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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
Author(s):  
L. Tooba ◽  
A. Shahzad ◽  
M. Zahid ◽  
R. Muhammad ◽  
I. Anam ◽  
...  

Abstract Pakistan is an agricultural country and fisheries play a very important role in the economic development of the country. Different diseases are prevalent in Pakistani fish but information related to the causative agents is not well-known. Keeping in view the significance of bacterial pathogens as the causative agents of multiple fish diseases, the present study was conducted for identification, characterization and analysis of virulence genes of Aeromonas spp. isolated from diseased fishes. A total of fifty fish samples having multiple clinical indications were collected from different fish farms of district Kasur, Punjab Pakistan. For isolation of Aeromonas spp. samples were enriched and inoculated on Aeromonas isolation medium. Isolates were identified and characterized by different biochemical tests, Analytical Profile Index (API) 20E kit and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. All isolates were screened for three putative virulence genes including aerolysin (aer), haemolysin (hyl) and heat labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt). Seven isolates of Aeromonas (A.) hydrophila were retrieved and identified based on API 20E. These isolates were further confirmed as A. hydrophila on the basis of PCR assays. Three isolates were detected positive for the presence of virulence genes (alt and hyl). Whereas aerolysin (aer) gene was not present in any of A. hydrophila isolates. The present study confirmed A. hydrophila as the causative agent of epizootic ulcerative syndrome and motile Aeromonas septicemia in fish farms of district Kasur, Punjab Pakistan. Moreover, detection of two virulence genes (alt and hyl) in A. hydrophila isolates is a threat for fish consumers of study area.


2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
Author(s):  
R. Ullah ◽  
A. W. Qureshi ◽  
A. Sajid ◽  
I. Khan ◽  
A. Ullah ◽  
...  

Abstract Fish is the main source of animal protein for human diet. The aim of this study was to find out prevalence of pathogenic bacteria of two selected economically important fish of Pakistan namely Mahseer (Tor putitora) and Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Live fish samples from hatcheries and dead fish samples from different markets of study area were randomly collected. The fish samples were analyzed for isolation, identification and prevalence of bacteria. The isolated bacteria from study fish were identified through biochemical test and about 10 species of pathogenic bacteria were identified including the pathogenic bacteria to human and fish namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus iniae, Serratia spp. Citrobacter spp. Stenotrophomonas spp. Bacillus spp. and Salmonella spp. The bacterial percentage frequency of occurrence in Silver carp and Mahseer fish showed Pseudomonas aeruginosa 21.42%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 17.85%, Escherichia coli 11.90%, Staphylococcus aureus 9.52%, Citrobacter spp. 9.52%, Serratia spp. 8.33%, Streptococcus iniae 7.14%, Stenotrophomonas spp. 5.95%, Bacillus spp. 4.76% and Salmonella spp. 3.57%. The study revealed that Fish samples of Mahseer and Silver carp that were collected from markets have found more isolates (10 bacterial species) than did the fresh fish pond samples (03 bacterial species) of hatcheries. The occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in study fish showed risk factor for public health consumers.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 974
Author(s):  
Mathewos Temesgen ◽  
Abebe Getahun ◽  
Brook Lemma ◽  
Geert P. J. Janssens

This study aimed to investigate the natural feeding behavior of Nile tilapia in Lake Langeno, Ethiopia, with emphasis on potential spatial, size and seasonal effects on ingested food items. This study of the food and feeding biology of O. niloticus in Lake Langeno, Ethiopia, was conducted from March 2016to February 2017. Fish samples were collected monthly from six different sampling sites using different mesh sizes of gillnets. A total of 610 fish specimens with full stomachs were considered for the assessment of feeding biology. In total, seven food items, namely phytoplankton, zooplankton, insects, detritus, macrophytes, fish parts and nematodes, were identified from the fish stomach contents. Phytoplankton was the most commonly consumed food prey, followed by detritus, zooplankton and macrophytes. The other food items were occasionally and randomly consumed. Phytoplankton and detritus were the dominant food prey in the dry season, with zooplankton and macrophytes the main prey during the wet months. The contribution of phytoplankton, zooplankton and insects were slightly highest in small-sized groups (<10 cm), whereas detritus, macrophytes and fish parts were highest in larger-size groups (>20 cm) (p < 0.05). The present results point to a concurrence of the relative importance of dietary items at the individual level, species level and among the study sites. Phytoplankton was the primary consumed food item, which indicates the specialist feeding strategy of Nile tilapia in the lake. Generally, food items of plant origin, typically associated with less protein content than animal origin food items, dominated the stomach contents of Nile tilapia. The dietary pattern of Nile tilapia in Lake Langeno shifts with size and season, aspects that might warrant further study in view of aquaculture applications as well as climate change.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262281
Author(s):  
Virginia R. Shervette ◽  
Jesús M. Rivera Hernández

