WordNets built for low-resource languages, such as Assamese, often use the expansion methodology. This may result in missing lexical entries and missing synonymy relations. As the Assamese WordNet is also built using the expansion method, using the Hindi WordNet, it also has missing synonymy relations. As WordNets can be visualized as a network of unique words connected by synonymy relations, link prediction in complex network analysis is an effective way of predicting missing relations in a network. Hence, to predict the missing synonyms in the Assamese WordNet, link prediction methods were used in the current work that proved effective. It is also observed that for discovering missing relations in the Assamese WordNet, simple local proximity-based methods might be more effective as compared to global and complex supervised models using network embedding. Further, it is noticed that though a set of retrieved words are not synonyms per se, they are semantically related to the target word and may be categorized as semantic cohorts.
The resignation of an Indian Administrative Services Officer named Rani Nagar and its non-acceptance by the state government of Haryana had revived the debate around sexual harassment in India. The reason given by the officer was sexual harassment by a senior and non-action of authorities leading to her feeling threatened for her safety. It highlights the fact that position of women in India is not corresponding to their professional achievements. The mindset of society remains attached to the notion of inferior status of women in general, regardless of their professional status. This paper seeks to delve more into the issue of sexual harassment per se and find the actual root cause that serves as a driving force behind such acts of perpetrator. It is done by using cases, theories and examples of contemporary times.
Background: MDU-1 is a high yielding, indeterminate cluster bean variety. In order to develop determinate mutant with high yield, MDU-1 cluster bean variety was irradiated using gamma rays, electron beam and combination of gamma rays and EMS with different doses and the variability induced in M5 generations were studied. Methods: Twenty one best individual plants from M4 generation were selected based on plant height and higher yield and forwarded to M5 generation where they were evaluated in RBD with three replications. Fourteen non-segregating mutant lines with desirable traits were identified in M5 generation and were evaluated for variability along with the parent MDU1. Result: Five best mutant lines namely ACMC-020-04, ACMC-020-11, ACMC-020-08, ACMC-020-10 and ACMC-020-11 were selected from the 14 accessions based on per se performance and variability analysis. The selected mutants needs to be forwarded for stability testing in different environments.
Contextualização: A tecnologia conhecida como blockchain permite a celebração de negócios jurídicos internacionais per se, uma vez que seu funcionamento se pauta na lógica descentralizada, na qual seus diferentes “nós” estão distribuídos em computadores de todo o mundo. No entanto, localizar uma transação feita através da blockchain por meio do raciocínio clássico do Direito Internacional Privado é tarefa desafiadora, o que traz questionamentos quanto à forma de solucionar o conflito de leis e jurisdições em relações jurídicas transnacionais.Objetivo: O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar as dificuldades para identificação da corte competente e do elemento de conexão aplicável aos conflitos internacionais potencialmente emergentes da tecnologia, bem como apontar possíveis caminhos para uma solução. Metodologia: A pesquisa utiliza-se do método dedutivo; quanto ao procedimento, é uma pesquisa bibliográfica que analisa estudos e artigos científicos sobre o tema.Resultados: A pesquisa conclui que a aplicação dos critérios clássicos para solucionar os conflitos de leis no espaço na tecnologia requer cuidados específicos e sugere que a própria tecnologia peer to peer pode trazer alternativas viáveis para uma maior segurança jurídica na solução de conflitos emergentes da tecnologia.
T-dependent humoral responses generate long-lived memory B cells and plasma cells (PCs) predominantly through germinal center (GC) reaction. In human and mouse, memory B cells and long-lived PCs are also generated during immune responses to T-independent antigen, including bacterial polysaccharides, although the underlying mechanism for such T-independent humoral memory is not clear. While T-independent antigen can induce GCs, they are transient and thought to be nonproductive. Unexpectedly, by genetic fate-mapping, we find that these GCs actually output memory B cells and PCs. Using a conditional BCL6 deletion approach, we show memory B cells and PCs fail to last when T-independent GCs are precluded, suggesting that the GC experience per se is important for programming longevity of T-independent memory B cells and PCs. Consistent with the fact that infants cannot mount long-lived humoral memory to T-independent antigen, B cells from young animals intrinsically fail to form T-independent GCs. Our results suggest that T-independent GCs support humoral memory, and GC induction may be key to effective vaccines with T-independent antigen.
Ivermectin was first approved for human use as an endectocide in the 1980s. It remains one of the most important global health medicines in history and has recently been shown to exert in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2. However, the macrocyclic lactone family of compounds has not previously been evaluated for activity against SARS-CoV-2. The present study aims at comparing their anti-viral activity in relevant human pulmonary cell lines in vitro. Here, in vitro antiviral activity of the avermectins (ivermectin and selamectin) and milbemycins (moxidectin and milbemycin oxime) were assessed against a clinical isolate from a CHU Montpellier patient infected with SARS-CoV-2 in 2020. Ivermectin, like the other macrocyclic lactones moxidectin, milbemycin oxime and selamectin, reduced SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro (EC50 of 2–5 μM). Immunofluorescence assays with ivermectin and moxidectin showed a reduction in the number of infected and polynuclear cells, suggesting a drug action on viral cell fusion. However, cellular toxicity of the avermectins and milbemycins during infection showed a very low selectivity index of <10. Thus, none of these agents appears suitable for human use for its anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity per se, due to low selectivity index.
The religious openness hypothesis, which states that religious traditions have the potential to integrate faith with intellect, is examined in this study within a migration context for the first time. Based on two lines of research, our central question is whether the sociological context or the Islamic tradition per se explains the (in)compatibility of faith and intellect orientation and their relation to psychological openness. Religious openness, psychological openness (ambiguity tolerance and acculturation strategies) and religiosity were measured among Muslims with a Turkish migration background in Germany. Our findings show a non-significant relationship between faith and intellect orientation and we therefore propose that the secular context is the crucial explaining factor. Religious reflection also moderates the link between different forms of religiosity and ambiguity tolerance. Finally, heterogeneous religious rationalities were uncovered that challenge the negative view of Muslims as fanatic, closed-minded people which prevails among the German majority society.
In susceptible populations, stress is a major risk factor for the development of mental disorders, including depression. Estradiol, often considered a female hormone, is distributed in the male brain via aromatization of testosterone. The role of estrogen receptors (ERs) in male stress susceptibility and depression is not well understood. We found that absence of ERβ is associated with susceptibility to stress in male mice and that activity of ERβ-projecting neurons from the basolateral amygdala to nucleus accumbens is reduced in hypogonadal mice subjected to stress, while activation of this circuit reverses stress-induced maladaptive behaviors. We identified that absence of estradiol, but not testosterone per se, underlies stress susceptibility and that brain-selective delivery of estradiol prevents the development of depression-related behaviors. Our findings provide evidence for an estrogen-based mechanism underlying stress susceptibility and offer an unexpected therapeutic strategy for treating depression in males.