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JAMA ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 326 (11) ◽  
pp. 999
Bridget M. Kuehn

2021 ◽  
Tania Lincoln ◽  
Björn Schlier ◽  
Felix Strakeljahn ◽  
Brandon Gaudiano ◽  
Suzanne So ◽  

Abstract Understanding factors driving vaccine hesitancy is crucial to vaccination success. We surveyed adults (N = 2510) from February to March 2021 across five sites (Australia = 502, Germany = 516, Hong Kong = 445, UK = 512, USA = 535) using a cross-sectional design and stratified quota sampling for age, sex, and education. We assessed willingness to take a vaccine and a comprehensive set of putative predictors. Predictive power was analysed with regression analyses and machine learning algorithms. Only 57.4% of the participants indicated that they would definitely or probably get vaccinated. A parsimonious machine-learning model could identify vaccine hesitancy with high accuracy (i.e. 83% sensitivity and 82% specificity) using 10 variables only. The most relevant predictors were vaccination conspiracy beliefs, paranoid concerns related to the pandemic, COVID anxiety, high perceived risk of infection, low perceived social rank, lower age, and female gender. Campaigns seeking to increase vaccine uptake need to take mistrust as the main driver of vaccine hesitancy into account.

2021 ◽  
pp. sextrans-2021-055111
Paraskevas Filippidis ◽  
Katyuska Francini ◽  
Martine Jacot-Guillarmod ◽  
Patrice Mathevet ◽  
Loïc Lhopitallier ◽  

BackgroundWomen and girls are relatively under-represented across the HIV treatment cascade. Two conditions unique to women, pregnancy and cervical cancer/dysplasia, share a common acquisition mode with HIV. This scoping review aimed to explore HIV testing practices in voluntary termination of pregnancy (TOP) and colposcopy services.MethodsThe scoping review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews. We searched articles published up to 20 December 2020 using three electronic databases (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Google Scholar) and including the keywords “HIV Testing”, “Abortion, Induced”, “Colposcopy”, “HIV screen*” and “termination of pregnancy”.ResultsA total of 1496 articles were identified, of which 55 met the inclusion criteria. We included studies providing background HIV prevalence in addition to prevalence in the study population and studies of women seeking TOP rather than presenting with TOP complications. This limited our review to high-income, low HIV prevalence settings. We observed two study phases: studies pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) using unlinked anonymous testing data and examining HIV risk factors associated with positive HIV tests and studies post-ART using routine testing data and exploring HIV testing uptake. HIV prevalence was estimated at >0.2% in most TOP settings and >1% (range 1.7%–11.4%) in colposcopy services. Many TOP providers did not have local HIV testing policies and HIV testing was not mentioned in many specialist guidelines. Testing uptake was 49%–96% in TOP and 23%–75% in colposcopy services.ConclusionGiven the estimated HIV prevalence of >0.1% among women attending TOP and colposcopy services, HIV testing would be economically feasible to perform in high-income settings. Explicit testing policies are frequently lacking in these two settings, both at the local level and in specialist guidelines. Offering HIV testing regardless of risk factors could normalise testing, reduce late HIV presentation and create an opportunity for preventive counselling.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0257590
Maria Kyprianidou ◽  
Eleana Tzira ◽  
Petros Galanis ◽  
Konstantinos Giannakou

