timber species
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2022 ◽  
Vol 505 ◽  
pp. 119889
Gauthier Ligot ◽  
Sylvie Gourlet-Fleury ◽  
Kasso Dainou ◽  
Jean-François Gillet ◽  
Vivien Rossi ◽  

Coatings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 85
Kent Davis ◽  
Scott Leavengood ◽  
Jeffrey J. Morrell

Wood exposed in exterior applications degrades and changes color due to weathering and fungal growth. Wood coatings can reduce the effects of weathering by reducing the damaging effects of ultraviolet light, reducing water absorption, and slowing fungal growth on the surface. Coating performance depends on the blend of resins, oils, and pigments and varies considerably among different wood species and conditions. Specific information describing expected service for different wood species and exposure conditions is not commonly available; certain combinations may work well in one climate or on one timber species, but underperform elsewhere. This study compared the performance of three industrial wood coatings on two wood species for two temperate climates under natural weathering conditions. Most of the coatings/species combinations lost their protective properties within 12 to 15 months; however, fungal growth was more prevalent at the wetter site than at the drier site for several combinations. Film-forming coatings often peeled and cracked, while penetrating coatings weathered and changed color relatively uniformly during the study. While no coating was completely effective, the results illustrate the benefits of using coatings that promote the development of natural, uniform-patinaed wood surfaces. The findings also guide coating maintenance programs for mass timber structures exposed to natural weathering conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 951 (1) ◽  
pp. 012001
S Osman ◽  
M Ahmad ◽  
M N Zakaria ◽  
A M Zakaria ◽  
Z Ibrahim ◽  

Abstract In this paper, bending strength and physical properties (specific gravity, dimensional stability and equilibrium moisture content) of a Malaysian bamboo locally known as Beting bamboo (Gigantochloa levis) are addressed. Characterizations of physical and bending strength of G. levis in terms of the variability of location along culm height (top, middle, bottom), culm section (nodes and internodes), fiber orientation (longitudinal, tangential and radial) and culm layer (outer and inner) were conducted. Comparison of these properties is also made to some bamboo and commercial timber species. It was found that G. levis has favorable physical and mechanical properties although the specific gravity of G. levis has tendency to be on the higher side. The characteristics studied were found to have some variability at different locations, sections, and directions. There was variability in terms of bending strength along with the culm height of bamboo. It is indicated from this study that the bending strength and physical properties of G. levis were found to be satisfactory.

Maame Esi Hammond ◽  
Radek Pokorný ◽  
Simon Abugre ◽  
Augustine Gyedu

AbstractSubri River Forest Reserve (SR) is the most extensive forest area in Ghana with an accompanying rich floral species. Over the years, logging from both legally prescribed and illegal operations remain the predominant forest disturbance in SR. Gap creation following logging is crucial in determining tree species composition and diversity. Hence, the study evaluated the composition and diversity of naturally regenerated tree species in logging gaps of different sizes and, again examined the roles of these tree species in fulfilling the economic and ecological agenda of sustainable forest management after logging in SR. Twelve gaps were randomly selected: 4 each were grouped into small size (≤ 200 m2), medium size (201–300 m2), and large size (≥ 300 m2). Data were gathered from 1 m2 circular area at gap centres and repeatedly inside 1 m width strip along 20 m individual N-S-E-W transects. Species diversity differed significantly between gap sizes. Higher diversity indices were measured in large size gaps. Gap sizes shared similar species. There were significant differences among various height groupings of tree species across all three gap sizes. Pioneers preferred medium to large size gaps, while shade-tolerant tree species preferred small size gaps for their abundance. Vulnerable and Lower Risk Near Threatened tree species under Conservation Status and, Premium and Commercial tree species under Utilisation Status preferred small size gaps for their proliferation and conservation. Therefore, we recommend the single tree-based selective logging for ensuring creations of small to medium size (200–300 m2) gaps through adjustments to the logging permit process, revision of Allocation Quota Permit, strict adherence to the 40-year polycyclic selection system, along with more dedicated enforcement and monitoring. Changes along these protocols would tremendously facilitate natural regeneration of different suites of timber species resulting in the improvement of the overall biodiversity conservation associated with the forest, more sustainable forest harvests and more income to those who receive permits.

