conservation strategies
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
H. Ul-Hassan ◽  
S. Mahboob ◽  
Z. Masood ◽  
M. N. Riaz ◽  
S. Rizwan ◽  

Abstract This study was conducted to estimate the diversity and the occurrence of commercially important finfish species collected by twenty fish sampling site of Sindh and Baluchistan coasts of the Arabian Sea in Pakistan from January to December 2019. Additionally, physicochemical characteristics of seawater were analyzed from these selected sites and found to be within suitable ranges required for fish growth and survive. A total of 81287 fish individuals were collected and identified as 49 species belonging to 26 families in our study. The most diversified family was Sparidae (13 species) followed by Carangidae and Lutjanidae (4 species), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 species), and Sciaenidae (2 species). The remaining 20 families were represented by only one species. The values of Shannon diversity index calculated for the four selected habitats revealed that high fish diversity was reported at Sonmiani Coast (H'=1.81), while less at Ormara Coast (H'=0.23). Likewise, Evenness index (E) was high at Sonmiani Coast (E=0.50) and less fish diversity was reported at Ormara Coast (E=0.06). Reducing risks to threatened marine species in coastal habitats also requires conservation actions at multiple scales. Thus, it was concluded that our study could be valuable in providing the more information’s regarding to the diversity of finfish species and their occurrence along the Pakistan Coast. Further, to better understand the effects, regular monitoring and conservation measures should be taken to mitigate the influence of anthropogenic activities and protect finfish diversity from further decline

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 883-888
Ayodhya Cardoso Ramalho ◽  
Rafael Felipe da Costa Vieira ◽  
Max Bruno Magno Bacalhao ◽  
Monica Tiemi Aline Kakimori ◽  

Parasitic infections are important concern to the Wildlife Conservation Biology, particularly in endangered species. Herein, we report a parasitism by Dipetalonema gracile Rudolphi, 1809 (Spirurida, Filarioidea, Onchocercidae), in the peritoneal cavity of a captive Marcgrave’s capuchin monkey (Sapajus flavius) that died at the Wild Animal Screening Center (CETAS) of the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA) in the municipality of Cabedelo, state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. The necropsy revealed two filarial worms D. gracile in the abdominal cavity. Exudates, thin fibrin layers and fibrous adhesions were also present in the mesentery and spleen capsule. The mesenteric, mandibular, and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were enlarged. Multiple small nodules were seen in the spleen parenchyma. Microscopic examination of the lymph nodes and spleen revealed markedly and diffuse inflammatory reaction, with edema, plasma cells, eosinophils, histiocytes, lymphocytes and rare multinuclear giant cells, with obliteration of the normal histological architecture of the organ. This is the first report of D. gracile parasitism in Marcgrave’s capuchin monkeys, a critically endangered species. Studies of this nature significantly contribute to the knowledge of the parasitic fauna of endangered species, in addition to helping to formulate conservation strategies (in situ and ex situ) and records of new hosts and new areas of occurrence of parasites.

2022 ◽  
Vol 194 (2) ◽  
Łukasz Walas ◽  
Asma Taib

AbstractClustering methods based on environmental variables are useful in the planning of conservation strategies for species and ecosystems. However, there is a lack of work on the regionalization of the vast space of North Africa and the distribution of plant species. The current lists of endemic plants are focused mostly on an occurrence at the country level and not on regions with different conditions. The aim of this work was to lay out an environmental scheme for northwest Africa and to collect data about the occurrence of endemic plants in this area. Clustering with 12 of 33 tested environmental rasters was performed to divide the Maghreb into environmental clusters. Then, a list of 1618 endemic plant taxa (1243 species and 375 subspecies) was prepared and their distribution in estimated environmental clusters was examined. Eleven clusters with different conditions were estimated. The main drivers of regionalization were temperature amplitude, precipitation seasonality, and precipitation of the warmest quarter. According to the occurrence of endemic plants, northwest Africa may be divided into three zones: Atlas, Mediterranean (two environmental clusters), and southern zone (eight environmental clusters). The presented results provide a good basis for understanding the spatial patterns of the Maghreb, including its environment and species diversity. A designed list of endemic plant species together with environmental data may facilitate the planning of future research in north Africa and arranging methods of biodiversity protection.

