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2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 58-134
Filip De Decker

Abstract I discuss the use of the augment in fragmentary hexametric Greek texts outside of early epic Greek (Homer, Hesiod, and the Homeric Hymns) and the mock-epic works (such as the Batrakhomyomakhia). I quote them after West 2003 but also analyze fragments that are not found in West. I determine the metrically secure forms, discuss previous scholarship on the meaning of the augment in epic Greek, and then proceed to the actual analysis. For my investigation, I divide the fragments in three categories: first, those that can be analyzed; second, those that have fewer forms and that allow for an analysis but require more caution than those of the first category; and third, the ones that have no or not enough metrically secure forms but are still intellegible. The starting point for my investigation is that the augment had near-deictic/visual-evidential meaning and that it was used in focused and highlighted passages as well as to emphasize new information. This is confirmed by the fragments, but as was the case in the larger epic corpus, there are exceptions to the rules in the Cycle as well.

2022 ◽  
Simon Young

The boggart was a much-feared, little-studied supernatural being from the north of England. Against the odds, it survives today, whether in place-names or in works of fantasy literature – not least Harry Potter. Centring on this mercurial and mysterious figure, The Boggart pioneers two methods for collecting folklore: first, the use of hundreds of thousands of words on the boggart from digitised ephemera; second, about 1,100 contemporary boggart memories that derive from social media surveys and personal interviews relating to the interwar and postwar years. Through a radical combination of this new information and an interdisciplinary approach – involving dialectology, folklore, Victorian history, supernatural history, oral history, place-name studies, sociology and more – it is possible to reconstruct boggart beliefs, experiences and tales. The boggart was not, as we have been led to believe, a ‘goblin’. Rather, this was a much more general term encompassing all solitary, and often ambivalent, supernatural beings, from killer mermaids to headless phantoms to shape-changing ghouls. In the same period that boggart beliefs were dying, folklorists continuously misrepresented the boggart and how the modern fantasy version was born of these misunderstandings. As well as offering a fresh reading of a deep seam of folklore, this book showcases some of the ways in which harnessing recent advances in digitization can offer rich and compelling rewards.

Membranes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 91
Svetlana V. Kononova ◽  
Danila A. Kuznetsov ◽  
Galina N. Gubanova ◽  
Elena V. Kruchinina ◽  
Anatoly Ya. Volkov ◽  

Polymer film membranes are used to solve specific separation problems that dictate structural requirements. Structural and morphological parameters of film membranes based on glassy polyheteroarylenes can be controlled in the process of preparation from solutions that opens up prospects for obtaining structured membranes required for targeted separation. In the case of aromatic poly(amide-imide)s, the possibility of controlling film formation and structure virtually has not been studied. In the present work, a series of homologous co-poly(amide-imide)s differing in the number of repeating units with carboxyl-substituted aromatic fragments was synthesized by polycondensation. Comparative analysis of the processes of formation of membranes with different morphologies based on these polymers under equal conditions was performed. New information was obtained about the influence of the amounts of carboxyl groups and the residual solvent on structural properties of asymmetric membranes. The influence of these factors on transport properties of dense membranes under pervaporation conditions was studied. It was demonstrated that in the case of carboxyl-containing poly(amide-imide)s, the domains formed during film preparation had a significant effect on membrane properties.

