switching frequency
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Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 586
Alessandro Busacca ◽  
Antonino Oscar Di Tommaso ◽  
Rosario Miceli ◽  
Claudio Nevoloso ◽  
Giuseppe Schettino ◽  

The current climatic scenario requires the use of innovative solutions to increase the production of electricity from renewable energy sources. Multilevel Power Inverters are a promising solution to improve the penetration of renewable energy sources into the electrical grid. Moreover, the performance of MPIs is a function of the modulation strategy employed and of its features (modulation index and switching frequency). This paper presents an extended and experimental analysis of three-phase five-level Cascaded H-Bridges Multilevel Inverter performance in terms of efficiency and harmonic content considering several MC PWM modulation strategies. In detail, the CHBMI performance is analyzed by varying the modulation index and the switching frequency. For control purposes, the NI System On Module sbRIO-9651 control board, a dedicated FPGA-based control board for power electronics and drive applications programmable in the LabVIEW environment, is used. The paper describes the modulation strategies implementation, the test bench set-up, and the experimental investigations carried out. The results obtained in terms of Total Harmonic Distorsion (THD) and efficiency are analyzed, compared, and discussed.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 575
Manuel Kuder ◽  
Anton Kersten ◽  
Jose-Luis Marques-Lopez ◽  
Julian Estaller ◽  
Johannes Buberger ◽  

This paper presents a novel capacitor voltage balancing control approach for cascaded multilevel inverters with an arbitrary number of series-connected H-Bridge modules (floating capacitor modules) with asymmetric voltages, tiered by a factor of two (binary asymmetric). Using a nearest-level reference waveform, the balancing approach uses a one-step-ahead approach to find the optimal switching-state combination among all redundant switching-state combinations to balance the capacitor voltages as quickly as possible. Moreover, using a Lyapunov function candidate and considering LaSalle’s invariance principle, it is shown that an offline calculated trajectory of optimal switching-state combinations for each discrete output voltage level can be used to operate (asymptotically stable) the inverter without measuring any of the capacitor voltages, achieving a novel sensorless control as well. To verify the stability of the one-step-ahead balancing approach and its sensorless variant, a demonstrator inverter with 33 levels is operated in grid-tied mode. For the chosen 33-level converter, the NPC main-stage and the individual H-bridge modules are operated with an individual switching frequency of about 1 kHz and 2 kHz, respectively. The sensorless approach slightly reduced the dynamic system response and, furthermore, the current THD for the chosen operating point was increased from 3.28 to 4.58 in comparison with that of using the capacitor voltage feedback.

Circuit World ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Pradeep Vishnuram ◽  
Ramachandiran Gunabalan

Purpose Induction heating applications aided by power electronic control have become very attractive in the recent past. For cooking applications, power electronics circuits are very suitable to feed power to multi loads with an appropriate control technique. The purpose of this paper is to develop a three leg inverter to feed power to three loads simultaneously and independently. Design/methodology/approach Pulse density modulation control technique is used to control the output power independently with constant switching frequency. Findings Multi-load handling converter with independent power control is achieved with reduced number of switching devices (two switches/per load) with simple control strategy. Originality/value The proposed system is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink, and the thermal analysis is carried out in COMSOL multi-physics software. The hardware realisation is performed for a 1 kW prototype with 20 kHz switching frequency and 10 kHz pulse density modulation frequency. PIC16F877A microcontroller is used to validate the experimental results for various values of control signals (DPDM). The simulation and experimental results are in good agreement and validates the developed system.

Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 117
Yu-Kai Chen ◽  
Hong-Wen Hsu ◽  
Chau-Chung Song ◽  
Yu-Syun Chen

This paper proposes the design and implementation of inductor-inductor-capacitor (LLC) converters with modules connected in series with the power scan method and communication scan network (CSN) to achieve MPPT and regulate the output voltage for the PV micro-grid system. The Dc/Dc converters includes six isolated LLC modules in series to supply ±380 V output voltage and track the maximum power point of the PV system. The series LLC converters are adopted to achieve high efficiency and high flexibility for the PV micro-grid system. The proposed global maximum power scan technique is implemented to achieve global maximum power tracking by adjusting the switching frequency of the LLC converter. To improve the system flexibility and achieve system redundancy, module failure can be detected in real time with a communication scan network, and then the output voltage of other modules will be changed by adjusting the switching frequency to maintain the same voltage as before the failure. Additionally, the proposed communication scan network includes the RS-485 interface of the MPPT series module and the CAN BUS communication interface with other subsystems’ communication for the PV micro-grid application system. Finally, a 6 kW MPPT prototype with a communication scan network is implemented and the proposed control method is verified for the PV system.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 324
Pedro E. Melín ◽  
Carlos R. Baier ◽  
Eduardo E. Espinosa ◽  
José R. Espinoza

The main drawback of the Cascaded-H Bridge converter based on three-phase/single-phase current-source inverters is the large DC inductors needed to limit the variation of the DC current caused by the single-phase inverter oscillating power. If the oscillating power is somehow compensated, then the DC inductor can be designed just as a function of the semiconductors’ switching frequency, reducing its value. This work explores the use of three-phase/single-phase cells magnetically coupled through their DC links to compensate for the oscillating power among them and, therefore, reduce the DC inductor value. At the same time, front ends controlled by a non-linear control strategy equalize the DC currents among coupled cells to avoid saturating the magnetic core. The effectiveness of the proposal is demonstrated using mathematical analysis and corroborated by computational simulation for a 110 kVA load per phase and experimental tests in a 2 kVA laboratory prototype. The outcomes show that for the tested cases, coupling the DC links by a 1:1 ratio transformer allows reducing the DC inductor value below 20% of the original DC inductor required. The above leads to reducing by 50% the amount of magnetic energy required in the DC link compared to the original topology without oscillating power compensation, keeping the quality of the cell input currents and the load voltage.

2022 ◽  
Sunita Saini ◽  
Davinder Singh Saini

Abstract Fundamental charge vector method analysis is a single parameter optimization technique limited to conduction loss assuming all frequency-dependent switching (parasitic) loss negligible. This paper investigates a generalized structure to design DC-DC SC converters based on conduction and switching loss. A new technique is proposed to find the optimum value of switching frequency and switch size to calculate target load current and output voltage that maximize the efficiency. The analysis is done to identify switching frequency and switch size for two-phase 2:1 series-parallel SC converter for a target load current of 2.67mA implemented on a 22nm technology node. Results show that a minimum of 250MHz switching frequency is required for target efficiency more than 90% and the output voltage greater than 0.85V where the switch size of a unit cell corresponds to 10Ω on-resistance. MATLAB and PSpice simulation tools are used for results and validation.

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