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2021 ◽  
Seyed Mohammad Masoodian ◽  
Abolfazl Omidifar ◽  
Sepideh Moradkhani ◽  
Majid Asiabanha ◽  
Majid Khoshmirsafa

Abstract Aims HOMA-IR considers as the valid index for estimation of insulin sensitivity (IS) and insulin resistance (IR) in different pathological conditions. Few studies have evaluated the relation of IR with a broad group of health related-outcomes in population-based human subjects. In this population-based investigation, we sought to report the mean value of HOMA-IR in different subgroups of a large population-based database in Iranian healthy subjects. Methods This population-based study recruited adult healthy individuals between the ages of 18 to 70 years old who referred to Massoud Medical Laboratory, Tehran, Iran. Fasting insulin was measured by using the Electro chemiluminescence method using Roche Cobas 6000 e601/602 instrument. Results The mean value of HOMA-IR of the entire population was 2.11 ± 0.99. It was observed that the HOMA-IR index tended to be higher in age subgroups of 18–25 (839 individuals), 40–45 (642 individuals) and 35–40 (1179 individuals), HOMA-IR values of 2.17 ± 0.98, 2.19 ± 1.01, and 2.16 ± 1.01 respectively. Conclusion Our findings showed the mean value of 2.11 ± 0.99 HOMA-IR in the Iranian healthy population. Considering the large sample size in our study, more clinical investigations in terms of ethnicity should be done to provide a precise standardized HOMA-IR index in the Iranian population.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (18) ◽  
pp. 4200
Anna Baritussio ◽  
Francesco Vacirca ◽  
Honoria Ocagli ◽  
Francesco Tona ◽  
Valeria Pergola ◽  

Background: The pathophysiology of angina-like symptoms in myocarditis is still unclear. Perivascular fat attenuation index (pFAI) by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is a non-invasive marker of coronary inflammation (CI) in atherosclerosis. We explored the presence of CI in clinically suspected myocarditis with infarct-like presentation. Methods: We retrospectively included 15 consecutive patients (67% male, age 30 ± 10 years) with clinically suspected infarct-like myocarditis who underwent CCTA to rule out coronary artery disease. Right coronary artery (RCA) pFAI mean value was compared with that of healthy volunteers. Results: Mean RCA pFAI value was −92.8 ± 8.4 HU, similar to that of healthy volunteers (−95.2 ± 6.0, p = 0.8). We found no correlation between RCA pFAI mean values and peak Troponin I (r = −0.43, p = 0.11) and C-reactive protein at diagnosis (r = −0.25, p = 0.42). Patients with higher pFAI values showed higher biventricular end-systolic volumes (ESV) (p = 0.038 for left and p = 0.024 for right ventricle) and lower right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) (p = 0.038) on cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Conclusions: In clinically suspected myocarditis with infarct-like presentation, RCA pFAI values are lower than those validated in atherosclerosis. The correlation between higher pFAI values, higher biventricular ESV and lower RVEF, may suggest a role of pFAI in predicting non-atherosclerotic CI (i.e., infective/immune-mediated “endothelialitis”).

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Ya Wang

For the purpose of significantly reducing the processing time of the apple harvesting robot during the harvesting process, it is highly necessary to carry out the corresponding studies on the methods for rapid recognition and trajectory planning. Through the comprehensive application of information relevance, the image processing area can be reduced. For image recognition and trajectory planning, the related template matching algorithm for removing the mean value and normalization product can be adopted, and segmentation methods based on different threshold values can be used for the realization of the effect. Subsequently, the comparative experiments are properly carried out to verify the effectiveness of the method used.

Entropy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (9) ◽  
pp. 1217
Jindong Wang ◽  
Xin Chen ◽  
Haiyang Zhao ◽  
Yanyang Li ◽  
Zujian Liu

In practical engineering applications, the vibration signals collected by sensors often contain outliers, resulting in the separation accuracy of source signals from the observed signals being seriously affected. The mixing matrix estimation is crucial to the underdetermined blind source separation (UBSS), determining the accuracy level of the source signals recovery. Therefore, a two-stage clustering method is proposed by combining hierarchical clustering and K-means to improve the reliability of the estimated mixing matrix in this paper. The proposed method is used to solve the two major problems in the K-means algorithm: the random selection of initial cluster centers and the sensitivity of the algorithm to outliers. Firstly, the observed signals are clustered by hierarchical clustering to get the cluster centers. Secondly, the cosine distance is used to eliminate the outliers deviating from cluster centers. Then, the initial cluster centers are obtained by calculating the mean value of each remaining cluster. Finally, the mixing matrix is estimated with the improved K-means, and the sources are recovered using the least square method. Simulation and the reciprocating compressor fault experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Aravind Natarajan ◽  
Hao-Wei Su ◽  
Conor Heneghan ◽  
Leanna Blunt ◽  
Corey O’Connor ◽  

