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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 481-504
Motahare ZaeamZadeh ◽  
Jafar Ahmadi ◽  
Bahareh Khatib Astaneh ◽  

Chi Nguyen Van ◽  
Thuy Nguyen Vinh

This paper proposes a method to estimate state of charge (SoC) for Lithium-ion battery pack (LIB) with 𝑁 series-connected cells. The cell’s model is represented by a second-order equivalent circuit model taking into account the measurement disturbances and the current sensor bias. By using two sigma point Kalman filters (SPKF), the SoC of cells in the pack is calculated by the sum of the pack’s average SoC estimated by the first SPKF and SoC differences estimated by the second SPKF. The advantage of this method is the SoC estimation algorithm performed only two times instead of 𝑁 times in each sampling time interval, so the computational burden is reduced. The test of the proposed SoC estimation algorithm for 7 samsung ICR18650 Lithium-ion battery cells connected in series is implemented in the continuous charge and discharge scenario in one hour time. The estimated SoCs of the cells in the pack are quite accurate, the 3-sigma criterion of estimated SoC error distributions is 0.5%.

2022 ◽  
Fahimeh Ebrahimiyan ◽  
Mohammad Ali Hadianfard ◽  
Hosein Naderpour ◽  
Robert Jankowski

Abstract A major cause of local to total damages is related to structural pounding in a large number of past earthquakes. In general, these collisions take place as a result of differences in the dynamic characteristics of the colliding structures. To acquire a better perception of the behavior of structures, in this paper, three structures featuring different heights are modeled in series and with various configurations next to each other in OpenSees. To determine the collision effects of the structures, three different configurations of 4-, 8- and 12-story adjacent reinforced concrete special moment resisting frames were considered. Then, by conducting an incremental dynamic analysis, their structural seismic limit state capacities were assessed via 20 near-field record subsets recommended by FEMA-P695. At last, for the above adjacent buildings with various separation distances and configurations, the fragility curves were determined, and the probability of exceedance from the primary Hazus-MH failure criteria was estimated. In addition, the results were compared with those obtained when this phenomenon did not take place for buildings to have a better perception of the pounding phenomenon. The results of the analyses show that arranging adjacent structures in series greatly affects the collapse capacities of the colliding structures. In addition, in the case when the shorter structure is placed in the middle of two taller structures, it results in the most critical situation among all configurations, and in this case, a higher reduction is observed in the structural performance levels.

2022 ◽  
pp. 175114372110670
Meera Raja ◽  
Ricardo Leal ◽  
James Doyle

Methods of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients include dedicated central venous cannula (CVC) (vCRRT), in-series with filter connected to ECMO circuit (eCRRT) or in-line with haemodiafilter incorporated within ECMO circuit. We assessed the efficacy and safety of eCRRT versus vCRRT in 20 ECMO-CRRT patients. Average filter lifespan was 42 vs 28 hours and filter runs completing 72hours were 40% vs 13.8% (eCRRT vs vCRRT, respectively). One incidence of ECMO circuit air embolus occurred (vCRRT). eCRRT achieved adequate filtration and increased filter lifespan, and has become our default for ECMO-CRRT if a pre-existing dialysis CVC is not present.

Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 117
Yu-Kai Chen ◽  
Hong-Wen Hsu ◽  
Chau-Chung Song ◽  
Yu-Syun Chen

This paper proposes the design and implementation of inductor-inductor-capacitor (LLC) converters with modules connected in series with the power scan method and communication scan network (CSN) to achieve MPPT and regulate the output voltage for the PV micro-grid system. The Dc/Dc converters includes six isolated LLC modules in series to supply ±380 V output voltage and track the maximum power point of the PV system. The series LLC converters are adopted to achieve high efficiency and high flexibility for the PV micro-grid system. The proposed global maximum power scan technique is implemented to achieve global maximum power tracking by adjusting the switching frequency of the LLC converter. To improve the system flexibility and achieve system redundancy, module failure can be detected in real time with a communication scan network, and then the output voltage of other modules will be changed by adjusting the switching frequency to maintain the same voltage as before the failure. Additionally, the proposed communication scan network includes the RS-485 interface of the MPPT series module and the CAN BUS communication interface with other subsystems’ communication for the PV micro-grid application system. Finally, a 6 kW MPPT prototype with a communication scan network is implemented and the proposed control method is verified for the PV system.