Ensuring the accuracy of age estimation in fisheries science through validation is an essential step in managing species for long-term sustainable harvest. The current study used Δ14 C in direct validation of age estimation for queen triggerfish Balistes vetula and conclusively documented that triggerfish sagittal otoliths provide more accurate and precise age estimates relative to dorsal spines. Caribbean fish samples (n = 2045) ranged in size from 67–473 mm fork length (FL); 23 fish from waters of the southeastern U.S. (SEUS) Atlantic coast ranged in size from 355–525 mm FL. Otolith-based age estimates from Caribbean fish range from 0–23 y, dorsal spine-based age estimates ranged from 1–14 y. Otolith-based age estimates for fish from the SEUS ranged from 8–40 y. Growth function estimates from otoliths in the current study (L∞ = 444, K = 0.13, t0 = -1.12) differed from spined-derived estimates in the literature. Our work indicates that previously reported maximum ages for Balistes species based on spine-derived age estimates may underestimate longevity of these species since queen triggerfish otolith-based ageing extended maximum known age for the species by nearly three-fold (14 y from spines versus 40 y from otoliths). Future research seeking to document age and growth population parameters of Balistes species should strongly consider incorporating otolith-based ageing in the research design.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Guta Dissasa ◽  
Brook Lemma ◽  
Hassen Mamo

Abstract Bacterial pathogens are a great threat to fish production. Gram-negative bacteria are among the major bacterial fish pathogens and zoonotic with the potential to infect humans. This cross-sectional study was conducted to isolate and identify major gram-negative bacteria from live and processed fish, and water samples from Lakes Hawassa, Langanoo and Ziway. A total of 674 different types of samples: 630 tissue samples (210 samples for each intestine, Kidney and liver collected from 210 live fish (Oreochromis niloticus, Cyprinus carpio and Clarias gariepinus), 20 processed fish samples from lake Ziway fish processing center and 24 lake water samples were included in the study from each lake. The mean values of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate in all water samples were within the normal range at which most freshwater fish species become non-stressed. Of a total of 674 samples included in the study, the bacteria were isolated from 154 (22.8%) samples with significant difference (P<0.05) observed in some isolates with respect to sample origin. Of these 154 isolates, 103(66.8%) isolates were gram-negative bacteria consisting of 15 species based on morphology and a range of biochemical tests. From live fish samples, Escherichia coli was the dominant species with 15 isolates followed by Edwardsiella tarda (12), Salmonella Paratyphi (10), Salmonella Typhi (9), Shigella dysenteriae(7), Shigella flexneri (7), Klebsiella pneumonia (7), Enterobacter aerogenes (6), Enterobacter cloacae (5), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5), Vibrio parahemolyticus (5), Aeromonas sobria (4), Citrobacter freundii (4), Citrobacter koseri (4) and Plesiomonas shigelloides(3). Detection of common fecal coliforms (E. coli, K. pneumoniae and E. aerogenes) and Salmonella spp. in processed fish indicates the potential danger of passage of pathogenic bacteria and/or their poisons to humans via infected and/or contaminated fish products. Human infection by pathogenic fish bacteria and food poisoning is possible through contamination of fish product in fish production chain due to inadequate handling, poor hygiene and contact with contaminated water. Therefore, producers, consumers and all other stakeholders need to be cautious during handling, processing and consumption of fish harvested from the study lakes.


2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Pouran Makhdoumi ◽  
Hooshyar Hossini ◽  
Meghdad Pirsaheb

Abstract Today microplastics (MPs) have received worldwide attention as an emerging environmental pollution which is one of the four major global environmental threat and health hazard to human as well. Unfortunately, MPs have been founded in the all environments and media include air, water resources, sediments, and soil. It should not be forgotten MPs have also been detected in food and processing products like tuna. MPs can be ingested by marine organisms such as zooplankton, fish and birds. Accumulation and distribution of MPs by commercially important aquatic organisms is expected to lead to greater exposure risk for human populations with possible adverse effects over time. The aim of this work was to review the published literature regarding the contamination of commercial fish muscle for human consumption. Furthermore, a short revision of the environmental contamination and human health effects by MPs are included. We also estimated human daily intake considering the worldwide contamination of commercial fish muscle ranged from 0.016 items/g muscle of fish to 6.06 items/g muscle of fish. MPs have been found in 56.5% of the commercial fish samples analysed here. As fish is used in human food table across the word, they constitute a long-term exposure route for all humans and raise the concern about the potential public health risk.


2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
Author(s):  
M. Attaullah ◽  
U. Ullah ◽  
I. Ilahi ◽  
N. Ahmad ◽  
F.U. Rahman ◽  
...  

