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2022 ◽  
Sintayehu Kare ◽  
Abera Alemu ◽  
Melese Mulugeta ◽  
Zerhun Ganewo

Abstract BackgroundBiomass is the most dominant source of energy for both food cooking and lighting in rural parts of Ethiopia. Energy conversions are carried out in open fires using inefficient traditional stoves, results in poor quality of life due to smoking-related health outcomes, and consume a large quantity of wood. This resulted in increased costs of health and cutting trees which facilities climate change. To change the situation, improved cooking stoves (ICS) have been introduced through youth cooperatives in the study area.Objective The study examined the major sources of energy for the rural households, evaluate the health and related benefits of using improved cook stove and assessing the determinants for its adoption.MethodData were collected from 344 households using a questionnaire in supplement with interview schedule. The collected data were analyzed using both descriptive and econometric models.ResultsThe findings of the study showed that only 22.97% of the respondents adopted the ICS whereas the vast majority (67.03%) still rely on traditional stoves that are highly inefficient. The positive and significant variables in predicting the adoption of ICS were the educational level of household head (OR 1.23; CI at 95% 0.029-0.040), access to ICS (OR 5.88; CI at 95% 1.05-2.48), affordability (OR 2.31; CI at 95% 0.11-1.56) and demonstration about the stove (OR 6.74; CI at 95% 1.13-2.68). Family size (OR 0.74; CI at 95% -0.45-0.12) and Availability of firewood (OR 0.27; CI at 95% -2.00-.56) significantly and negatively affected the adoption of the ICS.ConclusionsLow adoption levels of ICS were found in the study area. This has been triggered by socio-economic, institutional, financial, and resource endowments. Therefore, it is recommended that increasing access to improved stoves, diversifying income sources, creating awareness about ICS health benefits, climate changes, and providing reasonable prices will facilitate its adoption.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 183
Tourya Sagouti ◽  
Zineb Belabess ◽  
Naima Rhallabi ◽  
Essaid Ait Barka ◽  
Abdessalem Tahiri ◽  

Citrus stubborn was initially observed in California in 1915 and was later proven as a graft-transmissible disease in 1942. In the field, diseased citrus trees have compressed and stunted appearances, and yield poor-quality fruits with little market value. The disease is caused by Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-restricted pathogenic mollicute, which belongs to the Spiroplasmataceae family (Mollicutes). S. citri has the largest genome of any Mollicutes investigated, with a genome size of roughly 1780 Kbp. It is a helical, motile mollicute that lacks a cell wall and peptidoglycan. Several quick and sensitive molecular-based and immuno-enzymatic pathogen detection technologies are available. Infected weeds are the primary source of transmission to citrus, with only a minor percentage of transmission from infected citrus to citrus. Several phloem-feeding leafhopper species (Cicadellidae, Hemiptera) support the natural spread of S. citri in a persistent, propagative manner. S. citri-free buds are used in new orchard plantings and bud certification, and indexing initiatives have been launched. Further, a quarantine system for newly introduced types has been implemented to limit citrus stubborn disease (CSD). The present state of knowledge about CSD around the world is summarized in this overview, where recent advances in S. citri detection, characterization, control and eradication were highlighted to prevent or limit disease spread through the adoption of best practices.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Ashley Hagaman ◽  
Humberto Gonzalez Rodriguez ◽  
Clare Barrington ◽  
Kavita Singh ◽  
Abiy Seifu Estifanos ◽  

