BackgroundΔ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been shown to decreased intraocular pressure (IOP). This project aims to define the relationship between plasma THC levels and IOP in healthy adult subjects.MethodsEleven healthy subjects received a single dose of inhaled cannabis that was self-administered in negative pressure rooms. Measurements of IOP and plasma THC levels were taken at baseline and every 30 min for 1 h and afterwards every hour for 4 h. IOP reduction and percent change in IOP over time were calculated. Linear regression models were used to measure the relationship between IOP and plasma THC levels. Two line linear regression models with F-tests were used to detect change points in the regression. Then, Pearson correlations were computed based on the change point.ResultsTwenty-two eyes met inclusion criteria. The average peak percentage decrease in IOP was 16% at 60 min. Percent IOP reduction as well as total IOP reduction demonstrated a negative correlation with THC plasma levels showing r-values of −0.81 and −0.70, respectively. F-tests revealed a change point in the regression for plasma levels >20 ng/ml. For levels >20 ng/ml, the correlation coefficients changed significantly with r-values of 0.21 and 0.29 (p < 0.01).ConclusionPlasma THC levels are significantly correlated with IOP reduction up to plasma levels of 20 ng/ml. Plasma levels >20 ng/ml were not correlated with further decrease in IOP. More research is needed to determine the efficacy of THC in reducing IOP for eyes with ocular hypertension and glaucoma.
Due to their innovative functions, the use of nanoparticles in various industries has been expanding. However, a key concern is whether nanoparticles induce unexpected biological effects. Although many studies have focused on innate immunity, information on whether nanoparticles induce biological responses through effects on acquired immunity is sparse. Here, to assess the effects of amorphous silica nanoparticles on acquired immunity, we analyzed changes in acute toxicities after pretreatment with amorphous silica nanoparticles (50 nm in diameter; nSP50). Pretreatment with nSP50 biochemically and pathologically exacerbated nSP50-induced hepatic damage in immunocompetent mice. However, pretreatment with nSP50 did not exacerbate hepatic damage in immunodeficient mice. Consistent with this, the depletion of CD8+ cells with an anti-CD8 antibody in animals pretreated with nSP50 resulted in lower plasma levels of hepatic injury markers such as ALT and AST after an intravenous administration than treatment with an isotype-matched control antibody. Finally, stimulation of splenocytes promoted the release of IFN-γ in nSP50-pretreated mice regardless of the stimulator used. Moreover, the blockade of IFN-γ decreased plasma levels of ALT and AST levels in nSP50-pretreated mice. Collectively, these data show that nSP50-induced acquired immunity leads to exacerbation of hepatic damage through the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
Hemorrhagic shock is associated with activation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Previous studies demonstrated that central RAS activation produced by various challenges sensitizes angiotensin (Ang) II-elicited hypertension and that ERS contributes to the development of neurogenic hypertension. The present study investigated whether controlled hemorrhage could sensitize Ang II-elicited hypertension and whether the brain RAS and ERS mediate this sensitization. Results showed that hemorrhaged (HEM) rats had a significantly enhanced hypertensive response to a slow-pressor infusion of Ang II when compared to sham HEM rats. Treatment with either angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 1 inhibitor, captopril, or ACE2 activator, diminazene, abolished the HEM-induced sensitization of hypertension. Treatment with the ERS agonist, tunicamycin, in sham HEM rats also sensitized Ang II-elicited hypertension. However, blockade of ERS with 4-phenylbutyric acid in HEM rats did not alter HEM-elicited sensitization of hypertension. Either HEM or ERS activation produced a greater reduction in BP after ganglionic blockade, upregulated mRNA and protein expression of ACE1 in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and elevated plasma levels of Ang II but reduced mRNA expression of the Ang-(1-7) receptor, Mas-R, and did not alter plasma levels of Ang-(1-7). Treatment with captopril or diminazene, but not phenylbutyric acid, reversed these changes. No treatments had effects on PVN protein expression of the ERS marker glucose-regulated protein 78. The results indicate that controlled hemorrhage sensitizes Ang II-elicited hypertension by augmenting RAS prohypertensive actions and reducing RAS antihypertensive effects in the brain, which is independent of ERS mechanism.
Background: In mouse models of amyloidosis, macrophage receptor 1 (MSR1) and neprilysin (NEP) have been shown to interact to reduce amyloid burden in the brain. Objective: The purpose of this study is to analyze these two gene products in combination with apolipoproteins and Aβ 1 - 42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma of individuals at different stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), as well as in autopsied brain samples from ROSMAP (Religious Orders Study and Memory and Aging Project). Methods: CSF/plasma levels of MSR1 and NEP were measured using the sensitive primer extension assay technology. CSF Aβ 1 - 42 was assessed with ELISA, while CSF ApoE and ApoJ were measured with the Luminex’s multiplex technology. Brain MSR1, APOE, and CLU (ApoJ) mRNA levels were measured with RNA-Seq and contrasted to amyloid plaques pathology using CERAD staging. Results: While plasma and CSF MSR1 levels are significantly correlated, this correlation was not observed for NEP. In addition to be highly correlated to one another, CSF levels of both MSR1 and NEP are strongly correlated with AD status and CSF Aβ 1 - 42, ApoE, and ApoJ levels. In the cortical tissues of subjects from ROSMAP, MSR1 mRNA levels are correlated with CLU mRNA levels and the CERAD scores but not with APOE mRNA levels. Conclusion: The discrepancies observed between CSF/plasma levels of MSR1 and NEP with CSF Aβ 1 - 42 and ApoE concentrations can be explained by many factors, such as the disease stage or the involvement of the blood-brain barrier breakdown that leads to the infiltration of peripheral monocytes or macrophages.
