tissue loss
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Michael S. Studivan ◽  
Ashley M. Rossin ◽  
Ewelina Rubin ◽  
Nash Soderberg ◽  
Daniel M. Holstein ◽  

Stony coral tissue loss disease (SCTLD) was first observed in 2014 near Virginia Key in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Field sampling, lab experiments, and modeling approaches have suggested that reef sediments may play a role in SCTLD transmission, though a positive link has not been tested experimentally. We conducted an ex situ transmission assay using a statistically-independent disease apparatus to test whether reef sediments can transmit SCTLD in the absence of direct contact between diseased and healthy coral tissue. We evaluated two methods of sediment inoculation: batch inoculation of sediments collected from southeast Florida using whole colonies of diseased Montastraea cavernosa, and individual inoculations of sediments following independent, secondary infections of ∼5 cm2 coral fragments. Healthy fragments of the coral species Orbicella faveolata and M. cavernosa were exposed to these diseased sediment treatments, as well as direct disease contact and healthy sediment controls. SCTLD transmission was observed for both batch and individual diseased sediment inoculation treatments, albeit with lower proportions of infected individuals as compared to disease contact controls. The time to onset of lesions was significantly different between species and among disease treatments, with the most striking infections occurring in the individual diseased sediment treatment in under 24 h. Following infection, tissue samples were confirmed for the presence of SCTLD signs via histological examination, and sediment subsamples were analyzed for microbial community variation between treatments, identifying 16 SCTLD indicator taxa in sediments associated with corals experiencing tissue loss. This study demonstrated that reef sediments can indeed transmit SCTLD through indirect exposure between diseased and healthy corals, and adds credence to the assertion that SCTLD transmission occurs via an infectious agent or agents. This study emphasizes the critical need to understand the roles that sediment microbial communities and coastal development activities may have on the persistence of SCTLD throughout the endemic zone, especially in the context of management and conservation strategies in Florida and the wider Caribbean.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  

BACKGROUND Disruptions to the integrity of the inner table and trabeculae of the calvaria are rare phenomena. Increasingly rare is the phenomenon of herniation of brain parenchyma through the defects in the skull causing neurological deficit. Surgical intervention is commonly performed but is fraught with risk of brain tissue loss. OBSERVATIONS The authors present a case of a 78-year-old White male presenting with strokelike symptoms who was found to have an intradiploic encephalocele that was successfully treated with surgical intervention and neuroplastic reconstruction of the anatomical deficit. The patient had a marked recovery and had near-complete resolution of symptoms. LESSONS This notably rare phenomenon resolved with neurosurgical intervention, sparing the parenchyma, and provided the patient with perceivably normal contour of the head using a collaborative approach with neuroplastic intervention.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Stephanie M. Rosales ◽  
Lindsay K. Huebner ◽  
Abigail S. Clark ◽  
Ryan McMinds ◽  
Rob R. Ruzicka ◽  

The epizootic disease outbreak known as stony coral tissue loss disease (SCTLD) is arguably the most devastating coral disease in recorded history. SCTLD emerged off the coast of South Florida in 2014 and has since moved into the Caribbean, resulting in coral mortality rates that have changed reef structure and function. Currently, the cause of SCTLD is unknown, but there is evidence from 16S rRNA gene sequencing and bacterial culture studies that the microbial community plays a role in the progression of SCTLD lesions. In this study, we applied shotgun metagenomics to characterize the potential function of bacteria, as well as the composition of the micro-eukaryotic community, associated with SCTLD lesions. We re-examined samples that were previously analyzed using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing from four coral species: Stephanocoenia intersepta, Diploria labyrinthiformis, Dichocoenia stokesii, and Meandrina meandrites. For each species, tissue from apparently healthy (AH) corals, and unaffected tissue (DU) and lesion tissue (DL) on diseased corals, were collected from sites within the epidemic zone of SCTLD in the Florida Keys. Within the micro-eukaryotic community, the taxa most prominently enriched in DL compared to AH and DU tissue were members of Ciliophora. We also found that DL samples were relatively more abundant in less energy-efficient pathways like the pentose phosphate pathways. While less energy-efficient processes were identified, there were also relatively higher abundances of nucleotide biosynthesis and peptidoglycan maturation pathways in diseased corals compared to AH, which suggests there was more bacteria growth in diseased colonies. In addition, we generated 16 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) belonging to the orders Pseudomonadales, Beggiatoales, Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales, Rs-D84, Flavobacteriales, and Campylobacterales, and all MAGs were enriched in DL samples compared to AH samples. Across all MAGs there were antibiotic resistance genes that may have implications for the treatment of SCTLD with antibiotics. We also identified genes and pathways linked to virulence, such as nucleotide biosynthesis, succinate dehydrogenase, ureases, nickel/iron transporters, Type-1 secretion system, and metalloproteases. Some of these enzymes/pathways have been previously targeted in the treatment of other bacterial diseases and they may be of interest to mitigate SCTLD lesion progression.

