Abstract The current study was carried out to estimate the prevalence and diversity of ectoparasites in rock pigeons in different regions of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 120 birds were captured from March 2017 to February 2019. The ectoparasites were collected by standard procedures and preserved in 70% ethanol containing one drop of glycerin. Data related to age, health status, sex, type of area, sampling location and season were collected using a standardized form. Ectoparasites were identified based on morphological characteristics by using identification keys. Ninety-six (80%) birds were infested with ectoparasites. A total of seven families and thirteen species of different ectoparasites were observed. Mainly, seven species of lice, two species of flies, one species of tick and three species of mites were recovered from infested birds. The female pigeons were more often infested (89.02%) than male pigeons (60.52%). The prevalence was found higher during summer (100%) as compared to other seasons. The infestation rate was higher in Industrial area (97.50%) as compared to other regions. The highest prevalence of ectoparasites (100%) was recorded from Sargodha district. There was significant (P < 0.05) variation among number of ectoparasites on wing, chest, tail and neck within age groups, seasons and ecological zones. The occurrence of parasites in relation to area, age, health status, sex and season were significant. The infestation rate of parasites in rock pigeon is high in different districts of Punjab. It is recommended that these wild birds infested with multiple species of ectoparasites could be the potential source of infestations in domesticated birds if they come in contact with them. The contact of domesticated birds should be prevented from wild birds to minimize the chance of cross species transmission of ectoparasites.
Abstract The objective of this study was to assess air quality in relation to vehicular traffic flow in cities located at different elevations in the Bodoquena microregion, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. To do so, a micronucleus test was carried out using the TRAD-MCN bioassay on young Tradescantia buds collected from February to November 2018 in seven cities of the microregion with different traffic flow intensities. Meteorological parameters were evaluated, and vehicular traffic was counted to determine traffic flow in each city. With data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and processing in Esri ArcGIS® software version 10.5.1, the regions was mapped based on an Elevation Model. Morphoanatomical analyses were performed according to standard methodology. Measurements were taken of thickness, length and width of tissues and structures, including the upper and lower cuticle, upper and lower epidermis, hypodermis and mesophyll. The greatest traffic flow was found in the cities of Bodoquena, Guia Lopes da Laguna, Jardim, and Porto Murtinho, with the period from 5:00 to 6:00 p.m. showing the highest traffic flow. The greatest frequency of mutagenic alterations was found in the city of Guia Lopes da Laguna, although the results did not differ significantly from Bonito, Caracol, and Jardim. Throughout the biomonitoring, the summer and autumn seasons showed the greatest micronuclei frequencies in all evaluated cities. Variations in the tissue/structure thickness was observed across cities and seasons, but with a decrease in thickness during autumn. In general, the tissues/structures were smaller for the cities of Nioaque and Porto Murtinho, while the anatomical and morphological characteristics of leaf length and thickness showed no differences among cities. We found limited correlation between micronuclei frequency and traffic flow, supporting the hypothesis that although mutagenic alterations are observed in T. pallida, in this microregion the changes are numerically lower when compared to other regions of the state. In light of the genotoxic and morphoanatomical factors assessed herein, the Bodoquena microregion appears to be well preserved in terms of air quality, presenting low micronuclei frequency and a limited reduction in tissues and leaf structures, regardless of the season.
Abstract Maydis leaf blight, caused by Bipolaris maydis, is an important disease of maize crop in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Pakistan. Fifteen isolates of the pathogen, collected across KP, were studied for variability based on phenotypic and molecular markers. Significant variability among the isolates was observed when assessed using phenotypic traits such as radial growth, spore concentration, fungicide sensitivity and virulence. The isolates were classified into six culture groups based on colour, texture and margins of the colony. Conidial morphology was also variable. These were either straight or slightly curved and light to dark brown in colour. Fungicide test showed significant variation in the degree of sensitivity against Carbendazim. Isolate Bm8 exhibited maximum radial growth on carbendazim spiked plates. Conversely, isolate Bm15 showed the lowest radial growth. Variations in virulence pattern of the isolates were evident when a susceptible maize variety Azam was inoculated with spores of B. maydis. Genetic variability amongst the isolates was also estimated by RAPD as well as sequencing of ITS region. The RAPD dendrogram grouped all the isolates into two major clusters. Average genetic distance ranged from 0.6% to 100%, indicating a diverse genetic gap among the isolates. Maximum genetic distance was found between isolates Bm9 and Bm10 as well as Bm2 and Bm8. Conversely, isolates Bm13 and Bm15 were at minimum genetic distance. Phylogenetic dendrogram based on sequencing of ITS region grouped all the isolates into a single major cluster. The clusters in both the dendrogram neither correlate to the geographical distribution nor to the morphological characteristics.
