. Egwu ◽  
Agathi Pritsa ◽  
Maria Parpori ◽  

The ‘Blood-Type’ diet advises individuals to eat according to their ABO blood group to improve their health and decrease the risk of chronic diseases. However, the food preferences of individuals with different blood groups have not been examined. The aim of our study was to investigate, in healthy regular blood donors (rBDs), the associations of smoke, alcohol, caffeine, vitamin and fat intake with their different blood groups and if ABO groups could be a potential predictor tool for disease prevention. A total of 329 volunteers were divided into four groups according to their ABO types: Group 1 (A) comprised 141 rBDs; Group 2 (B), 65 rBDs; Group 3 (O), 96 rBDs; and Group 4, 27 rBDs. Additionally, they were divided into two groups according to their rhesus types and their preferences for smoke, too. Dietary intake was assessed using 3-day food recall and the Food Processor computer program for nutrient analysis. Alcohol, caffeine, sugar and Vitamin D consumption were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the O group. The A group presented statistically significantly (p < 0.05) greater preferences for cholesterol intake and a higher trend for smoking (25%) habits compared with all the other groups, whereas Group B preferred more fatty foods. The blood group AB appeared to be the most controlled food intake group. Regarding the rhesus comparisons, alcohol; caffeine; and Vitamin C, D, E and K consumptions were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in rhesus-positive individuals than their rhesus-negative counterparts. For the non-smoker group, compared with the smokers, a higher consumption of Vitamin D and fibers was found. In conclusion, in the present study, statistically significant correlations of the ABO and rhesus system with some dietary parameters were found, indicating a consequent influence of these preferences on the progression of different diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 ◽  
Yozo Mitsui ◽  
Hideyuki Kobayashi ◽  
Fumito Yamabe ◽  
Koichi Nakajima ◽  
Koichi Nagao

Yung-Chih Chen ◽  
Kuang-Nan Hsu ◽  
Jerry Cheng-Yen Lai ◽  
Li-Yang Chen ◽  
Mei-Shin Kuo ◽  

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