2022 ◽  
pp. 104311
Mahesh Thirunavukkarasu ◽  
Seetur R. Pradeep ◽  
Gopi Ukani ◽  
Salim Abunnaja ◽  
Mark Youssef ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 26-43
Fabrizio Belleggia ◽  

<abstract> <p>Vertical ridge defects (VRD) of the jaws often require both bone and keratinized mucosa (KM) reconstruction. A new staged procedure is proposed to restore both hard and soft tissues in the VRD through a case report. A patient required the lower right second premolar and first molar rehabilitation. The first surgery aimed to restore the bone architecture through the use of a titanium reinforced dense-PTFE (TR-dPTFE) membrane, positioned and stabilized on top of tenting screws. This membrane didn't cover the whole defect, it just created an hard top that avoided the collapse of a collagen membrane that was placed over it. This resorbable membrane was stabilized with tacks and covered the whole defect, protecting a mixture of autogenous bone and porcine xenograft both lingually and buccally. The second surgery was performed after a 5 month healing time either to remove the tenting screws and the TR-dPTFE membrane, and to augment KM with a gingival graft harvested from the palate. Both regenerated hard and soft tissues were left to mature for 7 months before the third surgery. In this last stage implants insertion and healing abutments application were carried out in a straightforward way, since bone and KM had been previously restored. Two bone samples, harvested for histologic evaluation, stated a great amount of new bone formation. This new approach allowed inserting implants in matured and stable regenerated bone and augmented KM, avoiding the hard and soft tissue loss around implant neck that can affect the VRD treatments during healing.</p> </abstract>

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
pp. 247154922110631
Sunita RP Mengers ◽  
Derrick M Knapik ◽  
John Strony ◽  
Grant Nelson ◽  
Evan Faxon ◽  

Background During shoulder arthroplasty with substantial bone and soft tissue loss, reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) with a tumor prosthesis may restore function, reduce pain, and improve implant fixation. Methods Thirteen adult patients undergoing RSA using a tumor prosthesis system were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative visual analog score (VAS), single assessment numeric evaluation (SANE), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, simple shoulder test (SST), and forward flexion were compared to latest follow up. Postoperative radiographs and complications were recorded. Results Mean age at surgery was 68.4 years. Eight patients had undergone at least 1 prior operation on the indicated shoulder. Six patients required wide excision of proximal humerus tumor. At mean of 34 months postoperatively, significant improvements were noted in VAS ( P = .03) and ASES score ( P = .04). Active forward elevation was 81.1 degrees. For all patients, postoperative radiographs demonstrated satisfactory alignment. Complications occurred in 38% of patients, with 31% requiring reoperation. Conclusion In cases of failed shoulder arthroplasty with excessive bone and soft tissue loss or substantial tumor burden, RSA with a tumor prosthesis can reduce pain levels and improve functional outcomes. However, forward elevation remains limited, and postoperative complications are a concern.

2021 ◽  
Vol 72 (2) ◽  
pp. 289-302

Abstract Sophora japonica is a source of several flavonol, flavone and isoflavone glycosides that are reported to positively affect menopausal symptoms including osteoporotic complications. In the present study fructus Sophorae extract (FSE) was administered orally for three months at a dose of 200 mg kg–1 in ovariectomized (OVX) New Zealand rabbits. 3D computed tomography scans and histopathological images revealed microstructural disturbances in the bones of the castrated animals. FSE recovered most of the affected parameters in bones in a manner similar to zoledronic acid (ZA) used as a positive control. The aglycones of the main active compounds of FSE, daidzin, and genistin, were docked into the alpha and beta estrogen receptors and stable complexes were found. The findings of this study provide an insight into the effects of FSE on bone tissue loss and suggest that it could be further developed as a potential candidate for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporotic complications.