Abstract Background Globally, amidst increased utilization of facility-based maternal care services, there is continued need to better understand women’s experience of care in places of birth. Quantitative surveys may not sufficiently characterize satisfaction with maternal healthcare (MHC) in local context, limiting their interpretation and applicability. The purpose of this study is to untangle how contextual and cultural expectations shape women’s care experience and what women mean by satisfaction in two Ethiopian regions. Methods Health center and hospital childbirth care registries were used to identify and interview 41 women who had delivered a live newborn within a six-month period. We used a semi-structured interview guide informed by the Donabedian framework to elicit women’s experiences with MHC and delivery, any prior delivery experiences, and recommendations to improve MHC. We used an inductive analytical approach to compare and contrast MHC processes, experiences, and satisfaction. Results Maternal and newborn survival and safety were central to women’s descriptions of their MHC experiences. Women nearly exclusively described healthy and safe deliveries with healthy outcomes as ‘satisfactory’. The texture behind this ‘satisfaction’, however, was shaped by what mothers bring to their delivery experiences, creating expectations from events including past births, experiences with antenatal care, and social and community influences. Secondary to the absence of adverse outcomes, health provider’s interpersonal behaviors (e.g., supportive communication and behavioral demonstrations of commitment to their births) and the facility’s amenities (e.g., bathing, cleaning, water, coffee, etc) enhanced women’s experiences. Finally, at the social and community levels, we found that family support and material resources may significantly buffer against negative experiences and facilitate women’s overall satisfaction, even in the context of poor-quality facilities and limited resources. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of understanding contextual factors including past experiences, expectations, and social support that influence perceived quality of MHC and the agency a woman has to negotiate her care experience. Our finding that newborn and maternal survival primarily drove women’s satisfaction suggests that quantitative assessments conducted shortly following delivery may be overly influenced by these outcomes and not fully capture the complexity of women’s care experience.

2022 ◽  
pp. 106002802110695
Randy C. Hatton ◽  
Greg Leighton ◽  
Libbe Englander

There is increasing concern about the quality of pharmaceuticals, especially generics made in Asia. Popular books and news reports have the public questioning the quality of pharmaceuticals. Recalls and import bans shake confidence in medications, particularly for active pharmaceutical ingredients and finished dosage forms made outside the United States. The Food and Drug Administration uses geography to allocate resources for manufacturing surveillance. Site of manufacturing labeling, including the country, could be linked to the facility’s quality score to assess the risk of poor quality. Clinicians should advocate for legal and regulatory changes to increase the transparency of pharmaceutical manufacturing of products.

Reneiloe Malomane ◽  
Innocent Musonda ◽  
Chioma Sylvia Okoro

The fourth industrial revolution (4iR) technologies offer an opportunity for the construction industry to improve health and safety (H&S) compliance. Therefore, implementing the technologies is of top priority to improve the endless H&S incidents in construction projects, which lead to poor quality of work, late project delivery, and increased labour injury claims. Central to improving the nature of work and other industrial processes, the 4iR technologies have emerged. Concurrent with this trend is the importance of 4iR technologies in enhancing health and safety performance on construction sites. However, the implementation of 4iR technologies in the construction industry is faced with various challenges. Therefore, this paper reports on a study aimed at examining the challenges associated with implementing 4iR technologies in the construction sector in South Africa towards effective management of H&S. The study followed a systematic literature review, data collection using a questionnaire survey and thereafter, descriptive, and inferential analyses were conducted. The findings revealed that the implementation of 4iR technologies is challenged by a lack of adequate relevant skills, the unavailability of training capacities, expensive technologies, and negative perceptions such as fear of job loss by industry professionals. The findings are essential for the advancement of H&S research and implementation. In addition, the findings are important to industry decision-makers in order to elevate their awareness and promote the use of 4iR technologies to manage construction activities. The study implications include the need for the construction industry to collaborate with higher education institutions to conduct research and include 4iR in the curriculum.

