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Eder A. S. Sá ◽  
Ildegardis Bertol ◽  
Silvio L. Rafaeli Neto ◽  
Daiane T. Schier

ABSTRACT Water erosion is influenced by climate, soil, soil cover and soil conservation practices. These factors can be modified by natural (especially climate) and/or anthropogenic (especially soil, soil cover and conservation practices) actions. The relief factor also influences the water erosion and can also be partially modified by anthropic action. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of anthropogenic action due to the introduction of soil crop in no-tillage system on water erosion, and on the consequent flow of sediments in the water. The study was carried out in the Marombas river basin with an area of 3,939 km², using the Soil Water Assessment Tools (SWAT) model. The calibration and validation of the model for sediment production was carried out with a historical series of synthetic data. The data from this series were estimated by linear regression from sediment value load and the average daily flow obtained punctually in the basin’s outlet. The SWAT model was calibrated on a daily scale with data from 1979 to 1989 and was validated with data from 1994 and 1997. The SWAT model was suitable to represent the average daily flow and sediment flow in the Marombas watershed. The hypothesis of reduced sediment production with increasing soil crop in no-tillage system was accepted.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Dai Zhang ◽  
Wen Tang ◽  
Li-Yang Dou ◽  
Jia Luo ◽  
Ying Sun

Abstract Background Frail patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) face a higher risk of adverse outcomes, but there is no clear consensus on which frailty measures are most suitable for COPD patients. Herein we evaluated the ability of frailty measurements in predicting 1-year acute exacerbation, hospitalization, and mortality in older patients with COPD. Methods A total of 302 patients [median age: 86 years (IQR: 80–90), 22.2% female] were admitted to the Department of Geriatric Medicine were prospectively enrolled in this study. Frailty status was assessed using the Fried Frailty Phenotype (FFP), Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), Frailty Index of Accumulative Deficits (FI-CD), and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Cox proportional hazard regression and Poisson regression were used to evaluating the association of the adverse outcomes with frailty as assessed using the four instruments. The discrimination accuracy of these tools in predicting the 1-year all-cause mortality was also compared. Results Prevalence of frailty ranged from 51% (using FFP) to 64.2% (using CFS). The four frail instruments were associated with 1-year mortality. After an average follow-up time of 2.18 years (IQR: 1.56–2.62 years), frailty as defined by four instruments (except for FI-CD), was associated with death [FFP: Hazard ratio (HR) = 3.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30–7.44; CFS: HR = 3.68, 95% CI 1.03–13.16; SPPB: HR = 3.74, 95% CI 1.39–10.06). Frailty was also associated with acute exacerbation (using FFP) and hospitalization (using FFP, CFS, and FI-CD). Frail showed a moderate predictive ability [area under the curve ranging (AUC) 0.70–0.80] and a high negative predictive value (0.98–0.99) for 1-year mortality. Conclusions With the four different frailty assessment tools, frailty was associated with poor prognosis in older patients with stable COPD. The FFP, CFS, FI-CD, and SPPB instruments showed similar performance in predicting 1-year mortality.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Peter Eric Heinze ◽  
Florian Weck ◽  
Franziska Kühne

Despite the positive effects of including patients’ preferences into therapy on psychotherapy outcomes, there are still few thoroughly validated assessment tools at hand. We translated the 18-item Cooper-Norcross Inventory of Preferences (C-NIP) into German and aimed at replicating its factor structure. Further, we investigated the reliability of the questionnaire and its convergence with trait measures. A heterogeneous sample of N = 969 participants took part in our online survey. Performing ESEM models, we found acceptable model fit for a four-factor structure similar to the original factor structure. Furthermore, we propose an alternative model following the adjustment of single items. The German C-NIP showed acceptable to good reliability, as well as small correlations with Big-Five personality traits, trait and attachment anxiety, locus of control, and temporal focus. However, we recommend further replication of the factor structure and further validation of the C-NIP.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Qing Gu ◽  
Jian Meng ◽  
Xue Hu ◽  
Jun Ge ◽  
Sui Jun Wang ◽  

