gene therapy
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2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 46-49
Author(s):  
Junbo Luo ◽  
Xuejun Li

ABSTRACT Introduction: Using gene therapy to transfer specific genes to implant therapeutic proteins into damaged tissues is a more promising way to treat sports injuries. The combination of tissue engineering and gene therapy will potentially promote the regeneration and repair of various damaged tissues. Objective: This article explores the adaptive relationship between gene selection therapy and athletes in sports. Methods: We selected students of related majors in sports schools to conduct specific genetic testing and measure the muscle area, fatigue level, muscle damage, and other related indicators before and after exercise. Results: After a series of physical fitness assessments, an increase in the gene sequence, as well as changes in the biochemical indices, were confirmed Conclusions: The muscle gain of the test subject during training is better than other genotypes. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jing Liu ◽  
David A. Dean

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating clinical syndrome that leads to acute respiratory failure and accounts for over 70,000 deaths per year in the United States alone, even prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. While its molecular details have been teased apart and its pathophysiology largely established over the past 30 years, relatively few pharmacological advances in treatment have been made based on this knowledge. Indeed, mortality remains very close to what it was 30 years ago. As an alternative to traditional pharmacological approaches, gene therapy offers a highly controlled and targeted strategy to treat the disease at the molecular level. Although there is no single gene or combination of genes responsible for ARDS, there are a number of genes that can be targeted for upregulation or downregulation that could alleviate many of the symptoms and address the underlying mechanisms of this syndrome. This review will focus on the pathophysiology of ARDS and how gene therapy has been used for prevention and treatment. Strategies for gene delivery to the lung, such as barriers encountered during gene transfer, specific classes of genes that have been targeted, and the outcomes of these approaches on ARDS pathogenesis and resolution will be discussed.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Edward E Large ◽  
Mark A Silveria ◽  
Tommi A White ◽  
Michael S Chapman

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a small ssDNA satellite virus of high interest (in recombinant form) as a safe and effective gene therapy vector. AAV's human cell entry receptor (AAVR) contains Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) domains bound by AAV. Seeking understanding of the spectrum of interactions, goat AAVGo.1 is investigated, because its host is the species most distant from human with reciprocal cross-species cell susceptibility. The structure of AAVGo.1, solved by cryo-EM to 2.9 Å resolution, is most similar to AAV5. Through ELISA studies, it is shown that AAVGo.1 binds to human AAVR (huAAVR) more strongly than do AAV2 or AAV5, and that it joins AAV5 in a class that binds exclusively to PKD domain 1 (PKD1), in contrast to other AAVs that interact primarily with PKD2. The AAVGo.1 cryo-EM structure of a complex with a PKD12 fragment of huAAVR at 2.4 Å resolution shows PKD1 bound with minimal change in virus structure, except for disordering of a neighboring surface loop. Only 4 of the 42 capsid protein sequence differences between AAVGo.1 and AAV5 occur at the PKD1 binding interface. These result in only minor conformational changes in AAVR, including a near rigid domain rotation with maximal displacement of the receptor by ~1 Å. A picture emerges of two classes of AAV with completely different modes of binding to the same AAVR receptor, but within each class atomic interactions are mostly conserved. IMPORTANCE Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) is a small ssDNA satellite parvovirus. As a recombinant vector with a protein shell encapsidating a transgene, recombinant AAV (rAAV) is a leading delivery vehicle for gene therapy with two FDA-approved treatments and 150 clinical trials for 30 diseases. The human entry receptor huAAVR has five PKD domains. To date, all serotypes, except AAV5, have interacted primarily with the second PKD domain, PKD2. Goat is the AAV host most distant from human with cross-species cell infectivity. AAVGo.1 is similar in structure to AAV5, the two forming a class with a distinct mode of receptor-binding. Within the two classes, binding interactions are mostly conserved, giving an indication of the latitude available in modulating delivery vectors.


2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ashley L. Cooney ◽  
Jennifer A. Wambach ◽  
Patrick L. Sinn ◽  
Paul B. McCray