Pablo S. Corona ◽  
Carla Carbonell-Rosell ◽  
Matías Vicente ◽  
Jordi Serracanta ◽  
Kevin Tetsworth ◽  

Abstract Introduction Managing critical-sized tibial defects is one of the most complex challenges orthopedic surgeons face. This is even more problematic in the presence of infection and soft-tissue loss. The purpose of this study is to describe a comprehensive three-stage surgical protocol for the reconstruction of infected tibial injuries with combined bone defects and soft-tissue loss, and report the clinical outcomes. Materials and methods A retrospective study at a specialized limb reconstruction center identified all patients with infected tibial injuries with bone and soft-tissue loss from 2010 through 2018. Thirty-one patients were included. All cases were treated using a three-stage protocol: (1) infected limb damage control; (2) soft-tissue coverage with a vascularized or local flap; (3) definitive bone reconstruction using distraction osteogenesis principles with external fixation. Primary outcomes: limb salvage rate and infection eradication. Secondary outcomes: patient functional outcomes and satisfaction. Results Patients in this series of chronically infected tibias had been operated upon 3.4 times on average before starting our limb salvage protocol. The mean soft-tissue and bone defect sizes were 124 cm2 (6–600) and 5.4 cm (1–23), respectively. A free flap was performed in 67.7% (21/31) of the cases; bone transport was the selected bone-reconstructive option in 51.7% (15/31). Local flap failure rate was 30% (3/10), with 9.5% for free flaps (2/21). Limb salvage rate was 93.5% (29/31), with infection eradicated in all salvaged limbs. ASAMI bone score: 100% good/excellent. Mean VAS score was 1.0, and ASAMI functional score was good/excellent in 86% of cases. Return-to-work rate was 83%; 86% were “very satisfied” with the treatment outcome. Conclusion A three-stage surgical approach to treat chronically infected tibial injuries with combined bone and soft-tissue defects yields high rates of infection eradication and successful limb salvage, with favorable functional outcomes and patient satisfaction.

2021 ◽  
pp. 104063872110642
Kevin D. Niedringhaus ◽  
Laken S. Ganoe ◽  
Matthew Lovallo ◽  
W. David Walter ◽  
Michael J. Yabsley ◽  

The Taeniidae tapeworms are a family of helminths that have a similar life cycle, with intermediate hosts developing characteristic cysts in visceral organs. We describe here a case in Pennsylvania, USA, of fatal Versteria infection in a muskrat ( Ondatra zibethicus), which, to our knowledge, has not been reported to develop disease associated with infection. Postmortem examination revealed widespread tissue loss and replacement by solid-bodied cestode larvae with minimal adjacent inflammation in many visceral organs, most severe in the lungs, liver, and brain. Key morphologic features via histology included cephalic structures and short rostellar hooklets, which are characteristic for the genus. Genetic characterization confirmed the cestode as being an undescribed lineage of Versteria that has been implicated as the cause of severe morbidity and mortality in humans and nonhuman primates in North America. Considering the zoonotic significance of this pathogen, our report expands on the limited literature regarding disease caused by Versteria and emphasizes the need to identify the causative tapeworm more accurately, especially in rodent intermediate hosts given that previous reports do not have molecular confirmation of species.

2021 ◽  
samuel klistorner ◽  
Michael Barnett ◽  
Stuart Graham ◽  
Chenyu Wang ◽  
Alexander Klistorner

Background and Objectives: Expansion of chronic lesions in MS patients and recently described CSF-related gradient of tissue damage are linked to microglial activation. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether lesion expansion is associated with proximity to ventricular CSF spaces. Methods: Pre- and post-gadolinium 3D-T1, 3D FLAIR and diffusion tensor images were acquired from 36 RRMS patients. Lesional activity was analysed between baseline and 48 months at different distances from the CSF using successive 1-mm thick concentric rings radiating from the ventricles. Results: Voxel-based analysis of the rate of lesion expansion demonstrated a clear periventricular gradient decreasing away from the ventricles. This was particularly apparent when lesions of equal diameter were analysed. Periventricular lesional tissue showed higher degree of tissue distraction at baseline that significantly increased during follow-up in rings close to CSF. This longitudinal change was proportional to degree of lesion expansion. Lesion-wise analysis revealed a gradual, centrifugal decrease in the proportion of expanding lesions from the immediate periventricular zone. Discussion: Our data suggest that chronic white matter lesions in close proximity to the ventricles are more destructive, show a higher degree of expansion at the lesion border and accelerated tissue loss in the lesion core.

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