plasmodium vivax
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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 186
Alejandro Flores-Alanis ◽  
Lilia González-Cerón ◽  
Frida Santillán-Valenzuela ◽  
Cecilia Ximenez ◽  
Marco A. Sandoval-Bautista ◽  

For 20 years, Plasmodium vivax has been the only prevalent malaria species in Mexico, and cases have declined significantly and continuously. Spatiotemporal genetic studies can be helpful for understanding parasite dynamics and developing strategies to weaken malaria transmission, thus facilitating the elimination of the parasite. The aim of the current contribution was to analyze P. vivax-infected blood samples from patients in southern Mexico during the control (1993–2007) and pre-elimination phases (2008–2011). Nucleotide and haplotype changes in the pvmsp142 fragment were evaluated over time. The majority of multiple genotype infections occurred in the 1990s, when the 198 single nucleotide sequences exhibited 57 segregating sites, 64 mutations, and 17 haplotypes. Nucleotide and genetic diversity parameters showed subtle fluctuations from across time, in contrast to the reduced haplotype diversity and the increase in the R2 index and Tajima’s D value from 2008 to 2011. The haplotype network consisted of four haplogroups, the geographical distribution of which varied slightly over time. Haplogroup-specific B-cell epitopes were predicted. Since only high-frequency and divergent haplotypes persisted, there was a contraction of the parasite population. Given that 84% of haplotypes were exclusive to Mesoamerica, P. vivax flow is likely circumscribed to this region, representing important information for parasite surveillance.

eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Iga Kucharska ◽  
Lamia Hossain ◽  
Danton Ivanochko ◽  
Qiren Yang ◽  
John L Rubinstein ◽  

Malaria is a global health burden, with Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Plasmodium vivax (Pv) responsible for the majority of infections worldwide. Circumsporozoite protein (CSP) is the most abundant protein on the surface of Plasmodium sporozoites, and antibodies targeting the central repeat region of CSP can prevent parasite infection. Although much has been uncovered about the molecular basis of antibody recognition of the PfCSP repeats, data remains scarce for PvCSP. Here, we performed molecular dynamics simulations for peptides comprising the PvCSP repeats from strains VK210 and VK247 to reveal how the PvCSP central repeats are highly disordered, with minor propensities to adopt turn conformations. Next, we solved eight crystal structures to unveil the interactions of two inhibitory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), 2F2 and 2E10.E9, with PvCSP repeats. Both antibodies can accommodate subtle sequence variances in the repeat motifs and recognize largely coiled peptide conformations that also contain isolated turns. Our structural studies uncover various degrees of Fab-Fab homotypic interactions upon recognition of the PvCSP central repeats by these two inhibitory mAbs, similar to potent mAbs against PfCSP. These findings augment our understanding of host-Plasmodium interactions, and contribute molecular details of Pv inhibition by mAbs to unlock structure-based engineering of PvCSP-based vaccines.

Md Atique Ahmed ◽  
Gauspasha Yusuf Deshmukh ◽  
Rehan Haider Zaidi ◽  
Ahmed Saif ◽  
Mohammed Abdulrahman Alshahrani ◽  

Malaria is a major public health concern, and any tangible intervention during the pre-elimination phase can result in a significant reduction in infection rates. Recent studies have reported that antigens producing cross-protective immunity can play an important role as vaccines and halt malaria transmission in different endemic regions. In this study, we studied the genetic diversity, natural selection, and discovered novel conserved epitopes of a high molecular weight rhoptry protein 2 (RhopH2) in clinical samples of Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium vivax cross-protective domains, which has been proven to produce cross-protective immunity in both species. We found low levels of nucleotide diversity (P. knowlesi; π ~ 0.0093, SNPs = 49 and P. vivax π ~ 0.0014, SNPs = 23) in P. knowlesi (n = 40) and P. vivax (n = 65) samples in the PkRhopH2 cross-protective domain. Strong purifying selection was observed for both species (P. knowlesi; dS - dN = 2.41, p < 0.009, P. vivax; dS - dN = 1.58, p < 0.050). In silico epitope prediction in P. knowlesi identified 10 potential epitopes, of which 7 epitopes were 100% conserved within clinical samples. Of these epitopes, an epitope with 10 amino acids (QNSKHFKKEK) was found to be fully conserved within all P. knowlesi and P. vivax clinical samples and 80%–90% conservation within simian malaria ortholog species, i.e., P. coatneyi and P. cynomolgi. Phylogenetic analysis of the PkRhopH2 cross-protective domain showed geographical clustering, and three subpopulations of P. knowlesi were identified of which two subpopulations originated from Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, and one comprised only the laboratory lines from Peninsular Malaysia. This study suggests that RhopH2 could be an excellent target for cross-protective vaccine development with potential for outwitting strain as well as species-specific immunity. However, more detailed studies on genetic diversity using more clinical samples from both species as well as the functional role of antibodies specific to the novel conserved epitope identified in this study can be explored for protection against infection.