Nitrogen ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 26-42
Jacynthe Dessureault-Rompré ◽  
Alexis Gloutney ◽  
Jean Caron

Few conservation strategies have been applied to cultivated peatland. This field study over one growth cycle of Lactuca sativa examined the effect of plant-based, high-C/N-ratio amendments in a real farming situation on peatland. Plant Root Simulator (PRS®) probes were used directly in the field to assess the impacts of incorporating Miscanthus x giganteus straw and Salix miyabeana chips on nutrient availability for lettuce. The results showed that lettuce yield decreased by 35% in the miscanthus straw treatment and by 14% in the willow chip treatment. In addition, the nitrogen flux rate was severely reduced during crop growth (75% reduction) and the plant N uptake index was much lower in the amended treatments than in the control. The phosphorus supply rate was also significantly lower (24% reduction) in the willow treatment. The influence of sampling zone was significant as well, with most macro-nutrients being depleted in the root zone and most micro-nutrients being mobilized. Additional work is needed to optimize the proposed conservation strategy and investigate the effects of consecutive years of soil amendment on different vegetable crops and in different types of cultivated peatlands to confirm and generalize the findings of this study. Future field studies should also explore the long-term carbon dynamics under plant-based, high-C/N-ratio amendments to determine if they can offset annual C losses.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
E. Lester ◽  
T. Langlois ◽  
I. Lindgren ◽  
M. Birt ◽  
T. Bond ◽  

AbstractQuantifying the drivers of population size in reef sharks is critical for the development of appropriate conservation strategies. In north-west Australia, shark populations inhabit coral reefs that border growing centres of human population, industry, and tourism. However, we lack baseline data on reef sharks at large spatial scales (hundreds of km) that might enable managers to assess the status of shark populations in the face of future development in this region. Here, we examined the occurrence, abundance and behaviour of apex (Galeocerdo cuvier, Carcharhinus plumbeus) and reef (C. amblyrhynchos, C. melanopterus, Triaenodon obesus) sharks using > 1200 deployments of baited remote underwater stereo-video systems (stereo-BRUVs) across > 500 km of coastline. We found evidence for species-specific influences of habitat and fishing activities on the occurrence (probability of observation), abundance (MaxN) and behaviour of sharks (time of arrival to the stereo-BRUVs and likelihood of feeding). Although the presence of management zoning (No-take areas) made little difference to most species, C. amblyrhynchos were more common further from boat ramps (a proxy of recreational fishing pressure). Time of arrival for all species was also influenced by distance to boat ramp, although patterns varied among species. Our results demonstrate the capacity for behavioural metrics to complement existing measures of occurrence and abundance in assessing the potential impact of human activities on shark populations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Michael S. Studivan ◽  
Ashley M. Rossin ◽  
Ewelina Rubin ◽  
Nash Soderberg ◽  
Daniel M. Holstein ◽  

Stony coral tissue loss disease (SCTLD) was first observed in 2014 near Virginia Key in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Field sampling, lab experiments, and modeling approaches have suggested that reef sediments may play a role in SCTLD transmission, though a positive link has not been tested experimentally. We conducted an ex situ transmission assay using a statistically-independent disease apparatus to test whether reef sediments can transmit SCTLD in the absence of direct contact between diseased and healthy coral tissue. We evaluated two methods of sediment inoculation: batch inoculation of sediments collected from southeast Florida using whole colonies of diseased Montastraea cavernosa, and individual inoculations of sediments following independent, secondary infections of ∼5 cm2 coral fragments. Healthy fragments of the coral species Orbicella faveolata and M. cavernosa were exposed to these diseased sediment treatments, as well as direct disease contact and healthy sediment controls. SCTLD transmission was observed for both batch and individual diseased sediment inoculation treatments, albeit with lower proportions of infected individuals as compared to disease contact controls. The time to onset of lesions was significantly different between species and among disease treatments, with the most striking infections occurring in the individual diseased sediment treatment in under 24 h. Following infection, tissue samples were confirmed for the presence of SCTLD signs via histological examination, and sediment subsamples were analyzed for microbial community variation between treatments, identifying 16 SCTLD indicator taxa in sediments associated with corals experiencing tissue loss. This study demonstrated that reef sediments can indeed transmit SCTLD through indirect exposure between diseased and healthy corals, and adds credence to the assertion that SCTLD transmission occurs via an infectious agent or agents. This study emphasizes the critical need to understand the roles that sediment microbial communities and coastal development activities may have on the persistence of SCTLD throughout the endemic zone, especially in the context of management and conservation strategies in Florida and the wider Caribbean.

Fred Tremblay ◽  
Shannon Whelan ◽  
Emily S. Choy ◽  
Scott A. Hatch ◽  
Kyle H. Elliott

Breeding is costly for many animals, including birds that must deliver food to a central place (i.e. nest). Measuring energy expenditure throughout the breeding season can provide valuable insights on physiological limitations by highlighting periods of high demands, and ultimately allows to improve conservation strategies. However, quantifying energy expenditure in wildlife can be challenging, as existing methods do not measure both active (e.g. foraging) and resting energy costs across short and long time scales. Here, we develop a novel method for comparing active and resting costs in 66 pre-breeding and breeding seabirds (black-legged kittiwakes; Rissa tridactyla) by combining accelerometry and triiodothyronine (T3), as proxies for active and resting costs, respectively. Activity energy costs were higher during incubation (p=0.0004) and chick-rearing (p<0.0001) compared to pre-laying, due to an increase in time spent in flight of 11% (p=0.0005) and 15% (p<0.0001), respectively. Levels of T3, reflecting resting costs, peaked marginally during incubation with an average concentration of 4.71±1.97 pg mL−1 in comparison to 2.66±1.30 pg mL−1 in pre-laying (p=0.05), and 3.16±2.85 pg mL−1 in chick-rearing (p=11). Thus, although chick-rearing is often assumed to be the costliest breeding stage by multiple studies, our results suggest that incubation could be more costly due to high resting costs. We highlight the importance of accounting for both active and resting costs when assessing energy expenditure.