Dietary inflammatory potential (DIP) is a novel dietary index designed to evaluate individuals’ diets with considering inflammation and anti-inflammation score. In addition, adhesion molecules including soluble intracellular adhesion molecules-1 (sICAM-1), soluble cellular adhesion molecules-1 (sVCAM-1) and E-selectin are important biomarkers to assess endothelium dysfunction which are related to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. Also, there is no study for assessing the association between adhesion molecules and DIP until now as well as other studies that assessed the relationship between dietary inflammatory index or DIP has controversy. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the correlation between DIP and endothelial markers such as E-selectin, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 among female nurses from Isfahan. In this study, DIP was used instead of DII.
This study was performed on 420 healthy nurses. The nurses were selected by random cluster sampling method from private and public Isfahan hospitals. A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was applied to assess the DIP. A fasting blood sample was collected for measuring the plasma levels of the endothelial markers and other variables.
After adjusting different potential confounders, no statistical association was found between DIP and sICAM-1, E–selectin and sVCAM-1 in Model I (P = 0.57, 0.98 and 0.45), Model II (P = 0.57, 0.98 and 0.45) and Model III (P = 0.67, 0.92 and 0.50) in comparison to the crude group (P = 0.35, 0.83 and 0.49, respectively).
The results revealed that the plasma levels of endothelial markers including E-selectin, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were not significantly associated with DIP in female nurses.
AbstractPlasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is a main inhibitor of fibrinolysis. The PAI-1 gene (SERPINE1) harbors genetic variants with the potential of modifying plasma levels of PAI-1. A delicate balance exists between the coagulation and fibrinolytic system, and changes in PAI-1 have been suggested to compromise establishment of a successful pregnancy. Therefore, this systematic review investigated the association between genetic variants and/or plasma levels of PAI-1 and placenta-mediated pregnancy complications. An extensive literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science on the 29th of April 2021. All studies underwent quality rating according to The Study Quality Assessment Tools checklist provided by National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. A total of 71 studies were included, among which 60 studies investigated PAI-1 genotypes and 11 studies measured PAI-1 plasma levels. In 32 out of 59 studies, no association was found between the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism (rs1799768) and placenta-mediated pregnancy complications, which was stated as no significant difference in the genotype distribution comparing women with and without placenta-mediated pregnancy complications or no significantly increased odds of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications carrying the 4G/4G or 4G/5G genotype. Eight out of 11 studies reported significantly higher PAI-1 plasma levels in preeclamptic women than in women without preeclampsia. In conclusion, no clear evidence indicates that PAI-1 polymorphisms are associated with placenta-mediated pregnancy complications, and the possible association between high PAI-1 plasma levels and preeclampsia needs further investigations. Thus, investigation of PAI-1 genotypes and PAI-1 plasma levels does not currently seem to have a place in daily clinical practice managing placenta-mediated pregnancy complications.
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia is a life-threatening infectious disease, especially for elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. Despite enormous efforts to understand its underlying etiopathogenic mechanisms, most of them remain elusive. In this study, we compared differential plasma miRNAs and cytokines profiles between COVID-19 and other community-acquired pneumonias (CAP). A first screening and subsequent validation assays in an independent cohort of patients revealed a signature of 15 dysregulated miRNAs between COVID-19 and CAP patients. Additionally, multivariate analysis displayed a combination of 4 miRNAs (miR-106b-5p, miR-221-3p, miR-25-3p and miR-30a-5p) that significantly discriminated between both pathologies. Search for targets of these miRNAs, combined with plasma protein measurements, identified a differential cytokine signature between COVID-19 and CAP that included EGFR, CXCL12 and IL-10. Significant differences were also detected in plasma levels of CXCL12, IL-17, TIMP-2 and IL-21R between mild and severe COVID-19 patients. These findings provide new insights into the etiopathological mechanisms underlying COVID-19.
This study focused on the impact of the treatment with the hypomethylating agent 5-azacitidine on the redox status and inflammation in 24 MDS patients. Clinical and genetic features of MDS patients were recorded, and peripheral blood samples were used to determine the activity of the endogenous antioxidant defense system (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathion peroxidase, GPx; and reductase, GRd, activities), markers of oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation, LPO, and advanced oxidation protein products, AOPP). Moreover, pro-inflammatory cytokines and plasma nitrite plus nitrate levels as markers of inflammation, as well as CoQ10 plasma levels, were also measured. Globally, MDS patients showed less redox status in terms of a reduction in the GSSG/GSH ratio and in the LPO levels, as well as increased CAT activity compared with healthy subjects, with no changes in SOD, GPx, and GRd activities, or AOPP levels. When analyzing the evolution from early to advanced stages of the disease, we found that the GPx activity, GSSG/GSH ratio, LPO, and AOPP increased, with a reduction in CAT. GPx changes were related to the presence of risk factors such as high-risk IPSS-R or mutational score. Moreover, there was an increase in IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α plasma levels, with a further increase of IL-2 and IL-10 from early to advanced stages of the disease. However, we did not observe any association between inflammation and oxidative stress. Finally, 5-azacitidine treatment generated oxidative stress in MDS patients, without affecting inflammation levels, suggesting that oxidative status and inflammation are two independent processes.