Fruit And Vegetable Consumption
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Author(s):  
Sara Contreras-Martos ◽  
Alfonso Leiva ◽  
Álvaro Sanchez ◽  
Emma Motrico ◽  
Juan Bellón ◽  
...  

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that physical inactivity (PI) is responsible for 20 to 30% of all non-communicable diseases. We aimed to analyze the effectiveness of a multiple health behavior change (MHBC) intervention to increase physical activity (PA) in patients 45 to 75 years old who had at least 2 of 3 unhealthy behaviors (tobacco use, reduced fruit and vegetable consumption, and insufficient PA). The MHBC intervention is based on the Transtheoretical Model and the conceptual framework of the “5 A’s” and includes an individually tailored intervention, group sessions, and the use of community resources. We included 3062 participants, 1481 in the intervention group and 1581 in the control group. After 12 months, there were no differences in PA intensity measured by metabolic_equivalent_of_task_minutes/week (adjusted mean difference: 284.093, 95% CI: −298.24, 866.42) nor in the proportion of participants who increased PA levels to moderate or high (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85, 1.23; p = 0.822), and no differences in blood pressure, weight loss, or waist circumference. We found an increased proportion of patients in the intervention group who followed the WHO recommendations for PA (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.60; p = 0.02). We concluded that the intervention did not lead to a significant increase in PA.


2021 ◽  
pp. e000205
Author(s):  
Richard Hayhoe ◽  
Boika Rechel ◽  
Allan B Clark ◽  
Claire Gummerson ◽  
S J Louise Smith ◽  
...  

BackgroundPoor mental well-being is a major issue for young people and is likely to have long-term negative consequences. The contribution of nutrition is underexplored. We, therefore, investigated the association between dietary choices and mental well-being among schoolchildren.MethodsData from 7570 secondary school and 1253 primary school children in the Norfolk Children and Young People Health and Well-being Survey, open to all Norfolk schools during October 2017, were analysed. Multivariable linear regression was used to measure the association between nutritional factors and mental well-being assessed by the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale for secondary school pupils, or the Stirling Children’s Well-being Scale for primary school pupils. We adjusted all analyses for important covariates including demographic, health variables, living/home situation and adverse experience variables.ResultsIn secondary school analyses, a strong association between nutritional variables and well-being scores was apparent. Higher combined fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly associated with higher well-being: well-being scores were 3.73 (95% CI 2.94 to 4.53) units higher in those consuming five or more fruits and vegetables (p<0.001; n=1905) compared with none (n=739). The type of breakfast or lunch consumed was also associated with significant differences in well-being score. Compared with children consuming a conventional type of breakfast (n=5288), those not eating any breakfast had mean well-being scores 2.73 (95% CI 2.11 to 3.35) units lower (p<0.001; n=1129) and those consuming only an energy drink had well-being scores 3.14 (95% CI 1.20 to 5.09) units lower (p=0.002; n=91). Likewise, children not eating any lunch had well-being scores 2.95 (95% CI 2.22 to 3.68) units lower (p<0.001; 860) than those consuming a packed lunch (n=3744). In primary school analyses, the type of breakfast or lunch was associated with significant differences in well-being scores in a similar way to those seen in secondary school data, although no significant association with fruit and vegetable intake was evident.ConclusionThese findings suggest that public health strategies to optimise the mental well-being of children should include promotion of good nutrition.


Esophagus ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Makoto Sakai ◽  
Yuko Kitagawa ◽  
Hiroshi Saeki ◽  
Tatsuya Miyazaki ◽  
Taiki Yamaji ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 121 (10) ◽  
pp. A149
Author(s):  
M. Johnson ◽  
A. Mera

2021 ◽  
Vol 42 ◽  
Author(s):  
Alexandra Kalbus ◽  
Juliane Boenecke ◽  
Maxine Holt ◽  
Susan Powell ◽  
Ralf Reintjes

Objectives: This research aimed to explore the health behaviours of health sciences students over time and across different settings.Methods: A health behaviour surveillance system has been implemented in Hamburg and Manchester among under- and postgraduate health sciences students. Trends among the Hamburg sample were described. In a cross-sectional assessment, health behaviours across both universities were examined using multivariate regression analysis.Results: Between 2014 and 2018, increasing trends in physical activity and cannabis and alcohol consumption were observed in Hamburg (n = 1,366). While fruit and vegetable intake was constantly low, tobacco smoking decreased. No clear trend was observed for stress perception. The comparison (n = 474) revealed that Manchester students had higher odds of smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and fruit and vegetable consumption; and lower odds of being physically active, and consuming cannabis. No difference in stress perception was observed.Conclusions: Varying trends and potential areas of intervention were identified for health behaviours in Hamburg. The comparison with Manchester students revealed differences in behaviours, which could be further explored to help inform health promotion strategies in both settings.


