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Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 3503
Author(s):  
Mohd Salahuddin Mohd Basri ◽  
Nor Nadiah Abdul Karim Shah ◽  
Alifdalino Sulaiman ◽  
Intan Syafinaz Mohamed Amin Tawakkal ◽  
Mohd Zuhair Mohd Nor ◽  
...  

According to the Food Wastage Footprint and Climate Change Report, about 15% of all fruits and 25% of all vegetables are wasted at the base of the food production chain. The significant losses and wastes in the fresh and processing industries is becoming a serious environmental issue, mainly due to the microbial degradation impacts. There has been a recent surge in research and innovation related to food, packaging, and pharmaceutical applications to address these problems. The underutilized wastes (seed, skin, rind, and pomace) potentially present good sources of valuable bioactive compounds, including functional nutrients, amylopectin, phytochemicals, vitamins, enzymes, dietary fibers, and oils. Fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW) are rich in nutrients and extra nutritional compounds that contribute to the development of animal feed, bioactive ingredients, and ethanol production. In the development of active packaging films, pectin and other biopolymers are commonly used. In addition, the most recent research studies dealing with FVW have enhanced the physical, mechanical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties of packaging and biocomposite systems. Innovative technologies that can be used for sensitive bioactive compound extraction and fortification will be crucial in valorizing FVW completely; thus, this article aims to report the progress made in terms of the valorization of FVW and to emphasize the applications of FVW in active packaging and biocomposites, their by-products, and the innovative technologies (both thermal and non-thermal) that can be used for bioactive compounds extraction.


Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 3541
Author(s):  
Corinne Labyak ◽  
Leslie Kaplan ◽  
Tammie Johnson ◽  
Meghan Moholland

The study’s purpose was to evaluate an intervention to reduce fruit and vegetable food neophobia and influence attitudes and behaviors among children using a four-month, non-experimental, before-and-after intervention. Participants were children aged 5–11 years in an intervention school (IS) and a control school (CS). Children were offered fruit or vegetable samples weekly utilizing school-specific psychosocial and educational practices to encourage participation. The outcomes of interest included attitudes measured using a written survey-based food neophobia scale (FNS), behavioral observations, and an oral survey. The post-intervention IS FNS score was significantly lower compared to pre-intervention (p = 0.04). Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a statistically significant overall effect of time (p = 0.006). School type-time interaction was not significant (p = 0.57). Pre-intervention observational data showed the proportions finishing and taking another fruit and vegetable sample were higher in the CS (p < 0.001 for both). Post-intervention, the proportions taking the vegetable (p = 0.007) and the fruit (p < 0.001) were higher in the IS. The percentage tasting the vegetable was higher in the CS (p = 0.009). Offering samples of produce in school lunchrooms may reduce food neophobia. This intervention is an inexpensive program that volunteers can quickly implement.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Clare Relton

Author(s):  
Yu. A. Sinyavsky ◽  
D. N. Tuigunov ◽  
E. A. Deripaskina ◽  
H. S. Sarsembaev ◽  
S. M. Barmak ◽  
...  

The article provides information on the development of new functional snacks based on local traditional and non-traditional raw materials. The uniqueness of the composition of snacks is associated with the presence in the recipe of dry mare's and camel's milk, as well as fruit and vegetable purees, dry strains of lacto and bifidobacteria, fucoidan and other food ingredients with increased nutritional and biological value. Evaluation of the chemical composition of the nutritional and biological value of snacks indicates their targeted antioxidant, detoxifying and immunostimulating properties. Functional snacks are recommended for use by the general public, including climbers, pilots of civil and military aviation, athletes, as well as in emergencies and conditions that adversely affect human health.


Author(s):  
Lele Shao ◽  
Yijie Zhao ◽  
Bo Zou ◽  
Xingmin Li ◽  
Ruitong Dai

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (19) ◽  
pp. 10869
Author(s):  
Aishatu Mala Musa ◽  
Che Fauziah Ishak ◽  
Noraini Md. Jaafar ◽  
Daljit Singh Karam

Recycling of wastes via composting is advocated as a means to reduce environmental hazards due to the dumping of wastes. Composting also creates a vital source of organic matter that is important in nutrient and soil moisture retention, soil fertility preservation and improving the physical and chemical properties of soils. This study was conducted to evaluate the short-term effects of four compost amendments in an Oxisol on carbon dynamics (carbon dioxide evolution and carbon transformation). The composts were prepared in 3:1 and 1:2 of fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) to biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) with and without indigenous microorganisms (IMO) (3:1 +IMO, 1:2 +IMO, 3:1 −IMO, 1:2 −IMO). Soil incubation studies were carried out for 35 days at three compost application rates of 0, 5 and 10 Mg ha−1, with measurements done including the CO2 evolution, dehydrogenase enzyme (DHA) assay and compost Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy spectral analysis. At 10 Mg ha−1 compost application rate, increased soil respiration rate was obtained at 3:1 +IMO compost, mostly due to increased labile organic matter and higher amount of FVW in the compost mixture, which stimulated soil microorganisms and/or their activities reflected by increased evolution of CO2 in the process of decomposition of the added composts in the compost-amended soils. The DHA activity increased with compost application rates, and significantly, the highest DHA activity was recorded at 3:1 +IMO compost applied at 10 Mg ha−1 soil at 1.38 triphenylformazan (TPF)/g dry soil/24 h. The compost FTIR spectral analysis showed transformations that occurred due to the composting that was carried out. A broadband between 3279–3347 cm wavelength in the FTIR spectroscopy indicated the presence of carboxylic and hydroxyl functional groups because of carbon transformation that occurred in the composts.


