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2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-32
Alexander Frummet ◽  
David Elsweiler ◽  
Bernd Ludwig

As conversational search becomes more pervasive, it becomes increasingly important to understand the users’ underlying information needs when they converse with such systems in diverse domains. We conduct an in situ study to understand information needs arising in a home cooking context as well as how they are verbally communicated to an assistant. A human experimenter plays this role in our study. Based on the transcriptions of utterances, we derive a detailed hierarchical taxonomy of diverse information needs occurring in this context, which require different levels of assistance to be solved. The taxonomy shows that needs can be communicated through different linguistic means and require different amounts of context to be understood. In a second contribution, we perform classification experiments to determine the feasibility of predicting the type of information need a user has during a dialogue using the turn provided. For this multi-label classification problem, we achieve average F1 measures of 40% using BERT-based models. We demonstrate with examples which types of needs are difficult to predict and show why, concluding that models need to include more context information in order to improve both information need classification and assistance to make such systems usable.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-30
Procheta Sen ◽  
Debasis Ganguly ◽  
Gareth J. F. Jones

Reducing user effort in finding relevant information is one of the key objectives of search systems. Existing approaches have been shown to effectively exploit the context from the current search session of users for automatically suggesting queries to reduce their search efforts. However, these approaches do not accomplish the end goal of a search system—that of retrieving a set of potentially relevant documents for the evolving information need during a search session. This article takes the problem of query prediction one step further by investigating the problem of contextual recommendation within a search session. More specifically, given the partial context information of a session in the form of a small number of queries, we investigate how a search system can effectively predict the documents that a user would have been presented with had he continued the search session by submitting subsequent queries. To address the problem, we propose a model of contextual recommendation that seeks to capture the underlying semantics of information need transitions of a current user’s search context. This model leverages information from a number of past interactions of other users with similar interactions from an existing search log. To identify similar interactions, as a novel contribution, we propose an embedding approach that jointly learns representations of both individual query terms and also those of queries (in their entirety) from a search log data by leveraging session-level containment relationships. Our experiments conducted on a large query log, namely the AOL, demonstrate that using a joint embedding of queries and their terms within our proposed framework of document retrieval outperforms a number of text-only and sequence modeling based baselines.

2022 ◽  
Vol 74 ◽  
pp. 101677
Jun Li ◽  
Qiyan Dou ◽  
Haima Yang ◽  
Jin Liu ◽  
Le Fu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Tanya Wen ◽  
Tobias Egner

Meaningful changes in context create "event boundaries", segmenting continuous experience into distinct episodes in memory. A foundational finding in this literature is that event boundaries impair memory for the temporal order of stimuli spanning a boundary compared to equally spaced stimuli within an event. This seems surprising in light of intuitions about memory in everyday life, where the order of within-event experiences (did I have coffee before the first bite of bagel?) often seems more difficult to recall than the order of events per se (did I have breakfast or do the dishes first?). Here, we aimed to resolve this discrepancy by manipulating whether stimuli carried information about their encoding context during retrieval, as they often do in everyday life (e.g., bagel-breakfast). In Experiments 1 and 2, we show that stimuli inherently associated with a unique encoding context produce a "flipped" order memory effect, whereby temporal memory was superior for cross-boundary than within-event item pairs. In Experiments 3 and 4, we added context information at retrieval to a standard laboratory event memory protocol where stimuli were encoded in the presence of arbitrary context cues (colored frames). We found that whether temporal order memory for cross-boundary stimuli was enhanced or impaired relative to within-event items depended on whether the context was present or absent during the memory test. Taken together, we demonstrate that the effect of event boundaries on temporal memory is malleable, and determined by the availability of context information at retrieval.