Anthony Ford ◽  
Daniel Kepple ◽  
Jonathan Williams ◽  
Gabrielle Kolesar ◽  
Colby T. Ford ◽  

The unique biological features of Plasmodium vivax not only make it difficult to control but also to eliminate. For the transmission of the malaria parasite from infected human to the vector, gametocytes play a major role. The transmission potential of a malarial infection is inferred based on microscopic detection of gametocytes and molecular screening of genes in the female gametocytes. Microscopy-based detection methods could grossly underestimate the reservoirs of infection as gametocytes may occur as submicroscopic or as micro- or macro-gametocytes. The identification of genes that are highly expressed and polymorphic in male and female gametocytes is critical for monitoring changes not only in their relative proportions but also the composition of gametocyte clones contributing to transmission over time. Recent transcriptomic study revealed two distinct clusters of highly correlated genes expressed in the P. vivax gametocytes, indicating that the male and female terminal gametocytogeneses are independently regulated. However, the detective power of these genes is unclear. In this study, we compared genetic variations of 15 and 11 genes expressed, respectively, in the female and male gametocytes among P. vivax isolates from Southeast Asia, Africa, and South America. Further, we constructed phylogenetic trees to determine the resolution power and clustering patterns of gametocyte clones. As expected, Pvs25 (PVP01_0616100) and Pvs16 (PVP01_0305600) expressed in the female gametocytes were highly conserved in all geographical isolates. In contrast, genes including 6-cysteine protein Pvs230 (PVP01_0415800) and upregulated in late gametocytes ULG8 (PVP01_1452800) expressed in the female gametocytes, as well as two CPW-WPC family proteins (PVP01_1215900 and PVP01_1320100) expressed in the male gametocytes indicated considerably high nucleotide and haplotype diversity among isolates. Parasite samples expressed in male and female gametocyte genes were observed in separate phylogenetic clusters and likely represented distinct gametocyte clones. Compared to Pvs25, Pvs230 (PVP01_0415800) and a CPW-WPC family protein (PVP01_0904300) showed higher expression in a subset of Ethiopian P. vivax samples. Thus, Pvs230, ULG8, and CPW-WPC family proteins including PVP01_0904300, PVP01_1215900, and PVP01_1320100 could potentially be used as novel biomarkers for detecting both sexes of P. vivax gametocytes in low-density infections and estimating transmission reservoirs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 71-80

Objetivo. Determinar el estado actual de la prevalencia de Plasmodium en pacientes febriles que acuden al Hospital Básico Franklin Tello Nuevo Rocafuerte, cantón Aguarico, comparando con los datos de otros estudios epidemiológicos de la misma zona, y la frontera con el vecino país de Perú. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, retrospectivo de prevalencia. Desde 2011-2015 se recogieron 2.668 muestras de sangre capilar correspondientes al 55,04% de la población total del cantón Aguarico. Se empleó la técnica Gota Gruesa y Frotis coloreados con Giemsa para determinar positividad de Plasmodium. Resultados. El rango de variación de la prevalencia en los pobladores de las comunidades investigadas osciló entre 2,38% y 28,57%, detectándose mayor prevalencia en el sexo masculino (50,56 %). Estos hallazgos son similares a los estudios previos realizados entre 1992-1995, en la misma región del Aguarico. El Riesgo Relativo es (RR) es de 1,36 y el Odds Ratio (OR) fue de 1,71, siendo mayor el riesgo a desarrollar la enfermedad en los positivos. Conclusiones. Los datos de la investigación confirman la presencia de un foco autóctono de malaria producida por Plasmodium vivax en la selva amazónica ecuatoriana, excepto 2 casos de P. falciparum importados de Perú. Los casos diagnosticados clínicamente y mediante la técnica de la Gota Gruesa, fueron tratados con medicación antipalúdica con excelente adherencia al medicamento.

