Introduction. The demand for honeysuckle berries and planting material is growing. Clonal micropropagation is the most effective method for industrial plantations. The research objective was to study the effect of cytokinins and auxins on Russian and Canadian honeysuckle microshoots and roots.
Study objects and methods. The study featured regenerated honeysuckle (Lonicera edulis Turcz.) of three Russian cultivars (Bakcharsky Velikan, Doch Velikana, Yugana) and two Canadian cultivars (Boreal Beauty, Boreal Beast). The experiment focused on the effect of sterilizing agents and sterilization time on the viability of honeysuckle explants at the stage of culture introduction in vitro. The effect of the growth regulator Cytodef in the QL nutrient medium on organogenesis was studied at the stage of micropropagation proper, the effect of auxin IBA on plant root formation – at the stage of rooting in vitro.
Results and discussion. The greatest viability of honeysuckle explants (80–94%) was registered in the samples affected by Lizoformin 3000 (5%) and silver nitrate (0.2%) as sterilizing agents with a sterilization time of 10 min at the stage of in vitro culture introduction. The biggest quantity (8.8 pcs.) and total length (40.1 cm) of microshoots were observed when the content of cytokinin Cytodef in the culture medium QL was 0.3 mg/L at the stage micropropagation proper. The Boreal Beast cultivar had the largest total length of shoots (29.0 cm). The biggest quantity (5.5 pcs.) and total length (30.8 cm) of roots resulted from 0.5 mg/L of auxin IBA at the stage of rooting in vitro. Coconut substrate produced the highest survival rate (92–99%) at the stage of adaptation to non-sterile conditions in vivo, with the greatest number of leaves (8.1–10.2 pcs.) observed in Canadian cultivars.
Conclusion. Cytodef and IBA proved to be effective growth-regulating substances for microplants of Russian and Canadian honeysuckle cultivars in vitro, which makes them promising for berry plantations.
Milk and other products from large mammals have emerged during human evolution as an important source of nutrition. Recently, it has been recognized that exogenous miRNAs (mRNA inhibited RNA) contained in milk and other tissues of the mammalian body can enter the human body, which in turn have the ability to potentially regulate human metabolism by affecting gene expression. We studied for exogenous miRNAs from Bos taurus that are potentially contain miRNAs from milk and that could act postprandially as regulators of human gene expression. The interaction of 17,508 human genes with 1025 bta-miRNAs, including 245 raw milk miRNAs was studied. The milk bta-miR-151-5p, bta-miR-151-3p, bta-miRNA-320 each have 11 BSs (binding sites), and bta-miRNA-345-5p, bta-miRNA-614, bta-miRNA-1296b and bta-miRNA-149 has 12, 14, 15 and 26 BSs, respectively. The bta-miR-574-5p from cow’s milk had 209 human genes in mRNAs from one to 25 repeating BSs. We found 15 bta-miRNAs that have 100% complementarity to the mRNA of 13 human target genes. Another 12 miRNAs have BSs in the mRNA of 19 human genes with 98% complementarity. The bta-miR-11975, bta-miR-11976, and bta-miR-2885 BSs are located with the overlap of nucleotide sequences in the mRNA of human genes. Nucleotide sequences of BSs of these miRNAs in 5′UTR mRNA of human genes consisted of GCC repeats with a total length of 18 nucleotides (nt) in 18 genes, 21 nt in 11 genes, 24 nt in 14 genes, and 27–48 nt in nine genes. Nucleotide sequences of BSs of bta-miR-11975, bta-miR-11976, and bta-miR-2885 in CDS mRNA of human genes consisted of GCC repeats with a total length of 18 nt in 33 genes, 21 nt in 13 genes, 24 nt in nine genes, and 27–36 nt in 11 genes. These BSs encoded polyA or polyP peptides. In only one case, the polyR (SLC24A3 gene) was encoded. The possibility of regulating the expression of human genes by exogenous bovine miRNAs is discussed.
AbstractWe used optical coherence tomography (OCT) to analyze the "half-moon" like phenomenon and its characteristics and observe 1-year follow-up of the in-stent restenosis (ISR) incidence after the drug eluted stent (DES) implantation in patients with the myocardial bridge (MB). Patients were retrospectively analyzed from January 2013 to December 2019. We used OCT to check 45 patients with MB and found a visible muscle layer (VML) around the vessel adventitia with the same or high density compared to the vessel media layer. There was not any significant difference in maximal thickness, maximal arch, and total length between the half-moon layer and the visible muscle layer groups (p > 0.05). Maximal thickness, arch, and total length of the half-moon layer were significantly positively related to VML, respectively (r = 0.962, 0.985, 0.742, p < 0.01). Of these 626 patients with MB seen by OCT, only 300 could be checked out by coronary angiography (CAG). Besides, the larger the thickness and arch of the VML around the vessel adventitia, the more severe the MB in these patients (p < 0.05). After the OCT use, there was no coronary perforation in these patients with MB covered with DES. After 1-year follow-up, ISR in MB covered with DES showed a notable difference among no MB, mild MB, moderate MB, and severe MB groups (p < 0.05), and ISR in DES aggravated with the MB severity. However, ISR in MB with and without covered with DES had no significant difference among the 4 groups (p > 0.05). OCT could evaluate MB characteristics accurately compared to IVUS and had a higher rate of detecting MB than CAG. Moreover, it is safe and effective to guide DES covering the mild MB segment in patients with severe coronary lesions detected by the OCT.
