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Author(s):  
Stefan Ionita ◽  
Stefan Velicu

The main objective of the research paper is the theoretical and experimental analysis of the method proposed for sealing (clogging) cracks in asphalt, by means of a cylindrical bitumen bar, enriched with plastic and rubber granules (obtained from the use of waste), which melts and infuses into the cracked zone by rotation and friction against it. After analyzing the technical characteristics of the sealed area and the time required to apply the bitumen layer, this method can be chosen in the future to the detriment of the expensive operations of partial milling of the cracked wear layer, making possible the repair of cracks by sealing(clogging), using the friction procedure. The research results highlighted the diminution of road maintenance costs using the method of friction, the decrease of cracks repair time, maintaining the initial characteristics of the repaired area, incorporating a waterproofing material (plastic and rubbber granules from recycled waste), keeping the wear layer in good conditions, possibility of embedding an intelligent system of traffic monitoring at low costs etc.


Author(s):  
Sorin Andrei Negru ◽  
Marilena Manea ◽  
Gabriel Jiga

The main objective of the research paper is the theoretical and experimental analysis of the method proposed for sealing (clogging) cracks in asphalt, by means of a cylindrical bitumen bar, enriched with plastic and rubber granules (obtained from the use of waste), which melts and infuses into the cracked zone by rotation and friction against it. After analyzing the technical characteristics of the sealed area and the time required to apply the bitumen layer, this method can be chosen in the future to the detriment of the expensive operations of partial milling of the cracked wear layer, making possible the repair of cracks by sealing(clogging), using the friction procedure. The research results highlighted the diminution of road maintenance costs using the method of friction, the decrease of cracks repair time, maintaining the initial characteristics of the repaired area, incorporating a waterproofing material (plastic and rubbber granules from recycled waste), keeping the wear layer in good conditions, possibility of embedding an intelligent system of traffic monitoring at low costs etc.


2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-35 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nikolaos-Foivos Polychronou ◽  
Pierre-Henri Thevenon ◽  
Maxime Puys ◽  
Vincent Beroulle

With the advances in the field of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Industrial IoT (IIoT), these devices are increasingly used in daily life or industry. To reduce costs related to the time required to develop these devices, security features are usually not considered. This situation creates a major security concern. Many solutions have been proposed to protect IoT/IIoT against various attacks, most of which are based on attacks involving physical access. However, a new class of attacks has emerged targeting hardware vulnerabilities in the micro-architecture that do not require physical access. We present attacks based on micro-architectural hardware vulnerabilities and the side effects they produce in the system. In addition, we present security mechanisms that can be implemented to address some of these attacks. Most of the security mechanisms target a small set of attack vectors or a single specific attack vector. As many attack vectors exist, solutions must be found to protect against a wide variety of threats. This survey aims to inform designers about the side effects related to attacks and detection mechanisms that have been described in the literature. For this purpose, we present two tables listing and classifying the side effects and detection mechanisms based on the given criteria.


Entropy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 132
Author(s):  
Eyad Alsaghir ◽  
Xiyu Shi ◽  
Varuna De Silva ◽  
Ahmet Kondoz

Deep learning, in general, was built on input data transformation and presentation, model training with parameter tuning, and recognition of new observations using the trained model. However, this came with a high computation cost due to the extensive input database and the length of time required in training. Despite the model learning its parameters from the transformed input data, no direct research has been conducted to investigate the mathematical relationship between the transformed information (i.e., features, excitation) and the model’s learnt parameters (i.e., weights). This research aims to explore a mathematical relationship between the input excitations and the weights of a trained convolutional neural network. The objective is to investigate three aspects of this assumed feature-weight relationship: (1) the mathematical relationship between the training input images’ features and the model’s learnt parameters, (2) the mathematical relationship between the images’ features of a separate test dataset and a trained model’s learnt parameters, and (3) the mathematical relationship between the difference of training and testing images’ features and the model’s learnt parameters with a separate test dataset. The paper empirically demonstrated the existence of this mathematical relationship between the test image features and the model’s learnt weights by the ANOVA analysis.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 168-174
Author(s):  
Sidharth Sraban Routray