Anupkumar R. Anvikar ◽  
Prajyoti Sahu ◽  
Madan M. Pradhan ◽  
Supriya Sharma ◽  
Naseem Ahmed ◽  

Plasmodium vivax malaria elimination requires radical cure with chloroquine/primaquine. However, primaquine causes hemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient (G6PDd) individuals. Between February 2016 and July 2017 in Odisha State, India, a prospective, observational, active pharmacovigilance study assessed the hematologic safety of directly observed 25 mg/kg chloroquine over 3 days plus primaquine 0.25 mg/kg/day for 14 days in 100 P. vivax patients (≥ 1 year old) with hemoglobin (Hb) ≥ 7 g/dL. Pretreatment G6PDd screening was not done, but patients were advised on hemolysis signs and symptoms using a visual aid. For evaluable patients, the mean absolute change in Hb between day 0 and day 7 was −0.62 g/dL (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.93, −0.31) for males (N = 53) versus −0.24 g/dL (95%CI: −0.59, 0.10) for females (N = 45; P = 0.034). Hemoglobin declines ≥ 3 g/dL occurred in 5/99 (5.1%) patients (three males, two females); none had concurrent clinical symptoms of hemolysis. Based on G6PD qualitative testing after study completion, three had a G6PD-normal phenotype, one female was confirmed by genotyping as G6PDd heterozygous, and one male had an unknown phenotype. A G6PDd prevalence survey was conducted between August 2017 and March 2018 in the same region using qualitative G6PD testing, confirmed by genotyping. G6PDd prevalence was 12.0% (14/117) in tribal versus 3.1% (16/509) in nontribal populations, with G6PD Orissa identified in 29/30 (96.7%) of G6PDd samples. Following chloroquine/primaquine, notable Hb declines were observed in this population that were not recognized by patients based on clinical signs and symptoms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Diana Fernández ◽  
Cesar Segura ◽  
Mònica Arman ◽  
Suzanne McGill ◽  
Richard Burchmore ◽  

Abstract Background Thrombocytopenia is frequent in Plasmodium vivax malaria but the role of platelets in pathogenesis is unknown. Our study explores the platelet (PLT) proteome from uncomplicated P. vivax patients, to fingerprint molecular pathways related to platelet function. Plasma levels of Platelet factor 4 (PF4/CXCL4) and Von Willebrand factor (VWf), as well as in vitro PLTs—P. vivax infected erythrocytes (Pv-IEs) interactions were also evaluated to explore the PLT response and effect on parasite development. Methods A cohort of 48 patients and 25 healthy controls were enrolled. PLTs were purified from 5 patients and 5 healthy controls for Liquid Chromatography–Mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) analysis. Plasma levels of PF4/CXCL4 and VWf were measured in all participants. Additionally, P. vivax isolates (n = 10) were co-cultured with PLTs to measure PLT activation by PF4/CXCL4 and Pv-IE schizonts formation by light microscopy. Results The proteome from uncomplicated P. vivax patients showed 26 out of 215 proteins significantly decreased. PF4/CXCL4 was significantly decreased followed by other proteins involved in platelet activation, cytoskeletal remodeling, and endothelial adhesion, including glycoprotein V that was significantly decreased in thrombocytopenic patients. In contrast, acute phase proteins, including SERPINs and Amyloid Serum A1 were increased. High levels of VWf in plasma from patients suggested endothelial activation while PF4/CXCL4 plasma levels were similar between patients and controls. Interestingly, high levels of PF4/CXCL4 were released from PLTs—Pv-IEs co-cultures while Pv-IEs schizont formation was inhibited. Conclusions The PLT proteome analyzed in this study suggests that PLTs actively respond to P. vivax infection. Altogether, our findings suggest important roles of PF4/CXCL4 during uncomplicated P. vivax infection through a possible intracellular localization. Our study shows that platelets are active responders to P. vivax infection, inhibiting intraerythrocytic parasite development. Future studies are needed to further investigate the molecular pathways of interaction between platelet proteins found in this study and host response, which could affect parasite control as well as disease progression.

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