The generalized length-length relationships of Chanda nama ((Hamilton, 1822) belongs to Ambassidae were studied separately for a period of a calendar year collected from the Old Brahmaputra River, Mymensingh, Bangladesh for male, female and combined populations. A total of 1170 specimens were examined where 599 were male and 571 were female. The standard length, fork length and total length of male ranged from 19 to 79 mm, from 23 to 90 mm, and 28 to 100 mm respectively. The standard length, fork length and total length of female were found from 15 to 81 mm, 24 to 89 mm, and from 29 to 100 mm respectively. The generalized relationships of standard length and fork length, fork length and total length, and standard length and total length of male, female and combined populations were FL = 1.08 SL+1.41, TL = 1.11 FL + 1.54 and TL = 1.20 SL+2.81; FL = 1.09 SL+1.23, TL = 1.12 FL+1.04 and TL = 1.22 SL+2.22; and FL = 1.09 SL+1.20, TL = 1.11 FL+1.27 and TL = 1.22 SL+2.38 respectively. The coefficient of determination (R2) revealed high values in all regression analyses. In length–length relationships, the coefficient of determination (R2) ranged from 0.973-0.990. The present findings of this study will be helpful for a well-organized and significant exploitation and regulation of the Chanda nama fishery in the Old Brahmaputra River and surrounding ecosystems.
Res. Agric., Livest. Fish.8(3): 339-347, December 2021
Consensus and sex-specific genetic linkage maps for large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) were constructed using samples from an F1 family produced by crossing a Daiqu female and a Mindong male. A total of 20,147 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by restriction site associated DNA sequencing were assigned to 24 linkage groups (LGs). The total length of the consensus map was 1757.4 centimorgan (cM) with an average marker interval of 0.09 cM. The total length of female and male linkage map was 1533.1 cM and 1279.2 cM, respectively. The average female-to-male map length ratio was 1.2 ± 0.23. Collapsed markers in the genetic maps were re-ordered according to their relative positions in the ASM435267v1 genome assembly to produce integrated genetic linkage maps with 9885 SNPs distributed across the 24 LGs. The recombination pattern of most LGs showed sigmoidal patterns of recombination, with higher recombination in the middle and suppressed recombination at both ends, which corresponds with the presence of sub-telocentric and acrocentric chromosomes in the species. The average recombination rate in the integrated female and male maps was respectively 3.55 cM/Mb and 3.05 cM/Mb. In most LGs, higher recombination rates were found in the integrated female map, compared to the male map, except in LG12, LG16, LG21, LG22, and LG24. Recombination rate profiles within each LG differed between the male and the female, with distinct regions indicating potential recombination hotspots. Separate quantitative trait loci (QTL) and association analyses for growth related traits in 6 months fish were performed, however, no significant QTL was detected. The study indicates that there may be genetic differences between the two strains, which may have implications for the application of DNA-information in the further breeding schemes.
Additional material collected in September 2019 made it possible to clarify the range of conchological variability of Harmozica zangezurica recently described from the Syunik region of Armenia, which largely overlaps with that of Harmozica pisiformis thus rendering impossible the reliable identification of empty shells. At the same time the stability has been proven of a diagnostic feature of H. zangezurica - very long vaginal appendages whose length is approximately equal to the total length of the penis and epiphallus. This character allows reliable distinguishing of H. zangezurica not only from the conchologically similar species H. pisiformis , but also from other representatives of the genus Harmozica . Some data on the ecology and life cycle of H. zangezurica were obtained.
Abstract The present study was conducted for the taxonomic, morphometric and limnological assessment of the commercially important ichthyofauna of Sakhakot Stream, Malakand, Pakistan. The study area was divided into three sites along the water course namely Dargai Stream, Sakhakot Stream and Shergarh Stream. Fish samples were collected randomly during January to August 2017 with the help of fish gears. A taxonomic key was designed for the collected fish specimens. Ten fish species were identified belonging to 3 orders and 4 families. Family Cyprinidae was the dominant family with seven representative species while families Siluridae, Nemacheilidae and Mastacembelidae were represented by one species each. Lower mean total length and standard length was recorded in Puntius conchonius (Hamilton, 1822) as 9.2 ± 0.6 cm and 7.3 ± 0.6 cm respectively, while highest mean total length and standard length was recorded in Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepede, 1800) as 28.1 ± 1.7 cm and 15.9 ± 2.4 cm respectively. Mean pH of the water ranged from 6.1 at Shergarh Stream in August to 8.7 at Sakhakot Stream in January. Average temperature range was recorded from 10.9 °C in January at Dargai Stream to 18.7 °C in August at Shergarh Stream. No statistically significant difference was found for temperature (p = 0.96) and pH (p = 0.14) in the three water streams. The present study will provide a baseline for the rearing and enhancement of wild stock of the commercially important ichthyofauna in the field of aquaculture and fisheries.