2022 ◽  
Jiahui Li ◽  
Haina Liu ◽  
Bingbing Dai ◽  
Zhijun Fan ◽  
Qiao Wang ◽  

Abstract Objective Serum amyloid A4 (SAA4) is an apolipoprotein that is associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma. In this present investigation, we appraised the potential of SAA4 as a novel diagnostic biomarker for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) combined with other established RA biomarkers, including anticitrullinated protein antibody (anti-CCP), rheumatoid factor (RF),and C-reactive protein (CRP). Based on the correlative measures of the biomarkers, we developed a diagnostic model of RA by integrating serum levels of SAA4 with these clinical parameters. Methods A number of 316 patients were recruited in the current research. The serum levels of SAA4 were assessed by quantitative ELISA. The specificity and sensitivity of biomarkers were evaluated by using a receiver-operator curve (ROC) analysis to determine their diagnostic efficiency. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to screen and construct the diagnostic models for RA , consisting of diagnostic biomarkers and clinical data. A diagnostic nomogram was then generated based on logistic regression analysis results. Results The serum levels of SAA4 were considerably greatest in RA patients in comparison to other control subjects (P<0.001). Compared with anti-CCP, RF and CRP respectively, SAA4 had the highest specificity (88.60%) for diagnosing RA. The combination of SAA4 with anti-CCP could have the highest diagnostic accuracy when paired together, with highest sensitivity (91.14%) in parallel and highest specificity(98.10) in series. We successfully developed two diagnostic models: the combined model of SAA4 and anti-CCP (model A), and the combined model of SAA4, CRP, anti-CCP, RF and history of diabetes (model B). Both models showed a great area under the curve of ROC for either the training cohort or the validation cohort. The data indicated that the novel RA diagnostic models possessed an advantageous discrimination capacity and application potential. Conclusion Serum SAA4 has utility as a biomarker for RA’s diagnosis and can enhance the detection of RA when combined with anti-CCP.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 363
Nitin Khedkar ◽  
Akul Bhatt ◽  
Dhruval Kapadia ◽  
Shantanu Chavan ◽  
Yash Agarwal ◽  

Electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles are the future of the automobile industry, and power source design is one of the most crucial steps in designing these vehicles. This paper aims to design and structurally simulate a custom accumulator—which powers an electric vehicle, for a lightweight, single-seater formula-style racecar. The work is dependent on the model-based design and CAD model approach. Mathematical modeling on SCILAB is used to model equations to get the characteristics of the accumulator, such as the energy, capacity, current, voltage, state of charge, and discharge rates. The output of this model gives the configuration of the battery pack as several cells in series and parallel to adequately power the tractive system. An accumulator container is designed to safeguard the cells from external impacts and vibrational loads, which otherwise can lead to safety hazards. Following this, the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) performed on the accumulator resulted in maximum peak deformation of 0.56 mm, ensuring the safety check against various external loads. Further, the finer stability of the battery pack was virtually validated after performing the vibrational analysis, resulting in a deformation of 3.5493 mm at a 1760.8 Hz frequency.

Alion Alizoti

This paper discusses a few issues concerning diodes and their application in electric circuits. Considering voltage and current restrictions, experimental and theoretical efforts are made to safely apply semiconducting diodes in circuits working with large current regimes. Combinations of diodes and protecting resistors connected in series and parallel have demonstrated to be of great help with the task of controlling electric currents. To this aim, several activities have enabled participants to observe and measure, or to calculate and display valuable data. Therefore, important class conclusions are stated.

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