2021 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
pp. 39-50
Carlos H. Escobar Ramírez ◽  
Óscar de J. Córdoba-Gaona ◽  
Guillermo A. Correa Londoño ◽  
Enrique G. Martínez Bustamante

The expansion and modernization of the cocoa area under new strategies, such as the use of adapted genetic material and the establishment of Agroforestry Systems with cocoa, under criteria of competitiveness and sustainability, require selecting sites with adequate biophysical conditions, which facilitate the optimization of resources for production. In this sense, we conducted a study in the Estación Agraria Cotové, of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, located in a tropical dry forest life zone (TDF), at 540 meters of elevation, with an average temperature of 27 ºC, average annual precipitation annual of 1,031 mm and relative humidity less than 70 %. The yield components and productive potential of four cocoa clones, ICS 95, TSH565, CCN 51, and ICS 60, were evaluated. The cocoa clones were planted under two controlled sunlight habitats, generated by the timber species Gmelina arborea Roxb. (single-row and double-row arrangement), and two different canopy management of the cocoa plants (plagiotropic and orthotropic growth stimulus). The clones TSH 565 and CCN 51 showed the highest yields in the two harvest years. ICS 95 showed the lowest bean index. Regarding the pod index, no differences were observed between the cocoa clones. Clones TSH 565 and CCN 51 stood out as the earliest and most productive clones.

2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 26-39
B. Aryal ◽  
S. Regmi ◽  
S. Timilsina

In Nepal, scientific forest managementhas been practiced as an effective forest management technique to utilize forest resources sustainably. However, the program has faced many controversies such as intentional logging of only high-valued timber species like Shorearobusta. In addition, few believe this program is severely affecting the regeneration productivity and species diversity in the natural forests. In order to address these issues, we examinedthe regeneration condition and plant species diversity in the stands where scientific forest management operations were carried out. The data related to regeneration status and species diversity were collected using a systematic random sampling of the selected stands. Our results showed good regeneration conditions (Seedling >5000, Sapling>2000) in all the studied stands. The tree species community was dominated by S.robusta(Sal) followed by Schleicheraoleosa (Kusum) and Casia fistula (Rajbriksha). The value of diversity indices of different species varied significantly between felling series. The highest diversity was found in the second year felling series with the Simpsons Index of dominance value 0.6934 and the lowest species diversity was in the first year felling series with a value of 0.8448. It can be recommended that the regeneration felling practice has helped in promoting the regeneration condition and growth.  

Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1761
Aris Sudomo ◽  
Dewi Maharani ◽  
Dila Swestiani ◽  
Gerhard E. Sabastian ◽  
James M. Roshetko ◽  

Community forest management for timber production requires short- and long-rotation companion species to fulfill the demands of the timber industry, improve farmer welfare and maintain environmental sustainability. Four species (Falcataria moluccana, Neolamarckia cadamba, Acacia mangium and Gmelina arborea) were tested as short-rotation timber crop companion species for teak (Tectona grandis) on dry-rocky soil in the Gunungkidul community forest. The selection of short-rotation timber species was based on growth performance and survival rate at the teak site. Two years after planting, the viability of G. arborea (87.3%) and A. mangium (78.2%) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of N. cadamba (40.6%) and F. moluccana (18.0%). G. arborea and N. cadamba achieved the best growth in terms of height, diameter, basal area, and volume, with the growth of A. mangium and F. moluccana being significantly inferior. Gmelina arborea has the ability to adapt to teak sites, grow well, and accompany teak. Neolamarckia cadamba demonstrated good growth with potential as a teak companion, and it demonstrated limited drought tolerance on the dry-rocky soils of the study sites. Acacia mangium had a high survival but produced slow growth, indicating that it required an advance evaluation in future years. Falcataria moluccana has different growing site requirements to teak so the performance was relatively poor at the study site. This mixed pattern provides benefits to farmers through commercial thinning of short rotations species, 5–8 years post establishment. Thinning operations will also increase the productivity of residual teak stands. The diversification of timber species in community forests can provide earlier returns, enabling the adoption of silviculture management by smallholders and communities.