2022 ◽  
pp. 685-707
Yusuf Esmer ◽  
Ayşe Nihan Arıbaş

The emergence of globalization due to information technologies and the changes and/or developments brought about by globalization require organizations to have more knowledge about ethics and therefore to be more interested in this issue. The use of information and communication technologies in organizations in accordance with ethical values is considered important in terms of the integrity, functioning, and efficiency of both employees and organizations. Individuals, managers, organizations, and researchers have important duties in the field of information ethics in order to prevent the making of difficult mistakes that will adversely affect individuals and organizations during the use of information technologies. In this context, information ethics has been examined in this study in the context of recent developments all over the world, especially the developments in the global COVID-19 pandemic process.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Yongxiang Wu ◽  
Yili Fu ◽  
Shuguo Wang

Purpose This paper aims to use fully convolutional network (FCN) to predict pixel-wise antipodal grasp affordances for unknown objects and improve the grasp detection performance through multi-scale feature fusion. Design/methodology/approach A modified FCN network is used as the backbone to extract pixel-wise features from the input image, which are further fused with multi-scale context information gathered by a three-level pyramid pooling module to make more robust predictions. Based on the proposed unify feature embedding framework, two head networks are designed to implement different grasp rotation prediction strategies (regression and classification), and their performances are evaluated and compared with a defined point metric. The regression network is further extended to predict the grasp rectangles for comparisons with previous methods and real-world robotic grasping of unknown objects. Findings The ablation study of the pyramid pooling module shows that the multi-scale information fusion significantly improves the model performance. The regression approach outperforms the classification approach based on same feature embedding framework on two data sets. The regression network achieves a state-of-the-art accuracy (up to 98.9%) and speed (4 ms per image) and high success rate (97% for household objects, 94.4% for adversarial objects and 95.3% for objects in clutter) in the unknown object grasping experiment. Originality/value A novel pixel-wise grasp affordance prediction network based on multi-scale feature fusion is proposed to improve the grasp detection performance. Two prediction approaches are formulated and compared based on the proposed framework. The proposed method achieves excellent performances on three benchmark data sets and real-world robotic grasping experiment.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 134
Friedrich Niemann ◽  
Stefan Lüdtke ◽  
Christian Bartelt ◽  
Michael ten Hompel

The automatic, sensor-based assessment of human activities is highly relevant for production and logistics, to optimise the economics and ergonomics of these processes. One challenge for accurate activity recognition in these domains is the context-dependence of activities: Similar movements can correspond to different activities, depending on, e.g., the object handled or the location of the subject. In this paper, we propose to explicitly make use of such context information in an activity recognition model. Our first contribution is a publicly available, semantically annotated motion capturing dataset of subjects performing order picking and packaging activities, where context information is recorded explicitly. The second contribution is an activity recognition model that integrates movement data and context information. We empirically show that by using context information, activity recognition performance increases substantially. Additionally, we analyse which of the pieces of context information is most relevant for activity recognition. The insights provided by this paper can help others to design appropriate sensor set-ups in real warehouses for time management.

2021 ◽  
pp. 002224372110702
Sıla Ada ◽  
Nadia Abou Nabout ◽  
Elea McDonnell Feit

Ad exchanges where real-time auctions for display ad impressions take place historically emphasized user targeting, and advertisers sometimes did not know which sites their ads would appear on, i.e., the ad context. More recently, some ad exchanges have been encouraging publishers to provide context information to ad buyers, allowing them to adjust their bids for ads at specific sites. This paper explores the empirical effect of a change in context information provided by a private European ad exchange. Analyzing this as a quasi-experiment using difference-in-differences, the authors find that average revenue per impression rose when the exchange provided subdomain information to ad buyers. Thus, ad context information is important to ad buyers, and they will act on it. Revenue per impression rises for nearly all sites, which is what is predicted by auction theory when rational buyers with heterogeneous preferences are given more information. The exception to this are sites with thin markets prior to the policy change; consistent with theory, these sites do not show a rise in prices. This paper adds evidence that ad exchanges with reputable publishers, particularly smaller volume, highquality sites, should provide ad buyers with context information, which can be done at almost no cost.

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