AbstractThe vital role of insulin resistance (IR) in the pathogenesis of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) has been expounded at the theoretical level. However, research on the correlation between some specific IR indicators and ISH is still rare, especially at different glycemic statuses. We conducted this study to explore the association between three IR indicators and ISH among young and middle-aged adults with normal fasting plasma glucose (NFG). This large cross-sectional study included 8246 young and middle-aged men with NFG and diastolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg. The homeostasis model assessment for IR (HOMA-IR) index, triglyceride glucose (TyG) index, and the metabolic score for IR (METS-IR) were calculated with the corresponding formula. The proportions of ISH among young and middle-aged men were 6.7% and 4.4%, respectively. After fully adjusting, only HOMA-IR rather than TyG and METS-IR was significantly associated with ISH. Moreover, fully adjusted smooth curve fitting showed that the association between HOMA-IR and ISH were approximately linear in both two age groups (P for non-linearity were 0.047 and 0.430 in young and middle-aged men, respectively). Among young and middle-aged men with NFG, using HOMA-IR instead of noninsulin-dependent IR indicators may have advantages in the hierarchical management of ISH. Further longitudinal research may be needed to determine their potential causal relationship.

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 360-376
Manik Chahal ◽  
Brian Thiessen ◽  
Caroline Mariano

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults, and over half of patients with newly diagnosed GBM are over the age of 65. Management of glioblastoma in older patients includes maximal safe resection followed by either radiation, chemotherapy, or combined modality treatment. Despite recent advances in the treatment of older patients with GBM, survival is still only approximately 9 months compared to approximately 15 months for the general adult population, suggesting that further research is required to optimize management in the older population. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) has been shown to have a prognostic and predictive role in the management of older patients with other cancers, and domains of the CGA have demonstrated an association with outcomes in GBM in retrospective studies. Furthermore, the CGA and other geriatric assessment tools are now starting to be prospectively investigated in older GBM populations. This review aims to outline current treatment strategies for older patients with GBM, explore the rationale for inclusion of geriatric assessment in GBM management, and highlight recent data investigating its implementation into practice.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Emily J. Rugel ◽  
Clara K. Chow ◽  
Daniel J. Corsi ◽  
Perry Hystad ◽  
Sumathy Rangarajan ◽  

Abstract Background By 2050, the global population of adults 60 + will reach 2.1 billion, surging fastest in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). In response, the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed indicators of age-friendly urban environments, but these criteria have been challenging to apply in rural areas and LMIC. This study fills this gap by adapting the WHO indicators to such settings and assessing variation in their availability by community-level urbanness and country-level income. Methods We used data from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study’s environmental-assessment tools, which integrated systematic social observation and ecometrics to reliably capture community-level environmental features associated with cardiovascular-disease risk factors. The results of a scoping review guided selection of 18 individual indicators across six distinct domains, with data available for 496 communities in 20 countries, including 382 communities (77%) in LMIC. Finally, we used both factor analysis of mixed data (FAMD) and multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) approaches to describe relationships between indicators and domains, as well as detailing the extent to which these relationships held true within groups defined by urbanness and income. Results Together, the results of the FAMD and MTMM approaches indicated substantial variation in the relationship of individual indicators to each other and to broader domains, arguing against the development of an overall score and extending prior evidence demonstrating the need to adapt the WHO framework to the local context. Communities in high-income countries generally ranked higher across the set of indicators, but regular connections to neighbouring towns via bus (95%) and train access (76%) were most common in low-income countries. The greatest amount of variation by urbanness was seen in the number of streetscape-greenery elements (33 such elements in rural areas vs. 55 in urban), presence of traffic lights (18% vs. 67%), and home-internet availability (25% vs. 54%). Conclusions This study indicates the extent to which environmental supports for healthy ageing may be less readily available to older adults residing in rural areas and LMIC and augments calls to tailor WHO’s existing indicators to a broader range of communities in order to achieve a critical aspect of distributional equity in an ageing world.

2022 ◽  
pp. 000486742110671
Anne PF Wand ◽  
Roisin Browne ◽  
Tiffany Jessop ◽  
Carmelle Peisah