Introduction Vaccine hesitancy is identified as one of the top threats to global health. A significant drop of childhood vaccine coverage is reported worldwide. One of the key reasons that influenced mothers’ choice to postpone, or avoid children’s vaccination, is knowledge. This study aimed to assess the level of Cypriot mothers’ knowledge on certain aspects of vaccination of their children, examine the association between vaccination knowledge and selected socio-demographic factors, and lastly assess the association of mothers’ knowledge about vaccination with vaccination coverage and delay, compliance to the recommended schedules, vaccination during pregnancy and mother-pediatrician relationship. Methods An online-based cross-sectional study conducted to collect information about socio-demographic characteristics, child’s characteristics, vaccination, and vaccine knowledge, using a self-administered questionnaire. The survey was conducted between April 2020 and June 2020 and the study population included mothers over 18 years old with at least one child (<18 years old) living in Cyprus. Results A total of 703 Cypriot mothers participated in the study. Most of the participants stated that they vaccined their children (97%) and the most popular source of information about vaccination was their pediatrician (90%). More than half of the participants (57%) have delayed their child/children vaccination with their pediatrician’s suggestion being the main reason. 36% of mothers had low knowledge while the overall correct rate was 13.6% and the median (IQR) knowledge score was 11 (9–12). Having a medium knowledge about vaccination was associated with having a medium or high income, whilst high knowledge compared to low knowledge was associated with completed a higher education and having a high income. Our analysis showed that the correct knowledge by mothers with regards to vaccination increases the probability of vaccinating their children, following the local recommendations for vaccine dosages, and acquiring and trusting vaccination-related information from their children’s pediatrician. Conclusion Our findings show that the majority of mothers in Cyprus had positives perceptions regarding childhood vaccination, as reflected with the high vaccination rate, however, some aspects of mothers’ knowledge of vaccination need to be improved. Public health strategies to promote vaccination, education programs as well as improved communication tools between pediatricians and mothers need to be considered to achieve favorable vaccination attitudes and practices for all mothers in Cyprus.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Michael U. Anyanwu

Abstract Background The number of persons infected with COVID-19 continues to increase with deaths reported daily across the globe. High income countries such as the US, the UK, Italy and Belgium have reported high COVID-19 related deaths but low-and-middle-income countries have recorded fewer deaths despite having poor healthcare system. This study aimed to investigate the association between malaria prevalence and COVID-19 mortality. Methods An ecological study was conducted with data from 195 countries. Spearman’s correlation was used to test the association between the population variables and COVID-19 mortality. Generalized linear model with Poisson distribution was used to determine the significant predictors of COVID-19 mortality. Results There was a significant positive correlation between median age, life expectancy, 65+ mortality and COVID-19 mortality while malaria prevalence, sex ratio and cardiovascular mortality were negatively correlated with COVID-19 mortality. Malaria prevalence, life expectancy and mortality rate were significant on multivariate regression analysis. Conclusion The results of this study support the hypotheses that there are reduced COVID-19 deaths in malaria endemic countries, although the results need to be proved further by clinical trials.

PLoS Medicine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (9) ◽  
pp. e1003795
Jacob R. Lepard ◽  
Riccardo Spagiari ◽  
Jacquelyn Corley ◽  
Ernest J. Barthélemy ◽  
Eliana Kim ◽  

Background The recent Lancet Commission on Legal Determinants of Global Health argues that governance can provide the framework for achieving sustainable development goals. Even though over 90% of fatal road traffic injuries occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) primarily affecting motorcyclists, the utility of helmet laws outside of high-income settings has not been well characterized. We sought to evaluate the differences in outcomes of mandatory motorcycle helmet legislation and determine whether these varied across country income levels. Methods and findings A systematic review and meta-analysis were completed using the PRISMA checklist. A search for relevant articles was conducted using the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases from January 1, 1990 to August 8, 2021. Studies were included if they evaluated helmet usage, mortality from motorcycle crash, or traumatic brain injury (TBI) incidence, with and without enactment of a mandatory helmet law as the intervention. The Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to rate study quality and funnel plots, and Begg’s and Egger’s tests were used to assess for small study bias. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were stratified by high-income countries (HICs) versus LMICs using the random-effects model. Twenty-five articles were included in the final analysis encompassing a total study population of 31,949,418 people. There were 17 retrospective cohort studies, 2 prospective cohort studies, 1 case–control study, and 5 pre–post design studies. There were 16 studies from HICs and 9 from LMICs. The median NOS score was 6 with a range of 4 to 9. All studies demonstrated higher odds of helmet usage after implementation of helmet law; however, the results were statistically significantly greater in HICs (OR: 53.5; 95% CI: 28.4; 100.7) than in LMICs (OR: 4.82; 95% CI: 3.58; 6.49), p-value comparing both strata < 0.0001. There were significantly lower odds of motorcycle fatalities after enactment of helmet legislation (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.61; 0.83) with no significant difference by income classification, p-value: 0.27. Odds of TBI were statistically significantly lower in HICs (OR: 0.61, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.69) than in LMICs (0.79, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.86) after enactment of law (p-value: 0.0001). Limitations of this study include variability in the methodologies and data sources in the studies included in the meta-analysis as well as the lack of available literature from the lowest income countries or from the African WHO region, in which helmet laws are least commonly present. Conclusions In this study, we observed that mandatory helmet laws had substantial public health benefits in all income contexts, but some outcomes were diminished in LMIC settings where additional measures such as public education and law enforcement might play critical roles.