Т.П. Сабгайда ◽  
А.Н. Эделева

Проанализирована смертность лиц старше трудоспособного возраста (женщины 55+ и мужчины 60+) в условиях пандемии COVID-19 для определения потенциальной возможности её предотвращения. Использовали информацию базы данных РФС-ЕМИАС Москвы за 2019, 2020 и 2021 гг. (за периоды до 15 июня). Сделано заключение, что на фоне более корректного учета причин смерти в 2021 г., связанных с инфицированием вирусом SARS-CoV-2, вклад психических расстройств и болезней эндокринной системы в структуру причин смерти лиц старше трудоспособного возраста без учета случаев смерти от COVID-19 превышает показатели 2019 г. Рост смертности от заболеваний этих классов в значительной степени является следствием экзогенного стресса, связанного с пандемией, изоляцией лиц 65 лет и старше в начале пандемии, снижением эффективности их медико-социальной поддержки. Недостатки в организации социальной помощи лицам старших возрастных групп, слабое внедрение новых информационных технологий и носимых электронных устройств в практическую работу здравоохранения, малые масштабы общественных инициатив в области социальной помощи привели к потерям населения, которые могли бы быть предотвращены в период пандемии. The mortality of people over working age (women 55+ and men 60+) was analyzed in the context of COVID-19 pandemic in order to determine the potential for its prevention. The information from the Moscow mortality database for 2019, 2020 and 2021 (up to June 15) was used. Against the background of more correct accounting of death causes associated with SARS-CoV-2 virus infection in 2021, the contributions of mental disorders and endocrine diseases to the structure of death causes (excluding deaths from COVID-19) for people over working age are more than in 2019. The increase in mortality from diseases of these classes is largely a consequence of exogenous stress associated with a pandemic, isolation of people older 64 years and a decrease in the effectiveness of medical care. It was concluded that indirect losses from COVID-19 include avoidable mortality of elderly caused by shortcomings in organization of social assistance for them, the weak introduction of new information technologies and wearable electronic devices into the practical work of health care, small scale of public initiatives in the field of social assistance.

2022 ◽  
Tobias Kube

When updating beliefs in light of new information, people preferentially integrate information that is consistent with their prior beliefs and helps them construe a coherent view of the world. Such a selective integration of new information likely contributes to belief polarisation and compromises public discourse. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the factors that underlie biased belief updating. To this end, I conducted three pre-registered experiments covering different controversial political issues (i.e., Experiment 1: climate change, Experiment 2: speed limit on highways, Experiment 3: immigration in relation to violent crime). The main hypothesis was that negative reappraisal of new information (referred to as “cognitive immunisation”) hinders belief updating. Support for this hypothesis was found only in Experiment 2. In all experiments, the magnitude of the prediction error (i.e., the discrepancy between prior beliefs and new information) was strongly related to belief updating. Across experiments, participants’ general attitudes regarding the respective issue influenced the strength of beliefs, but not their update. The present findings provide some indication that the engagement in cognitive immunisation can lead to the maintenance of beliefs despite disconfirming information. However, by far the largest association with belief updating was with the magnitude of the prediction error.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Svetlana Mukhacheva ◽  
Yulia Davydova ◽  
Artëm Sozontov

The dataset contains records of small mammals (Eulipotyphla and Rodentia) collected in the background (unpolluted) areas in the vicinity of Karabash copper smelter (Southern Urals, Russia) and the territory of the Sultanovskoye deposit of copper-pyrite ores before the start of its development. Data were collected during the snowless periods in 2007 (18 sampling plots), 2008–2010 (13 plots annually), 2011 (30 plots) and 2012–2014 (19 plots annually). The capture of animals was carried out in different types of forests (pine, birch, mixed and floodplain), sparse birch stands, reed swamps, marshy and dry meadows, border areas, a household waste dump, areas of ruderal vegetation and a temporary camp. Our study of small mammals was conducted using trap lines (snap and live traps). During the study period, 709 specimens of small mammals were caught, which belonged to five species of shrews and 13 species of rodents. The dataset may be highly useful for studying regional fauna and the distribution of species in different habitats and could also be used as reference values for environmental monitoring and conservation activities. Our dataset contains new information on occurrences of small mammals. It includes the peculiarities of their habitat distribution in the background areas in the vicinity of the large copper smelter and the deposit of copper-pyrite ores before the start of its development (Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia). All occurrence records of 18 mammal species with georeferencing have been published in GBIF.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1009738
William Turner ◽  
Daniel Feuerriegel ◽  
Robert Hester ◽  
Stefan Bode