2022 ◽  
Denbel Bedo ◽  
Abate Mekuriaw ◽  
Amare Bantider

Abstract Abijata-Shalla Park was established as one of Ethiopia's national parks to safeguard wetlands and ecosystem services (ESs). Some of the ESs that are offered by the wetlands are currently depleting and disappearing rather than being protected. Understanding the drivers behind these changes can help individuals and policymakers design mitigation measures. The objective of this case was to assess ESs and the drivers of change with highlighting on the Abijata wetland. In addition to a household survey and group discussion, personal interviews and field observation were employed to collect data. Using these data, the various ESs were assessed and ranked from 1-10 according to local perception. Grading scales such as very high (−2), high (−1), neutral (0), low (+1), and very low (+2) were employed to analyse the drivers of ESs change. Analyses of the study revealed that some of the ESs, including fish, papyrus, water reeds, hunting and spiritual services, existed before 1991, but have since disappeared from the site. Twenty ESs are available; 11 services pertain to provisioning, followed by 4 regulating, 3 cultural and 2 supporting services. Wetland for cultivation ranked highest, followed by domestic water supply and pasture. All services, with the exception of arable land and pasture, are on the decline. Water abstraction is the primary driver of ESs change, followed by population growth and deforestation. The park existed as a "paper park." Water withdrawals from the Ziway-Shalla sub-basin should be restricted. Instead, focus on water conservation strategies to make better use of abstracted water.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
Pierre Scemama ◽  
Esther Regnier ◽  
Fabian Blanchard ◽  
Olivier Thébaud

In 2016, the French government adopted a law for biodiversity, setting an objective of protecting 55,000 hectares of mangroves. This objective is particularly important to French Guiana, which shelters almost 60% of French mangrove ecosystems, and where mangroves occupy three quarters of the coastline. The coast of French Guiana is also where issues associated with demographic and economic dynamics concentrate. There is thus a need to plan for an economic development that is compatible with the objective of protecting mangrove ecosystems. Ecosystem services (ES) assessment can support such decision-making, informing on the costs and benefits associated with alternative mangrove conservation strategies. While the many services provided by mangrove ecosystems are well documented worldwide, the extent to which these can be encountered in the specific case of French Guiana is currently only very partially known. Relying on the Fuzzy cognitive mapping (FCM) approach, we collected and compared the perception of multiple and heterogeneous groups of stakeholders, of the functioning of the mangrove social-ecological system at the scale of French Guiana. Results, allow to identify mangroves ES and threats particularly influenced by the high sedimentary dynamism of the shoreline. This generates two distinct components of the mangrove social-ecological system: mud banks where ecosystem services are spatially and temporally unstable, and associated with perceived constraints for key coastal activities, and estuarine mangroves where the ecosystem services usually described in the literature on mangroves can be found. Disservices associated with mangrove ecosystems were also identified as a key interaction. This can inform the research needs that should support sustainable development trajectories, fully accounting for the protection of French Guianese mangrove ecosystems.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262481
Bethan Mason ◽  
Alex K. Piel ◽  
David Modrý ◽  
Klára J. Petrželková ◽  
Fiona A. Stewart ◽  

Human disturbance is an ongoing threat to many wildlife species, manifesting as habitat destruction, resource overuse, or increased disease exposure, among others. With increasing human: non-human primate (NHP) encounters, NHPs are increasingly susceptible to human-introduced diseases, including those with parasitic origins. As such, epidemiology of parasitic disease is becoming an important consideration for NHP conservation strategies. To investigate the relationship between parasite infections and human disturbance we studied yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) living outside of national park boundaries in western Tanzania, collecting 135 fresh faecal samples from nine troops occupying areas with varying levels of human disturbance. We fixed all samples in 10% formalin and later evaluated parasite prevalence and abundance (of isotrichid ciliates and Strongylida). We identified seven protozoan and four helminth taxa. Taxa showed varied relationships with human disturbance, baboon troop size and host age. In four taxa, we found a positive association between prevalence and troop size. We also report a trend towards higher parasite prevalence of two taxa in less disturbed areas. To the contrary, high levels of human disturbance predicted increased abundance of isotrichid ciliates, although no relationship was found between disturbance and Strongylida abundance. Our results provide mixed evidence that human disturbance is associated with NHP parasite infections, highlighting the need to consider monitoring parasite infections when developing NHP conservation strategies.

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