Objective: Self-harm is closely associated with suicide in older adults and may provide opportunity to intervene to prevent suicide. This study aimed to systematically review recent evidence for three components of aftercare for older adults: (1) referral pathways, (2) assessment tools and safety planning approaches and (3) engagement and intervention strategies. Methods: Databases PubMed, Medline, PsychINFO, Embase and CINAHL were searched from January 2010 to 10 July 2021 by two reviewers. Empirical studies reporting aftercare interventions for older adults (aged 60+) following self-harm (including with suicidal intent) were included. Full text of articles with abstracts meeting inclusion criteria were obtained and independently reviewed by three authors to determine final studies for review. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed level of evidence (Oxford) and quality ratings (Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research Standard Quality Assessment Criteria for quantitative and Attree and Milton checklist for qualitative studies), working independently. Results: Twenty studies were reviewed (15 quantitative; 5 qualitative). Levels of evidence were low (3, 4), and quality ratings of quantitative studies variable, although qualitative studies rated highly. Most studies of referral pathways were observational and demonstrated marked variation with no clear guidelines or imperatives for community psychiatric follow-up. Of four screening tools evaluated, three were suicide-specific and one screened for depression. An evidence-informed approach to safety planning was described using cases. Strategies for aftercare engagement and intervention included two multifaceted approaches, psychotherapy and qualitative insights from older people who self-harmed, carers and clinicians. The qualitative studies identified targets for improved aftercare engagement, focused on individual context, experiences and needs. Conclusion: Dedicated older-adult aftercare interventions with a multifaceted, assertive follow-up approach accompanied by systemic change show promise but require further evaluation. Research is needed to explore the utility of needs assessment compared to screening and evaluate efficacy of safety planning and psychotherapeutic approaches.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Natalia Ogonowski ◽  
Stefanny Salcidua ◽  
Tomas Leon ◽  
Nayaret Chamorro-Veloso ◽  
Cristian Valls ◽  

The rate of progression from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is estimated at &gt;10% per year, reaching up to 80–90% after 6 years. MCI is considered an indicator of early-stage AD. In this context, the diagnostic screening of MCI is crucial for detecting individuals at high risk of AD before they progress and manifest further severe symptoms. Typically, MCI has been determined using neuropsychological assessment tools such as the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) or Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE). Unfortunately, other diagnostic methods are not available or are unable to identify MCI in its early stages. Therefore, identifying new biomarkers for MCI diagnosis and prognosis is a significant challenge. In this framework, miRNAs in serum, plasma, and other body fluids have emerged as a promising source of biomarkers for MCI and AD-related cognitive impairments. Interestingly, miRNAs can regulate several signaling pathways via multiple and diverse targets in response to pathophysiological stimuli. This systematic review aims to describe the current state of the art regarding AD-related target genes modulated by differentially expressed miRNAs in peripheral fluids samples in MCI subjects to identify potential miRNA biomarkers in the early stages of AD. We found 30 articles that described five miRNA expression profiles from peripheral fluid in MCI subjects, showing possible candidates for miRNA biomarkers that may be followed up as fluid biomarkers or therapeutic targets of early-stage AD. However, additional research is needed to validate these miRNAs and characterize the precise neuropathological mechanisms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
Ruqayyah Turabi ◽  
Ian Horsely ◽  
Helen Birch ◽  
Anju Jaggi

Abstract Aim To investigate if there is a correlation between grip strength (GS) and rotator cuff (RC) strength in patients with atraumatic shoulder instability (ASI) and to compare the relationship between these two measures with that previously published for a healthy population. Moreover, to determine if testing GS could be incorporated as a surrogate clinical assessment for RC strength in these patients. Methods A total of 20 subjects with ASI were included. Out of the 20 patients, eight presented with bilateral instability, which constituted a total of 28 atraumatic unstable shoulders (N = 28). GS was measured using a Jamar hand-dynamometer. External rotation (ER) and internal rotation (IR) strength was tested in inner and outer ranges using a hand-held dynamometer (HHD). Pearson’s correlation test was computed to investigate the relationship. Multiple linear regression was conducted to predict GS based on RC strength. Results Significant and strong positive correlations were found between GS and inner-range IR (r = 0.764, P < 0.001), inner-range ER (r = 0.611, P = 0.001), outer-range IR (r = 0.817, P < 0.001), and outer-range ER (r = 0.736, P < 0.001). A significant regression equation was found (F (4, 23) = 13.254, P < 0.001), with an R2 of 0.697 indicating that RC strength explained 69.7% of the variance in GS. Conclusions The results support the hypothesis showing that GS is strongly associated with RC strength in ASI patients. The simplicity of handgrip testing allows it to be used in clinical scenarios where sophisticated assessment tools are not available. GS is a convenient means to monitor patient progress during shoulder rehabilitation programs.

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