We often need to rapidly change our mind about perceptual decisions in order to account for new information and correct mistakes. One fundamental, unresolved question is whether information processed prior to a decision being made (‘pre-decisional information’) has any influence on the likelihood and speed with which that decision is reversed. We investigated this using a luminance discrimination task in which participants indicated which of two flickering greyscale squares was brightest. Following an initial decision, the stimuli briefly remained on screen, and participants could change their response. Using psychophysical reverse correlation, we examined how moment-to-moment fluctuations in stimulus luminance affected participants’ decisions. This revealed that the strength of even the very earliest (pre-decisional) evidence was associated with the likelihood and speed of later changes of mind. To account for this effect, we propose an extended diffusion model in which an initial ‘snapshot’ of sensory information biases ongoing evidence accumulation.

2022 ◽  
Juan Benito ◽  
Albert Chen ◽  
Laura E. Wilson ◽  
Bhart-Anjan S. Bhullar ◽  
David Burnham ◽  

Ichthyornis has long been recognized as a pivotally important fossil taxon for understanding the latest stages of the dinosaur-bird transition, but little significant new postcranial material has been brought to light since initial descriptions of partial skeletons in the 19th Century. Here, we present new information on the postcranial morphology of Ichthyornis from 40 previously undescribed specimens, providing the most detailed morphological assessment of Ichthyornis to date. The new material includes four partially complete skeletons and numerous well-preserved isolated elements, enabling new anatomical observations such as muscle attachments previously undescribed for Mesozoic euornitheans. Among the elements that were previously unknown or poorly represented for Ichthyornis, the new specimens include an almost-complete axial series, a hypocleideum-bearing furcula, radial carpal bones, fibulae, a complete tarsometatarsus bearing a rudimentary hypotarsus, and one of the first-known nearly complete three-dimensional sterna from a Mesozoic avialan. Several pedal phalanges are preserved, revealing a remarkably enlarged pes presumably related to foot-propelled swimming. Although diagnosable as Ichthyornis, the new specimens exhibit a substantial degree of morphological variation, some of which may relate to ontogenetic changes. Phylogenetic analyses incorporating our new data and employing alternative morphological datasets recover Ichthyornis stemward of Hesperornithes and Iaceornis, in line with some recent hypotheses regarding the topology of the crownward-most portion of the avian stem group, and we establish phylogenetically-defined clade names for relevant avialan subclades to help facilitate consistent discourse in future work. The new information provided by these specimens improves our understanding of morphological evolution among the crownward-most non-neornithine avialans immediately preceding the origin of crown group birds.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Maria DeYoreo ◽  
Carolyn M. Rutter ◽  
Jonathan Ozik ◽  
Nicholson Collier

Abstract Background Microsimulation models are mathematical models that simulate event histories for individual members of a population. They are useful for policy decisions because they simulate a large number of individuals from an idealized population, with features that change over time, and the resulting event histories can be summarized to describe key population-level outcomes. Model calibration is the process of incorporating evidence into the model. Calibrated models can be used to make predictions about population trends in disease outcomes and effectiveness of interventions, but calibration can be challenging and computationally expensive. Methods This paper develops a technique for sequentially updating models to take full advantage of earlier calibration results, to ultimately speed up the calibration process. A Bayesian approach to calibration is used because it combines different sources of evidence and enables uncertainty quantification which is appealing for decision-making. We develop this method in order to re-calibrate a microsimulation model for the natural history of colorectal cancer to include new targets that better inform the time from initiation of preclinical cancer to presentation with clinical cancer (sojourn time), because model exploration and validation revealed that more information was needed on sojourn time, and that the predicted percentage of patients with cancers detected via colonoscopy screening was too low. Results The sequential approach to calibration was more efficient than recalibrating the model from scratch. Incorporating new information on the percentage of patients with cancers detected upon screening changed the estimated sojourn time parameters significantly, increasing the estimated mean sojourn time for cancers in the colon and rectum, providing results with more validity. Conclusions A sequential approach to recalibration can be used to efficiently recalibrate a microsimulation model when new information becomes available that requires the original targets to be supplemented with additional targets.

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