AbstractWe show that heart rate enabled wearable devices can be used to measure respiratory rate. Respiration modulates the heart rate creating excess power in the heart rate variability at a frequency equal to the respiratory rate, a phenomenon known as respiratory sinus arrhythmia. We isolate this component from the power spectral density of the heart beat interval time series, and show that the respiratory rate thus estimated is in good agreement with a validation dataset acquired from sleep studies (root mean squared error = 0.648 min−1, mean absolute error = 0.46 min−1, mean absolute percentage error = 3%). We use this respiratory rate algorithm to illuminate two potential applications (a) understanding the distribution of nocturnal respiratory rate as a function of age and sex, and (b) examining changes in longitudinal nocturnal respiratory rate due to a respiratory infection such as COVID-19. 90% of respiratory rate values for healthy adults fall within the range 11.8−19.2 min−1 with a mean value of 15.4 min−1. Respiratory rate is shown to increase with nocturnal heart rate. It also varies with BMI, reaching a minimum at 25 kg/m2, and increasing for lower and higher BMI. The respiratory rate decreases slightly with age and is higher in females compared to males for age <50 years, with no difference between females and males thereafter. The 90% range for the coefficient of variation in a 14 day period for females (males) varies from 2.3–9.2% (2.3−9.5%) for ages 20−24 yr, to 2.5−16.8% (2.7−21.7%) for ages 65−69 yr. We show that respiratory rate is often elevated in subjects diagnosed with COVID-19. In a 7 day window from D−1 to D+5 (where D0 is the date when symptoms first present, for symptomatic individuals, and the test date for asymptomatic cases), we find that 36.4% (23.7%) of symptomatic (asymptomatic) individuals had at least one measurement of respiratory rate 3 min−1 higher than the regular rate.

2021 ◽  
Mohammad Ali Tahmasebi ◽  
Reza Shirinabadi ◽  
Esmaiel Rahimi ◽  
Ehsan Moosavi ◽  
Amir Hossein Bangian Tabrizi

Abstract Designing and the construction of a tunnel in urban areas has their own specific considerations. Usually, excessive settlement caused by tunneling during construction damages the adjacent infrastructures and utilities, especially if the tunnel is excavated by the new Austrian tunneling method (NATM). Thus, it’s important to make accurate predictions and effective control on tunneling-induced settlement. In this study, the soil’s Young’s modulus was modeled using a three-dimensional random field and coupled with a finite difference method (FDM) analysis to reveal the influence of scale of fluctuation (SOF) on the maximum surface settlement (Smax). To generate the field of soil’s Young’s modulus, the Fourier series method is employed and sensitivity studies are further performed via Monte-Carlo simulations (MCS). The results demonstrate both the mean value of Smax and its coefficient of variation (COV) increase from 28 mm to 31 mm and from 0.02 to 0.35 respectively, with an increasing horizontal SOF but they stabilize at higher values of SOF. Furthermore, the probability of failure increases as COV increases for each allowable limit greater than the verification FDM of Smax. It is observed that ignoring the spatial variability of soil’s properties leads to an underestimate of the risk of excessive surface settlement.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 203-208
Ugwoke, G.I. ◽  
Esenwah, E.C. ◽  
Ikoro, N.C.

Palm wine has long been the traditional wine of choice for most people during festive periods and social activities. This research work was done to determine the effect of ingested fresh palm wine on pupil diameter and amplitude of accommodation in young adults. Fifty (50) young adults aged between 18-35 years with a mean age of 23.46(±2.54) and weight ranging from 45-80kg with mean weight of 61.18(±8.00) volunteered for this work. The volunteers had normal body mass index (BMI) of between 18.5 and 25kg/m2. Pupil diameter in millimeters (mm) and Amplitude of Accommodation (AA) in diopters (D) were measured before and after 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes intake of 330ml of fresh palm wine containing 5.1% alcohol at the time it was consumed. Physicochemical analysis of the palm wine showed the presence of Solids, Sugar, Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) while microbiological analysis showed the presence of yeasts. Its pH at the time was 6.20. Statistical analysis with SPSS version 21 showed that the mean pupil diameter before intake of fresh palm wine was 3.80(±0.72) and mean value 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes after intake of fresh palm wine were 3.30(±0.61), 3.48(±0.75) and 4.20(±0.64) respectively. The mean Amplitude of accommodation before intake of fresh palm wine was 12.16(±3.66) and mean value 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes after intake of fresh palm wine were 13.86(±3.31), 10.19(±2.47) and 9.16(±2.12) respectively. The result obtained was statistically significant using one way ANOVA at 95% confidence interval and 0.05 level of significance; P(0.00) ˂0.05. The mean difference was significant at the 0.05 level. This study showed that fresh palm wine interfered with visual functions as increased pupil size and changes in AA were observed. Key words: Fresh palm wine, pupil diameter, amplitude of accommodation.