Background: Transmuscular Quadratus Lumborum Block (TQLB) is a newer modality for postoperative pain management. But, its efficacy after laparoscopic colorectal surgery is little researched. The aim of our trial was to access the analgesic efficacy of TQLB in colorectal surgery.Methods:This study was done in 64 patients posted for colorectal surgery who were divided into two groups of 32 each. TQLB was given bilaterally in group RQ with 20 ml of 0.375% ropivacaine and in group SQ with 20 ml saline. Patients were operated under general anesthesia and were examined for pain at different time points postoperatively. Time required for first analgesic demand was our primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints were total rescue analgesia (paracetamol) required in 24 hrs, pain scores, nausea, vomiting, sedation and any other complications.Results:The time required for first analgesic demand was 3.9± 0.8hrs in RQ group and 0.1± 0.2 hrs in group SQ which was statistically significant. The total paracetamol consumption in 24 hours was1.2± 0.4 gm in group RQ and 2.9± 0.7gm in group SQ ,the difference being remarkable.Conclusion:Transmuscular quadratus lumborum block can produce quality analgesia after laparoscopic colorectal surgery. TQLB not only improves the visual analogue scale (VAS) score but also decreases the rescue analgesic consumption without any complications.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 99-109
Author(s):  
James Enos ◽  
Abigail Burris ◽  
Liam Caulfield ◽  
Robert DeYoung ◽  
Sebastian Houng ◽  
...  

The Army's Lean Six Sigma methodology includes five phases: Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (DMAIC); each of these phases includes interaction between the stakeholder and process team. This paper focuses on the application of Lean Six Sigma methodology at Tobyhanna Army Depot to help reduce overruns and repair cycle time within the sheet metal cost center. At the initiation of the project, the process incurred over 4,000 hours of overruns, a situation in which it takes longer to repair an asset than the standard hours allocated for the repair. Additionally, the average repair cycle time, amount of time required to repair an individual asset, exceeded customer expectations by almost four days. The paper describes recommended solutions to address both problems.


Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 196
Author(s):  
Junji Hosokawa-Muto ◽  
Yukiko Sassa-O’Brien ◽  
Yoshihito Fujinami ◽  
Hiroaki Nakahara

When examining infectious samples, rapid identification of the pathogenic agent is required for diagnosis and treatment or for investigating the cause of death. In our previous study, we applied exhaustive amplification using non-specific primers (the rapid determination system of viral genome sequences, the RDV method) to identify the causative virus via swab samples from a cat with a suspected viral infection. The purpose of the current study is to investigate suitable methods for the rapid identification of causative pathogens from infected tissue samples. First, the influenza virus was inoculated into mice to prepare infected tissue samples. RNA extracted from the mouse lung homogenates was transcribed into cDNA and then analyzed using the RDV method and next-generation sequencing, using MiSeq and MinION sequencers. The RDV method was unable to detect the influenza virus in the infected tissue samples. However, influenza virus reads were detected using next-generation sequencing. Comparing MiSeq and MinION, the time required for library and sequence preparation was shorter for MinION sequencing than for MiSeq sequencing. We conclude that when a causative virus needs to be rapidly identified from an infectious sample, MinION sequencing is currently the method of choice.