Abstract Colletotrichum is one of the most economically important fungal genera, which affects a wide range of hosts, specifically tropical and subtropical crops. Thus far, there have been several records of mycovirus infection in Colletotrichum spp., primarily by viruses of the Partitiviridae family. There have also been records of infections by mycoviruses of the Chrysoviridae family. Mycoviruses are (+)ssRNA and dsRNA genome viruses, which may or may not be enveloped. To date, no mycovirus with a DNA genome has been isolated from Colletotrichum spp. Typically, mycoviruses cause latent infections, although hypo- and hypervirulence have also been reported in Colletotrichum spp. In addition to its effects on pathogenic behavior, mycovirus infection can lead to important physiological changes, such as altered morphological characteristics, reduced vegetative growth, and suppressed conidia production. Therefore, research on mycoviruses infecting phytopathogenic fungi can help develop alternative methods to chemical control, which can cause irreversible damage to humans and the environment. From an agricultural perspective, mycoviruses can contribute to sustainable agriculture as biological control agents via changes in fungal physiology, ultimately resulting in the total loss of or reduction in the virulence of these pathogens.
Background: In the present study, we have set a goal, to study the genetic variability and phylogenetic affinities of 26 spontaneous Vicia sativa L. accessions collected in Algeria, as part of the recovery and enhancement of the local genetic heritage and its integration into the breeding and varietal creation programs. Methods: Morphological traits, performance parameters and phenological stages of each accession were tracked during an experimental test in pots under greenhouse conditions from December 29, 2019 to June 1, 2020. An eco-geographical characterization of samples was also carried out through geographical coordinates. On the other side and for the first time in Algeria, soil analyses of each site were undertaken. Result: The phylogenetic study of accessions confirm the taxonomic complexity of the group V. sativa L. According to the principal component analyses and kruskal-Wallis test, the most segregating variables with the highest values and the largest K variance ratios are most of the attributes associated with the flower, pod and seed. The association of the two dissimilarity matrix carried out by a Mantel test between the morphological and eco-geographic parameters showed a significant effect with a p value = 0.004 at the threshold of alpha=0.05 and a correlation coefficient r (AB) = 0.156.
Eucalyptus species are widely planted in the tropics and subtropics, and eucalyptus is among the most important cash crop in Southern China. One of the most important diseases on eucalyptus is Ceratocystis wilt, caused by the fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata Ellis & Halst., and the genus name Chalaropsis has been proposed for anamorphs of Ceratocystis species (de Beer et al. 2014). During April 2018, severely infected Eucalyptus robusta trees were observed in Kunming, Yunnan Province, China. Symptomatic trees initially exhibited yellowing and wilting of foliage on individual branches, then spread to the whole canopy, sometimes followed by death of the whole tree. Reddish-brown to dark-brown discoloration in the woody xylem of affected trees, sometimes a grayish white layer of fungal growth may be seen. The disease was observed on 16% of trees surveyed. The base of trunks with typical symptoms were collected, then the discolored xylem tissues were surface disinfected with 75% ethanol for 30 s and 0.1% mercuric chloride (HgCl2) solution for 2 min, rinsed three times with sterile distilled water, plated onto potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium, and incubated at 25°C. After 6 days, a fungus was consistently observed growing from the tissue. Three isolates were obtained. In culture, colonies reaching 54mm diam within 15 days, mycelium initially white, then becoming celadon. Endoconidia unicellular, smooth, cylindrical, straight, biguttulate, 11.21 - 32.26 × 4.12 - 5.25 μm. Phialides produced on short, septate, aerial hyphae, lageniform and chain of