Author(s):  
Maria Michelle Papamichael ◽  
George Moschonis ◽  
Christina Mavrogianni ◽  
Stavros Liatis ◽  
Konstantinos Makrilakis ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Emalie Rosewarne ◽  
Joseph Alvin Santos ◽  
Annet Hoek ◽  
Carley Grimes ◽  
Caryl Nowson ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Diets low in fruit and vegetables and high in salt are among the top dietary risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Using a nationally representative sample of Australians, this study aimed to describe self-reported intake of fruit and vegetables, and knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to salt intake, and determine if there were socio-demographic differences between population subgroups. Methods A 2016 cross-sectional survey of Australian adults aged 18 years and over, which comprised 160 questions, including socio-demographic and health-related questions. Descriptive statistics (mean, 95% confidence interval, %) were calculated. Weighted-adjusted logistic regression models were used to determine if there were socio-demographic differences in salt behaviours and fruit and vegetable consumption. Results A total of 1217 participants completed the survey (51% female). Less than 8% of participants reported consuming the recommended 2 or more serves of fruit and 5 or more serves of vegetables. Almost 60% of participants frequently added salt during cooking/meal preparation and 42% of respondents frequently placed a salt-shaker on the table at mealtimes. There were no consistent patterns between socio-demographic factors and measures of fruit and vegetable consumption and salt behaviours. Differences in at least one measure were found for sex, age, location, education level and weight category. Conclusions There were no consistent patterns between socio-demographic factors and salt behaviours and fruit and vegetable intake. Less than recommended intakes of fruit and vegetables and frequent discretionary salt use are placing Australians at risk of diet-related NCDs. Broad population-based policies and programs to improve fruit and vegetable intake and salt behaviours are needed to improve Australian’s diets.


Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 3085
Author(s):  
Pamela A. Koch ◽  
Randi L. Wolf ◽  
Raynika J. Trent ◽  
Ian Yi Han Ang ◽  
Matthew Dallefeld ◽  
...  

Wellness in the Schools (WITS) is a national non-profit organization partnering with public schools to provide healthy, scratch cooked, less processed meals (called an Alternative Menu), and active recess. This study examined the effects of WITS programming on school lunch consumption, including fruit and vegetable intake, in second and third grade students in New York City public schools serving a high proportion of students from low-income households. The intervention was evaluated with a quasi-experimental, controlled design with 14 elementary schools (7 that had initiated WITS programming in fall 2015 and were designated as intervention schools, and 7 matched Control schools). School lunch consumption was assessed by anonymous observation using the System of Observational Cafeteria Assessment of Foods Eaten (SOCAFE) tool in the fall of 2015 (Time 0, early intervention) and the spring of 2016 (Time 1) and 2017 (Time 2). There were no baseline data. Data were also collected on the types of entrées served in the months of October, January, and April during the two school years of the study. Across time points, and relative to students in the Control schools, students in WITS schools ate more fruits and vegetables (units = cups): Time 0: Control 0.18 vs. WITS 0.28; Time 1: Control 0.25 vs. WITS 0.31; and Time 2: Control 0.19 vs. WITS 0.27; p < 0.001. They also had more fruits and vegetables (cups) on their trays, which included more vegetables from the salad bar. However, students in the WITS schools ate fewer entrées (grain and protein) and drank less milk than students in the Control schools. Compared to the Control schools, WITS schools offered more homestyle entrées and fewer finger foods and sandwich entrees, i.e., less processed food. Students in WITS schools who received the Alternative menu and all of the WITS programming at all data collection time points selected and consumed more fruits and vegetables. Replication studies with randomized designs and true baseline data are needed to confirm these findings and to identify avenues for strengthening the effects of the program on other school lunch components.


Appetite ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 105538
Author(s):  
Gertrude G. Zeinstra ◽  
Marieke Battjes-Fries

Author(s):  
Eleanor Winpenny ◽  
Harriet Rowthorn ◽  
Kate Westgate ◽  
Ian Goodyer ◽  
Soren Brage ◽  
...  

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