2022 ◽  
pp. 174498712110437
Author(s):  
Ambreen Imran ◽  
Sithembinkosi Mpofu ◽  
Sharon Marie Weldon

Background Recruitment of large numbers of study participants within a designated time frame for multi-site clinical research studies is a significant challenge faced by researchers. If a study does not manage to recruit targeted number of participants, it could have a significant impact on the statistical significance of the research. Purpose This paper highlights the challenges of recruitment for a large multi-site UK-based tuberculosis observational study ‘PREDICT’. Methods It uses a case study analysis from the research nurses perspective, and descriptive information retrieved from non-recruitment log forms to understand reasons for potential recruits not participating. Results Some of the main challenges to recruitment included patients not attending their clinic appointments, time required to obtain site-specific permissions and courier timings for blood sample collection. This paper also outlines key reasons for potential recruits who did not participate. Some of the common barriers to participation for non-recruited participants were work and family commitments, additional blood tests and language barriers. Conclusion Successful strategies which were implemented to overcome some of the challenges during the study are presented. This paper, therefore, aims to present the challenges faced, lessons learnt and successful strategies implemented to inform the planning of similar longitudinal studies of this scale in future.


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tetsuya Hori ◽  
Shigeo Takamori

Accumulation of glutamate, the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, into presynaptic synaptic vesicles (SVs) depends upon three vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs). Since VGLUTs are driven by a proton electrochemical gradient across the SV membrane generated by vacuolar-type H+-ATPases (V-ATPases), the rate of glutamate transport into SVs, as well as the amount of glutamate in SVs at equilibrium, are influenced by activities of both VGLUTs and V-ATPase. Despite emerging evidence that suggests various factors influencing glutamate transport by VGLUTs in vitro, little has been reported in physiological or pathological contexts to date. Historically, this was partially due to a lack of appropriate methods to monitor glutamate loading into SVs in living synapses. Furthermore, whether or not glutamate refilling of SVs can be rate-limiting for synaptic transmission is not well understood, primarily due to a lack of knowledge concerning the time required for vesicle reuse and refilling during repetitive stimulation. In this review, we first introduce a unique electrophysiological method to monitor glutamate refilling by VGLUTs in a giant model synapse from the calyx of Held in rodent brainstem slices, and we discuss the advantages and limitations of the method. We then introduce the current understanding of factors that potentially alter the amount and rate of glutamate refilling of SVs in this synapse, and discuss open questions from physiological viewpoints.


Machines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 57
Author(s):  
Daniele Esposito ◽  
Jessica Centracchio ◽  
Emilio Andreozzi ◽  
Sergio Savino ◽  
Gaetano D. Gargiulo ◽  
...  

Voluntary hand movements are usually impaired after a cerebral stroke, affecting millions of people per year worldwide. Recently, the use of hand exoskeletons for assistance and motor rehabilitation has become increasingly widespread. This study presents a novel hand exoskeleton, designed to be low cost, wearable, easily adaptable and suitable for home use. Most of the components of the exoskeleton are 3D printed, allowing for easy replication, customization and maintenance at a low cost. A strongly underactuated mechanical system allows one to synergically move the four fingers by means of a single actuator through a rigid transmission, while the thumb is kept in an adduction or abduction position. The exoskeleton’s ability to extend a typical hypertonic paretic hand of stroke patients was firstly tested using the SimScape Multibody simulation environment; this helped in the choice of a proper electric actuator. Force-myography was used instead of the standard electromyography to voluntarily control the exoskeleton with more simplicity. The user can activate the flexion/extension of the exoskeleton by a weak contraction of two antagonist muscles. A symmetrical master–slave motion strategy (i.e., the paretic hand motion is activated by the healthy hand) is also available for patients with severe muscle atrophy. An inexpensive microcontroller board was used to implement the electronic control of the exoskeleton and provide feedback to the user. The entire exoskeleton including batteries can be worn on the patient’s arm. The ability to provide a fluid and safe grip, like that of a healthy hand, was verified through kinematic analyses obtained by processing high-framerate videos. The trajectories described by the phalanges of the natural and the exoskeleton finger were compared by means of cross-correlation coefficients; a similarity of about 80% was found. The time required for both closing and opening of the hand exoskeleton was about 0.9 s. A rigid cylindric handlebar containing a load cell measured an average power grasp force of 94.61 N, enough to assist the user in performing most of the activities of daily living. The exoskeleton can be used as an aid and to promote motor function recovery during patient’s neurorehabilitation therapy.


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