Sankar Kumar Das ◽  
Krishna Kalita

Background: Male infertility associated with sperm DNA alteration has raised a new issue in assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs).Methods: It was a retrospective analytical study on 250 cases of routine IVF/ICSI performed at Swagat ART Centre from January 2017 to January 2020. We divided the patient according to the sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) as normal DFI≤15%, n=95, a moderate DFI≤30%, n=89, and a high DFI group >30%, n=66. Oocytes of each patient were almost equally divided and fertilization method was adopted as half IVF half ICSI or only ICSI in poor quality (oligo, astheno, teratozoospermia or with two or all three defect and compared the fertilization, cleavage, embryo formation, blastocyst formation, pregnancy and early embryo formation rate among these six groups.  Results: Fertilization, cleavage, embryo formation, and clinical pregnancy rates were reported as higher in ≤15% DFI group of both IVF and ICSI-ET (87.3±26.2, 77.7±26.1, 68.2±28.8, 50.8 in IVF and 78.3±17.8, 70.3±31.2, 67.2±28.8, 57.6 respectively). Significant differences (p<0.01) are observed among all six groups. Higher abortion rate is observed in high DFI group of both IVF and ICSI.Conclusions: High sperm DFI causes low blastocyst formation and pregnancy outcome.  Higher abortion rate observed in high DFI group indicated need of further study.

Agriculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 109
Marcela Kovářová ◽  
Petr Maděra ◽  
Tomáš Frantík ◽  
Jan Novák ◽  
Štěpán Vencl

The aboveground biomass of dry knotweed was administered daily to large groups of young (1- to 3-year-old) stallions of the Czech Warmblood, Czech-Moravian Coldblood and Silesian Norik breeds, fed individually for 4 and 6 months in two successive winter experiments. Their fitness was compared with control groups consisting of equally numerous subgroups comparable in age, breed, body mass and initial blood parameters. The effects of knotweed on the horses’ fitness were evaluated based on changes in blood characteristics. Even if administered in small amounts, 150 g per day, knotweed could (1) increase the thrombocyte numbers, (2) increase the globulin content (thus improving the horses’ immunity, which is desired in large groups of animals), (3) stimulate lipid metabolism in cold-blooded horses and (4) decrease the concentration of cholesterol. The long-lasting effect of knotweed on both the urea and triglyceride–cholesterol ratio presumably reflected, between the two experiments, the temporary protein starvation of horses on pastures with poor quality of grass in a dry summer.

Recycling ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 2
Aleksandr Ketov ◽  
Vladimir Korotaev ◽  
Natalia Sliusar ◽  
Vladivir Bosnic ◽  
Marina Krasnovskikh ◽  

The recycling of end-of-life plastics is a problem, since small parts can be returned into circulation. The rest is burned, landfilled or recycled into low-quality heating oil by pyrolysis methods. The disadvantages of this method are the need to dispose the formed by-product, pyrolytic carbon, the poor quality of produced liquid fuel and the low productivity of the method associated with the periodicity of the process. In this work, methods of thermogravimetry and chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have been used to study the co-pyrolysis products of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and oxygen-containing substances at the pressures of 4–8 MPa and temperatures of 520–620 °C. Experiments have highlighted the conditions needed for producing of high-quality liquid fuel. Initial data have been prepared for the design of a continuous pyrolysis reactor to dispose polymer waste for the production of bio-oil which would be available to enter the petrochemical products market.

Geosciences ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 37
Emanuelle Frery ◽  
Conor Byrne ◽  
Russell Crosbie ◽  
Alec Deslandes ◽  
Tim Evans ◽  