Vedrana Terkes ◽  
Anela Tolic ◽  
Miro Morovic

Background: After one year of numerous clinical trials, the position of tocilizumab in the treatment of COVOD-19 patients is not yet stable. Methods: In this small prospective observational study, we recruited patients with severe and critical COVID-19 with a rapid deterioration of their clinical status. Demographic, clinical, CT findings and laboratory data were collected prior to the decision to administer tocilizmab. Results: 33 patients were included between March 2020 and February 2021 11 (33.3%) of patients died, with the median of 22.5 (9-35) days (p<0.05). Compared with the survivors, the patients who died were significantly older, with the mean age of 72.5 years vs 61.3 years, respectively. Also, the mean CT scores in the patients who died were significantly higher than in the survivors, with the mean value of 22.7 vs 17.3 (p<0.05). In addition, there was also a difference in the mean values of inflammatory parameters, which were generally higher in non-survivors. Conclusion: In this small exploratory analysis of 33 patients with severe or critical COVID-19, treated with tocilizumab we did not obtain neither a significant reduction of ICU admission neither of mortality. The high CT grade of lung damage has shown to be the only independent prognostic factor of clinical outcome, regardless of administration time or criteria of tocilizumab use.

2021 ◽  
Juliana Jaen ◽  
Toralf Renkwitz ◽  
Jorge L. Chau ◽  
Maosheng He ◽  
Peter Hoffmann ◽  

Abstract. Specular meteor radars (SMRs) and partial reflection radars (PRRs) have been observing mesospheric winds for more than a solar cycle over Germany (~54 °N) and northern Norway (~69 °N). This work investigates the mesospheric mean zonal wind and the zonal mean geostrophic zonal wind from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) over these two regions between 2004 and 2020. Our study focuses on the summer when strong planetary waves are absent and the stratospheric and tropospheric conditions are relatively stable. We establish two definitions of the summer length according to the zonal wind reversals: (1) the mesosphere and lower thermosphere summer length (MLT-SL) using SMR and PRR winds, and (2) the mesosphere summer length (M-SL) using PRR and MLS. Under both definitions, the summer begins around April and ends around mid-September. The largest year to year variability is found in the summer beginning in both definitions, particularly at high-latitudes, possibly due to the influence of the polar vortex. At high-latitudes, the year 2004 has a longer summer length compared to the mean value for MLT-SL, as well as 2012 for both definitions. The M-SL exhibits an increasing trend over the years, while MLT-SL does not have a well-defined trend. We explore a possible influence of solar activity, as well as large-scale atmospheric influences (e.g. quasi-biennial oscillations (QBO), El Niño-southern oscillation (ENSO), major sudden stratospheric warming events). We complement our work with an extended time series of 31 years at mid-latitudes using only PRR winds. In this case, the summer length shows a breakpoint, suggesting a non-uniform trend, and periods similar to those known for ENSO and QBO.

2021 ◽  
Abraham Mechal ◽  
Hassen Shube ◽  
Tewodros Rango ◽  
Kristine Walraevens ◽  
Steffen Birk

Abstract The Ethiopian Rift Valley (ERV), which is characterized by arid and semi-arid climate, groundwater is the most important water resource used for drinking and irrigation purposes. However, in the region people are suffering from severe water scarcity exacerbated by climate effect. Besides water availability, endemic water quality issues are critical and affect the suitability of the water and human health risks. The present study evaluates the suitability of groundwater for drinking and agricultural purposes in the Ziway Lake Basin (ZLB) of the ERV. Groundwater used for drinking contains multiple inorganic contaminants in levels that surpass the World Health Organization recommended limits. The most frequent of these violations were for Na+, K+, HCO3-, F- and few samples for Mn, As, U, Pb and Mo. The modeled Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI) values of the groundwater show wide variation ranging from 12.7 (Excellent category) to 714 (Unsuitable category) with mean value of 94. Likewise, Irrigation Water Quality Index (IWQI) computed by considering EC, SAR, Na%, RSC and PI of the groundwater vary from 13.2 to 520 with mean value of 106. Both DWQI and IWQI value suggest that groundwater is generally of Excellent quality for drinking and irrigation use in the headwater regions of the ZLB and progressively becomes extremely Unsuitable towards the rift floor. The exceptionally high DWQI values to the west of Lake Ziway is mainly associated with the co-occurrence of multiple toxic elements from a groundwater from the Quaternary sediments and rhyolitic volcanic aquifers.

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