2021 ◽  
pp. e000205
Author(s):  
Richard Hayhoe ◽  
Boika Rechel ◽  
Allan B Clark ◽  
Claire Gummerson ◽  
S J Louise Smith ◽  
...  

BackgroundPoor mental well-being is a major issue for young people and is likely to have long-term negative consequences. The contribution of nutrition is underexplored. We, therefore, investigated the association between dietary choices and mental well-being among schoolchildren.MethodsData from 7570 secondary school and 1253 primary school children in the Norfolk Children and Young People Health and Well-being Survey, open to all Norfolk schools during October 2017, were analysed. Multivariable linear regression was used to measure the association between nutritional factors and mental well-being assessed by the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale for secondary school pupils, or the Stirling Children’s Well-being Scale for primary school pupils. We adjusted all analyses for important covariates including demographic, health variables, living/home situation and adverse experience variables.ResultsIn secondary school analyses, a strong association between nutritional variables and well-being scores was apparent. Higher combined fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly associated with higher well-being: well-being scores were 3.73 (95% CI 2.94 to 4.53) units higher in those consuming five or more fruits and vegetables (p<0.001; n=1905) compared with none (n=739). The type of breakfast or lunch consumed was also associated with significant differences in well-being score. Compared with children consuming a conventional type of breakfast (n=5288), those not eating any breakfast had mean well-being scores 2.73 (95% CI 2.11 to 3.35) units lower (p<0.001; n=1129) and those consuming only an energy drink had well-being scores 3.14 (95% CI 1.20 to 5.09) units lower (p=0.002; n=91). Likewise, children not eating any lunch had well-being scores 2.95 (95% CI 2.22 to 3.68) units lower (p<0.001; 860) than those consuming a packed lunch (n=3744). In primary school analyses, the type of breakfast or lunch was associated with significant differences in well-being scores in a similar way to those seen in secondary school data, although no significant association with fruit and vegetable intake was evident.ConclusionThese findings suggest that public health strategies to optimise the mental well-being of children should include promotion of good nutrition.


Esophagus ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Makoto Sakai ◽  
Yuko Kitagawa ◽  
Hiroshi Saeki ◽  
Tatsuya Miyazaki ◽  
Taiki Yamaji ◽  
...  

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 3348
Author(s):  
Megan L. Hammersley ◽  
Rebecca Wyse ◽  
Rachel Jones ◽  
Fiona Stacey ◽  
Anthony Okely ◽  
...  

This translation study assessed the effectiveness of two remotely delivered healthy eating and active living interventions for parents of 2- to 6-year-old children in improving child fruit and vegetable intake, non-core food intake, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, screen time, and sleep. Parents (n = 458) were recruited to a partially randomised preference trial comprising three intervention groups. Healthy Habits Plus comprised six telephone calls, Time2bHealthy comprised six online modules, and the active control comprised ten information sheets and a summary booklet. Data were collected from parents via a telephone questionnaire at baseline and nine months post-baseline. Data were analysed for randomised participants alone (n = 240), preference participants alone (n = 218), and all participants combined (n = 458). There was no significant improvement in fruit and vegetable intake (primary outcome) when comparing the telephone and online interventions to the control. In both the randomised only and all participants combined analyses, there was a significant improvement in non-core food intake for the telephone intervention compared to the control (p < 0.001). Differences between interventions for other outcomes were small. In conclusion, the telephone and online interventions did not improve child fruit and vegetable intake relative to written materials, but the telephone intervention did improve non-core food intake.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-39
Author(s):  
Joy Hutchinson ◽  
Valerie Tarasuk

Abstract Objective: To examine the relationship between the dietary quality of Canadian children and adults and household food insecurity status. Design: Dietary intake was assessed with one 24-h recall. Households were classified as food secure or marginally, moderately or severely food insecure based on their responses to the Household Food Security Survey Module. We applied multivariable analyses of variance to determine whether % energy from ultra-processed foods, fruit and vegetable intake, Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores, macronutrient composition, and micronutrient intakes per 1000 kcal differed by food insecurity status after accounting for income, education and region. Analyses were run separately for children 1-8 years and 9-18 years and men and women 19-64 years of age. Setting: 10 provinces in Canada Participants: Respondents to the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition, aged 1-64 years, with complete food insecurity data and non-zero energy intakes. N=15909 Results: Among adults and children, % energy from ultra-processed foods was strongly related to severity of food insecurity, but no significant trend was observed for fruit and vegetable intake or HEI score. Carbohydrate, total sugar, fat, and saturated fat intake/1000 kcal did not differ by food insecurity status, but there was a significant negative trend in protein/1000 kcal among older children, a positive trend in sodium/1000 kcal among younger children, and inverse associations between food insecurity severity and several micronutrients/1000 kcal among adults and older children. Conclusions: With more severe household food insecurity, ultra-processed food consumption was higher and diet quality was generally lower among both adults and children.


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