Abstract Salmo trutta fario is the most important fish species of family Salmonidae inhibited in cool waters all over the world including the nortern parts of Pakistan. This study was aimed to find out the prey selection and feeding habits of the species. One hundred and eighty five Salmo trutta fario were captured from March 2016 to April 2017. Feeding intensity as represented by a fullness index (FI), changing with various length groups and season. Out of 185 Brown trout 24 fish stomaches were found empty. The most important and common food items of brown trout were Brachycentridae, Blepharocera, Hydropsychidae, ephemerella spp. Kruskal Wallis H-test were applied on feeding intensity groups consisting of three month group. The test statistic for K.W-H-test were (H=8.13 with df =3) had a p-value of 0.043 < (alpha=0.05 indicates favor of the alternative hypothesis of at least one difference among the feeding intensity groups. The linear relationship of N with index of relative importance and %IRI denoted by least square regression line (N = 35.2 + 22.1%IRI), shows that for 22 prey there is 1% change in IRI. The relationship between total length (mm) and fish body weight (gm) is expressed by Pearson correlation coefficient (r = 0.976), showed that total length (mm) and fish body weight (gm.) is highly correlated. Descriptive statistics are used for the stomach fullness, which shows that feeding intensity was recorded higher from March to May. A total of 2289 preys was recorded including the most common were; Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae, Brachycentridae, diptera, blepharocera, ephemerala, chironomida, honey bees, grass hopper, locust, trout egg, trochanter, plant tissue, stones were retrieved from the gut contents of brown trout. According to index of relative importance IRI% four preys represents major components of the diet. The highest IRI% was recorded in Brachycentridae (39.38%), followed by blepharocera (13.23%), Hydropsychidae (10.76%) and ephemerella spp (8.28%). The relationship between IRI and FO is (r =0.556) is moderately correlated with coefficient of determination (r2=0.31). This study will help in the development of an artificial diet for the species for better growth performance in captivity.
The Nguru spiny pygmy chameleon (Rhampholeon acuminatus) is endemic to the Nguru mountains in Tanzania. It is assessed as Critically Endangered and is collected from the wild for the pet trade. An ex-situ population of this species was recently established at The Wild Planet Trust, Paignton Zoo, in the hope of learning more about the husbandry and biology of this species. We report on the captive husbandry of adults and the successful breeding, hatching and rearing of juveniles. Females carried four eggs but laid them in pairs. When eggs were incubated at 19.2-22.8 °C, hatchlings emerged roughly 180 days after laying. The hatchlings had a total length of about 30 mm and weighed 0.2-0.3 g. To our knowledge, this is the first published account of captive breeding for this species. The husbandry methods described could be used to establish populations of this and other Rhampholeon species in captivity, which in turn would reduce the demand for wild caught (Rhampholeon), as well as inform future conservation breeding programmes for this species.
In comparison to other nations, the Nepalese information on the reproductive biology of hill-stream fish is limited. So, the purpose of the present study was to provide information related to reproductive biology of a hill-stream sucker throat catfish Pseudecheneis sulcata from the snow-fed Tamor River, Nepal. The study was carried out from June 2018 to May 2019. A total of 57 female fish was collected. The fecundity of 22 females was assessed, while the gonadosomatic index was determined using all the collected samples. The absolute fecundity ranged from 2,316 to 7,597 eggs, with an average of 3,660 ± 210. This range of absolute fecundity indicates that Pseudecheneis sulcata is a moderately fecund fish when compared to certain low fecund species and some exceptionally fecund fish with tens of thousands of eggs. Relative fecundity ranged from 65.47 to 129.11 with a mean of 88.98 ± 4.35. The present study demonstrated that absolute fecundity was moderately correlated with total length (r = 0.45) and strongly linked with body weight (r = 0.78), and ovary weight (r = 0.80). Mean gonadosomatic index (GSI) was recorded the highest in January (15.7 ± 1.22%), and showed a decrease in the subsequent month of February (10.3 ± 0.75%), March (6.25 ± 0.28%) and April (1.66 ± 0.40%). The trends of GSI might have indicated that the sucker throat catfish was a batch spawner, with spawning season occuring between January and March.