2021 ◽  
pp. 113-130
N. J. Abd Malek ◽  
R. Hassan ◽  
A. Alisibramulisi ◽  
S. M. Abdullah Alesaei ◽  
S. M. Sapuan

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0254599
Yoko Osone ◽  
Shoji Hashimoto ◽  
Tanaka Kenzo

The effects of climate change on forest ecosystems take on increasing importance more than ever. Information on plant traits is a powerful predictor of ecosystem dynamics and functioning. We reviewed the major ecological traits, such as foliar gas exchange and nutrients, xylem morphology and drought tolerance, of Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa, which are major timber species in East Asia, especially in Japan, by using a recently developed functional trait database for both species (SugiHinokiDB). Empirically, C. obtusa has been planted under drier conditions, whereas C. japonica, which grows faster but thought to be less drought tolerant, has been planted under wetter conditions. Our analysis generally support the empirical knowledge: The maximum photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, foliar nutrient content and soil-to-foliage hydraulic conductance were higher in C. japonica than in C. obtusa. In contrast, the foliar turgor loss point and xylem pressure corresponding to 50% conductivity, which indicate drought tolerance, were lower in C. obtusa and are consistent with the drier habitat of C. obtusa. Ontogenetic shifts were also observed; as the age and height of the trees increased, foliar nutrient concentrations, foliar minimum midday water potential and specific leaf area decreased in C. japonica, suggesting that nutrient and water limitation occurs with the growth. In C. obtusa, the ontogenetic shits of these foliar traits were less pronounced. Among the Cupressaceae worldwide, the drought tolerance of C. obtusa, as well as C. japonica, was not as high. This may be related to the fact that the Japanese archipelago has historically not been subjected to strong dryness. The maximum photosynthetic rate showed intermediate values within the family, indicating that C. japonica and C. obtusa exhibit relatively high growth rates in the Cupressaceae family, and this is thought to be the reason why they have been selected as economically suitable timber species in Japanese forestry. This study clearly demonstrated that the plant trait database provides us a promising opportunity to verify out empirical knowledge of plantation management and helps us to understand effect of climate change on plantation forests by using trait-based modelling.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Hailiang Hu ◽  
Zhenhao Guo ◽  
Junjie Yang ◽  
Jiebing Cui ◽  
Yingting Zhang ◽  

Cryptomeria fortunei Hooibrenk is an important fast-growing coniferous timber species that is widely used in landscaping. Recently, research on timber quality has gained substantial attention in the field of tree breeding. Wood is the secondary xylem formed by the continuous inward division and differentiation of the vascular cambium; therefore, the development of the vascular cambium is particularly important for wood quality. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptomes of the cambial zone in C. fortunei during different developmental stages using Illumina HiSeq sequencing, focusing on general transcriptome and microRNA (miRNA) data. We performed functional annotation of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the different stages identified by transcriptome sequencing and generated 15 miRNA libraries yielding 4.73 Gb of clean reads. The most common length of the filtered miRNAs was 21nt, accounting for 33.1% of the total filtered reads. We annotated a total of 32 known miRNA families. Some miRNAs played roles in hormone signal transduction (miR159, miR160, and miR166), growth and development (miR166 and miR396), and the coercion response (miR394 and miR395), and degradome sequencing showed potential cleavage sites between miRNAs and target genes. Differential expression of miRNAs and target genes and functional validation of the obtained transcriptome and miRNA data provide a theoretical basis for further elucidating the molecular mechanisms of cellular growth and differentiation, as well as wood formation in the vascular cambium, which will help improve the wood quality of C. fortunei.

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