Pulmonary surfactant is critically important to prevent atelectasis by lowering the surface tension of the alveolar lining liquid. While respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is common in premature infants, severe RDS in term and late preterm infants suggests an underlying genetic etiology. Pathogenic variants in the genes encoding key components of pulmonary surfactant including surfactant protein B (SP-B, SFTPB gene), surfactant protein C (SP-C, SFTPC gene), and the ATP-Binding Cassette transporter A3 (ABCA3, ABCA3 gene) result in severe neonatal RDS or childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD). These proteins play essential roles in pulmonary surfactant biogenesis and are expressed in alveolar epithelial type II cells (AEC2), the progenitor cell of the alveolar epithelium. SP-B deficiency most commonly presents in the neonatal period with severe RDS and requires lung transplantation for survival. SFTPC mutations act in an autosomal dominant fashion and more commonly presents with chILD or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis than neonatal RDS. ABCA3 deficiency often presents as neonatal RDS or chILD. Gene therapy is a promising option to treat monogenic lung diseases. Successes and challenges in developing gene therapies for genetic disorders of surfactant dysfunction include viral vector design and tropism for target cell types. In this review, we explore adeno-associated virus (AAV), lentiviral, and adenoviral (Ad)-based vectors as delivery vehicles. Both gene addition and gene editing strategies are compared to best design treatments for lung diseases resulting from pathogenic variants in the SFTPB, SFTPC, and ABCA3 genes.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 819
Author(s):  
Sherif G. Ahmed ◽  
Casey A. Maguire ◽  
Shiliang Alice Cao ◽  
Gary J. Brenner

Schwannomas are tumors derived from Schwann-lineage cells, cells that protect and support myelinated nerves in the peripheral nervous system. They are typically slow-growing, encapsulated and benign. These tumors develop along peripheral, spinal and cranial nerves causing pain, sensory-motor dysfunction and death. Primary treatment for schwannoma is operative resection which can be associated with significant morbidity. Pharmacotherapy is largely restricted to bevacizumab, which has minimal or no efficacy for many patients and can be associated with treatment-limiting adverse effects. Given the suffering and morbidity associated with schwannoma and the paucity of therapeutic options, there is an urgent need for safe and effective therapies for schwannomas. We previously demonstrated that adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) vector mediated delivery of the inflammasome adaptor protein, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) under the control of the P0 promoter, produced a prolonged reduction in tumor volume and tumor-associated pain in human xenograft and mouse syngeneic schwannoma models. Here, we present data essential for the translation of our AAV1-P0-ASC schwannoma gene therapy to clinical trials. We determine the minimum effective dose of AAV1-P0-hASC required to induce an anti-tumor effect in the xenograft human-schwannoma model. We also show that the presence of preexisting AAV1 immunity does not alter the antitumor efficacy of AAV-P0-mASC in a syngeneic mouse schwannoma model. Furthermore, the maximum deliverable intratumoral dose of AAV1-P0-ASC was not associated with neuronal toxicity in immunocompetent mice. Taken together, these safety and efficacy data support the translation of the AAV1-P0-ASC schwannoma gene therapy strategy to clinical trials.


Author(s):  
Xin Chen ◽  
Thomas Dong ◽  
Yuhui Hu ◽  
Frances C. Shaffo ◽  
Nandkishore R. Belur ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Grant M Zane ◽  
Mark A Silveria ◽  
Nancy L Meyer ◽  
Tommi A White ◽  
Michael S Chapman

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is the vector of choice for several approved gene therapy treatments and is the basis for many ongoing clinical trials. Various strains of AAV exist (referred to as serotypes), each with their own transfection characteristics. Here, we present a high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure (2.2 Å) for AAV serotype 4 (AAV4). The receptor responsible for transduction of the AAV4 clade of AAV viruses (including AAV11, 12 and rh32.33) is unknown. Other AAVs interact with the same cell receptor, Adeno-associated virus receptor (AAVR), in one of two different ways. AAV5-like viruses interact exclusively with the polycystic kidney disease-like [PKD]-1 domain of AAVR while most other AAVs interact primarily with the PKD2 domain. A comparison of the present AAV4 structure with prior corresponding structures of AAV5, AAV2 and AAV1 in complex with AAVR, provides a foundation for understanding why the AAV4-like clade is unable to interact with either PKD1 or PKD2. The conformation of the AAV4 capsid in variable regions I, III, IV and V on the viral surface appears to be sufficiently different from AAV2 to ablate binding with PKD2. Differences between AAV4 and AAV5 in variable region VII appear sufficient to exclude binding with PKD1.


Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 168
Author(s):  
Christopher F. van der Walle ◽  
Christine Dufès ◽  
Arpan S. Desai ◽  
Julie Kerby ◽  
Joanne Broadhead ◽  
...  

With the launch of the UK Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products Focus Group in late 2020, a webinar series reviewing the current and emerging trends in cell and gene therapy was held virtually in May 2021. This webinar series was timely given the recent withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union and the global COVID-19 pandemic impacting all sectors of the pharmaceutical sciences research landscape globally and in the UK. Delegates from the academic, industry, regulatory and NHS sectors attended the session where challenges and opportunities in the development and clinical implementation of cell and gene therapies were discussed. Globally, the cell and gene therapy market has reached a value of 4.3 billion dollars in 2020, having increased at a compound annual growth rate of 25.5% since 2015. This webinar series captured all the major developments in this rapidly evolving area and highlighted emerging concepts warranting cross-sector efforts from across the community in the future.


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