Abstract The present study was conducted for the taxonomic, morphometric and limnological assessment of the commercially important ichthyofauna of Sakhakot Stream, Malakand, Pakistan. The study area was divided into three sites along the water course namely Dargai Stream, Sakhakot Stream and Shergarh Stream. Fish samples were collected randomly during January to August 2017 with the help of fish gears. A taxonomic key was designed for the collected fish specimens. Ten fish species were identified belonging to 3 orders and 4 families. Family Cyprinidae was the dominant family with seven representative species while families Siluridae, Nemacheilidae and Mastacembelidae were represented by one species each. Lower mean total length and standard length was recorded in Puntius conchonius (Hamilton, 1822) as 9.2 ± 0.6 cm and 7.3 ± 0.6 cm respectively, while highest mean total length and standard length was recorded in Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepede, 1800) as 28.1 ± 1.7 cm and 15.9 ± 2.4 cm respectively. Mean pH of the water ranged from 6.1 at Shergarh Stream in August to 8.7 at Sakhakot Stream in January. Average temperature range was recorded from 10.9 °C in January at Dargai Stream to 18.7 °C in August at Shergarh Stream. No statistically significant difference was found for temperature (p = 0.96) and pH (p = 0.14) in the three water streams. The present study will provide a baseline for the rearing and enhancement of wild stock of the commercially important ichthyofauna in the field of aquaculture and fisheries.


2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
Author(s):  
W. Khan ◽  
M. I. Khan ◽  
S. Hussain ◽  
Z. Masood ◽  
M. Shadman ◽  
...  

Abstract Cyprinus carpio is the member of family cyprinidae commonly called common carp. This study was aimed to find out the comparison of brain of wild (river system) and captive (hatchery reared) population of common carp. A total of thirty samples (15 from hatchery and 15 from river Swat) were collected. All the specimens were examined in Laboratory of Parasitoloy, Zoology Department, University of Malakand. Findings indicated that wild population were greater in brain size and weight as compared to hatchery reared population. The fish samples collected from captive environment (hatchery) were showing more weight and length as compared to wild population of common carps. The mean value of total weight of hatchery fishes 345±48.68 and the mean value of brain weight of hatchery reared fishes 0.28±0.047. The mean value of wild fish’s total body weight 195.16±52.58 and the mean value of brain weight of wild fishes are 0.45±0.14. Present research calls for the fact that fish in dependent environmental conditions possess brain larger in size as compared to its captive population, it is due to use and disuse of brain in their environmental requirements.


Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 12
Author(s):  
Lucie Drábová ◽  
Darina Dvořáková ◽  
Kateřina Urbancová ◽  
Tomáš Gramblička ◽  
Jana Hajšlová ◽  
...  

Interference of residual lipids is a very common problem in ultratrace analysis of contaminants in fatty matrices. Therefore, quick and effective clean-up techniques applicable to multiple groups of analytes are much needed. Cartridge and dispersive solid-phase extraction (SPE and dSPE) are often used for this purpose. In this context, we evaluated the lipid clean-up efficiency and performance of four commonly used sorbents—silica, C18, Z-Sep, and EMR-lipid—for the determination of organic pollutants in fatty fish samples (10%) extracted using ethyl acetate or the QuEChERS method. Namely, 17 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 22 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 13 brominated flame retardants (BFRs), 19 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in this study. The clean-up efficiency was evaluated by direct analysis in real time coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS). The triacylglycerols (TAGs) content in the purified extracts were significantly reduced. The EMR-lipid sorbent was the most efficient of the dSPE sorbents used for the determination of POPs and PAHs in this study. The recoveries of the POPs and PAHs obtained by the validated QuEChERS method followed by the dSPE EMR-lipid sorbent ranged between 59 and 120%, with repeatabilities ranging between 2 and 23% and LOQs ranging between 0.02 and 1.50 µg·kg−1.


Author(s):  
Yueqi Wang ◽  
Yanyan Wu ◽  
Yingying Shen ◽  
Chunsheng Li ◽  
Yongqiang Zhao ◽  
...  

Chinese fermented mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) have unique aroma characteristics that are appreciated by local consumers. In this study, electronic nose (E-nose) and gas chromatography–ion mobility spectrometry analyses were combined to establish a volatile fingerprint of fermented mandarin fish during fermentation. Clear separation of the data allowed mandarin fish samples at different fermentation stages to be distinguishing using E-nose analysis. Forty-three volatile organic compounds were identified during fermentation. Additionally, partial least squares discrimination analysis was performed to screen for different VOC metabolites in the fermented mandarin fish; the levels of six VOCs changed significantly during fermentation (variable importance in projection &gt;1; p &lt; 0.05). Three VOCs, i.e., hexanal-D, nonanal, and limonene were identified as potential biomarkers for fermentation. This study provided a theoretical basis for flavor real-time monitoring and quality control of traditional mandarin fish fermentation.


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