This study assesses potential geological connections between the unconventional petroleum plays in the Beetaloo Sub-basin, regional aquifers in overlying basins, and the near surface water assets in the Beetaloo Sub-basin Northern Territory, Australia. To do so, we built an innovative multi-disciplinary toolbox including multi-physics and multi-depth imaging of the geological formations, as well as the study of potentially active tectonic surface features, which we combined with measurement of the helium content in water sampled in the aquifer systems and a comparative analysis of the surface drainage network and fault lineaments orientation. Structures, as well as potential natural active and paleo-fluid or gas leakage pathways, were imaged with a reprocessing and interpretation of existing and newly acquired Beetaloo seismic reflection 2D profiles and magnetic datasets to determine potential connections and paleo-leakages. North to north-northwest trending strike slip faults, which have been reactivated in recent geological history, are controlling the deposition at the edges of the Beetaloo Sub-basin. There are two spring complexes associated with this system, the Hot Spring Valley at the northern edge of the eastern Beetaloo Sub-basin and the Mataranka Springs 10 km north of the western sub-basin. Significant rectangular stream diversions in the Hot Spring Valley also indicates current or recently active tectonics. This suggests that those deep-rooted fault systems are likely to locally connect the shallow unconfined aquifer with a deeper gas or fluid source component, possibly without connection with the Beetaloo unconventional prospective plays. However, the origin and flux of this deeper source is unknown and needs to be further investigated to assess if deep circulation is happening through the identified stratigraphic connections. Few north-west trending post-Cambrian fault segments have been interpreted in prospective zones for dry gas plays of the Velkerri Formation. The segments located in the northern part of the eastern Beetaloo Sub-basin do not show any evidence of modern leakages. The segments located around Elliot, in the south of the eastern Beetaloo Sub-basin, as well as low-quality seismic imaging of potential faults in the central part of the western sub-basin, could have been recently reactivated. They could act as open pathways of fluid and gas leakage, sourced from the unconventional plays, deeper formations of the Beetaloo Sub-basin or even much deeper origin, excluding the mantle on the basis of low 3He/4He ratios. In those areas, the data are sparse and of poor quality; further field work is necessary to assess whether such pathways are currently active.

2022 ◽  
Alistair Malcolm Roy ◽  
Graeme Henry Allan ◽  
Corrado Giuliani ◽  
Shakeel Ahmad ◽  
Charlotte Giraud ◽  

Abstract The Greater Clair area, Europe's largest oilfield, has two existing platforms, Clair Phase 1 and Clair Ridge, on production with future potential for a third platform targeting undeveloped Lower Clair Group to the South of Ph1. Clair Phase 1 was the initial development of Clair, targeting Lower Clair Group (LCG) reservoir consisting of a complex Devonian sandstone in six units. Most Phase 1 wells penetrated relatively good quality reservoir enhanced by natural fractures, while more recently Clair Ridge wells took a similar approach targeting natural fractures, however that strategy is continually being evaluated. In some areas however low matrix quality and lack of natural fractures were the dominant characteristics resulting in lower production rates. A brief comparison of the range of production outcomes will be presented, including potential downsides of reliance on natural fractures. Given the large oil volumes in areas of known poorer rock quality, alongside variable production results, a hydraulic fracturing trial was initiated in 2017. Well 206/08-A23 (A23) targeted previously under-developed, poor-quality Unit VI within the Phase 1 Graben area where natural fractures are absent. A pre-frac production test established baseline production of 900BOPD in December 2018. The A23 objectives included subsequent hydraulically fracturing the well to test this techniques ability to unlock production from tight, matrix dominated formation. Detailed analysis of core, log and limited vertical well fracturing data (from initial fracturing trials of 1980's vintage), yielded robust designs. Key challenges included overcoming very low KV/KH ratios with fracture heights exceeding 300ft. The resulting detailed designs provided consistent and predictable hydraulic fracturing execution in A23 in 2019, including placement of four planned 500klbs treatments combined with coil clean-outs after each stage to unload solids and fluids from the well. Initial fracture designs were conservative in terms of pad and proppant scheduling which, alongside learnings around operational logistics offshore West of Shetlands and completion design, offer significant optimisations for future hydraulic fractures. Post frac A23 became the highest non-natural fractured producer across Clair. Initially a six-fold production increase was observed with monitoring of transient production ongoing. Tracer analysis confirmed production contribution from all zones. Proving fracturing technology brings opportunities to unlock poorer Phase 1 and Ridge reservoir areas. Additionally, significant portions of the undeveloped Lower Clair Group to the South of Ph1 comprises lower permeability reservoir with higher viscosity oil and reduced natural fracture presence. Hydraulic fracturing is therefore a crucial completion technique for developing this lower quality reservoir and brings significant value enhancement to the project. Efficient delivery of numerous large fractures in a harsh offshore environment West of Shetlands presents significant challenges. The influence of how the A23 fracturing results and learnings are guiding future hydraulic fracturing concept are detailed, including optimising platform engineering design to facilitate efficient fracturing operations while maintaining the required productivity in this challenging scenario.

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