phialoconidia (3.62 - 5.89 × 31.39 - 65.76 μm) were also observed. Chlamydospores (11.45 - 14.26 × 10.06 - 12.22 μm) were single, dark, thick-walled. Morphological characteristics of the fungus were consistent with the description of Chalaropsis thielavioides (Paulin-Mahady et al. 2002). The two of three isolates were used for molecular identification and genomic DNA was extracted from isolates (EKY2-2-1, EKY2-2-2) using the chelex-100 method (Xu et al. 2020). The ITS region of rDNA was sequenced using the procedures of Thorpe et al. (2005). Analysis of ITS sequence data (GenBank accessions MW242701, MW242702) showed that the isolates were 99% - 100% homologous to isolates of C. thielavioides from Hevea rubber, Monstera deliciosa L. and ants in China and Rosa sp. in Australia (GenBank accessions KT963172, KJ511482, KT963173 and KX954598) by BLAST analysis. Neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic analysis were performed using MEGA 6.06 based on ITS sequences (Fig 1), the evolutionary distances were computed using the Maximum Composite Likelihood method. Analyses showed that both isolates (EKY2-2-1, EKY2-2-2) located on the same clade with all C. thielavioides, and clustered with the C. thielavioides strains with high bootstrap support (97% - 100%). Therefore, the fungus was identified as C. thielavioides based on morphology and molecular evidences. Pathogenicity of C. thielavioides was tested by inoculation of six one-year-old pot grown Eucalyptus citriodora seedlings. The sterilized soil of six seedlings was inoculated by drenching with 20 ml spore suspension (2.0 × 106 spores / ml). Control plants were inoculated with 20 ml of sterile distilled water. The seedlings were kept in a controlled greenhouse at 25°C and watered weekly. After one month incubation, all the isolates produced wilt symptoms, whereas control trees showed no symptoms. The original fungus was successfully re-isolated from inoculated trees and identified as C. thielavioides according to the methods described above, and no fungal growth was observed in the controls, thus satisfying Koch's postulates. Although wilt and canker caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata on eucalyptus have been previously reported in Brazil, Uruguay, Uganda, China and Pakistan (Ferreira et al. 1999; Li et al. 2014; Alam et al. 2017), eucalyptus wilt caused by C. thielavioides has not been reported anywhere. Also, wilt of rubber tree and postharvest rot on carrot caused by C. thielavioides have been reported (Li et al. 2021; Xu et al. 2020). To our knowledge, this is the first report of eucalyptus wilt caused by C. thielavioides in China.
The great success of anodic alumina membranes is due to their morphological features coupled to both thermal and chemical stability. The electrochemical fabrication allows accurate control of the porous structure: in fact, the membrane morphological characteristics (pore length, pore diameter and cell density) can be controlled by adjusting the anodizing parameters (bath, temperature, voltage and time). This article deals with both the fabrication and use of anodic alumina membranes. In particular, we will show the specific role of the addition of aluminum ions to phosphoric acid-based anodizing solution in modifying the morphology of anodic alumina membranes. Anodic alumina membranes were obtained at −1 °C in aqueous solutions of 0.4 M H3PO4 added with different amounts of Al(OH)3. For sake of completeness, the formation of PAA in pure 0.4 M H3PO4 in otherwise identical conditions was also investigated. We found that the presence of Al(OH)3 in solution highly affects the morphology of the porous layer. In particular, at high Al(OH)3 concentration (close to saturation) more compact porous layers were formed with narrow pores separated by thick oxide. The increase in the electric charge from 20 to 160 C cm−2 also contributes to modifying the morphology of porous oxide. The obtained anodic alumina membranes were used as a template to fabricate a regular array of PdCo alloy nanowires that is a valid alternative to Pt for hydrogen evolution reaction. The PdCo alloy was obtained by electrodeposition and we found that the composition of the nanowires depends on the concentration of two metals in the deposition solution.