Healthcare ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (9) ◽  
pp. 1221
Zahra Pasdar ◽  
Tiberiu A. Pana ◽  
Kai D. Ewers ◽  
Weronika A. Szlachetka ◽  
Jesus A. Perdomo-Lampignano ◽  

Reliance on government-led policies have heightened during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further research on the policies associated with outcomes other than mortality rates remains warranted. We aimed to determine associations between government public health policies on the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic. This ecological study including countries reporting ≥25 daily COVID-related deaths until end May 2020, utilised public data on policy indicators described by the Blavatnik school of Government. Associations between policy indicators and severity of the pandemic (mean mortality rate, time to peak, peak deaths per 100,000, cumulative deaths after peak per 100,000 and ratio of mean slope of the descending curve to mean slope of the ascending curve) were measured using Spearman rank-order tests. Analyses were stratified for age, income and region. Among 22 countries, containment policies such as school closures appeared effective in younger populations (rs = −0.620, p = 0.042) and debt/contract relief in older populations (rs = −0.743, p = 0.009) when assessing peak deaths per 100,000. In European countries, containment policies were generally associated with good outcomes. In non-European countries, school closures were associated with mostly good outcomes (rs = −0.757, p = 0.049 for mean mortality rate). In high-income countries, health system policies were generally effective, contrasting to low-income countries. Containment policies may be effective in younger populations or in high-income or European countries. Health system policies have been most effective in high-income countries.

Elena Carrillo-Álvarez ◽  
Blanca Salinas-Roca ◽  
Lluís Costa-Tutusaus ◽  
Raimon Milà-Villarroel ◽  
Nithya Shankar Krishnan

The measurement of food insecurity is essential to monitor the prevalence, risk factors, consequences and effects of food insecurity and the interventions and policies implemented to tackle it. Yet, how best to apply it remains an unsettled issue due to the multifaceted and context-dependent nature of food insecurity. We report a scoping review of measures of food insecurity at the individual and household level in high-income countries with the final purpose of facilitating a catalogue of instruments to be used by both researchers and practitioners. The scoping review was conducted following the methodological framework of Arksey and O’Malley and the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. We included all types of documents published between 2000–2020 using instruments that estimate food insecurity at both individual and household level in high-income countries, and with respondents including adolescents, adults, and elderly. We identified a total of 23 measurement strategies being used in 33 peer-reviewed publications and 114 documents from the grey literature. Our results show that most measures focus on the access dimension of food insecurity and that further research is required to develop measures that incorporate aspects of quality of dietary intake and relevant individual, household and social conditions related to food insecurity.

Children ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (9) ◽  
pp. 818
Salima Al Maamari ◽  
Saleh Al Shammakhi ◽  
Ibtisam Alghamari ◽  
Jana Jabbour ◽  
Ayoub Al-Jawaldeh

Despite proven benefits, most countries fail to meet international targets for appropriate complementary and Breast Feeding (BF) practices. This study assessed feeding practices of children under two years of age and correlated them with family parameters in Oman, a high income country in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Methods: Data from this study originated from the latest Oman National Nutrition Survey (ONNS). Assessment of children and their mothers’ socioeconomic, anthropometric, and nutritional variables was conducted at the household level. Evaluated feeding practices included age appropriate BF, diet diversity, and minimum acceptable diet (MAD). Results: Pairs of mothers and infants (n = 1344) were assessed. Early BF, exclusive BF at 6 months, infant formula, and iron rich meals were provided to 81, 29, 44, and 84% of children, respectively. Age appropriate BF and MAD were found in 58% and 35% of children, respectively. Low maternal education, younger age, low household income, and governorate negatively affected diet acceptability. Conclusion: Omani children successfully received early BF postpartum and consumed iron rich meals. Yet, rates of exclusive BF rates at six months and MAD for children under two were low. Comprehensive strategies should be placed to assess and influence children feeding practices in the Sultanate.

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