primary school children
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Alessio Matiz ◽  
Franco Fabbro ◽  
Andrea Paschetto ◽  
Cosimo Urgesi ◽  
Enrica Ciucci ◽  

In relation to the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, a large body of research has identified a negative impact on individuals' affectivity, frequently documented by increased prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms. For children, this research was less extensive, was mainly based on caregivers' reports and neglected personality assessment. In order to measure the impact of the pandemic, and the fears it caused, on primary school children's affect and personality, 323 (180 boys and 143 girls) Italian third, fourth and fifth graders were assessed between October and November 2020, namely during the second wave of COVID-19 infections in Italy, with validated self-reports of affect (Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children, PANAS-C), fear of COVID-19 (Fear of COVID-19 Scale, FCV-19S) and personality (junior Temperament and Character Inventory, jTCI). In comparison with PANAS-C and jTCI normative scores collected prior to the pandemic, data obtained from children in 2020 showed unchanged affect scores in the overall sample, a decrease of Positive Affect in girls, and a decrease in the Harm Avoidance and an increase in the Self-Transcendence scales of personality. Fear of COVID-19 scores were positively correlated with Negative Affect scores and negatively predicted by children's personality profile of resilience (calculated using scores on the Harm Avoidance and the Self-Directedness scales of personality). These results suggested that Italian primary school children, especially boys, maintained their pre-pandemic levels of affect (or restored them after the first COVID-19 wave) and partially diverged from the typical development of personality in an apparently positive sense, namely toward more courageous/optimistic and spiritual profiles. This sort of children's post-traumatic growth might also be attributed to children's family and education systems, which should continue to be supported to promote and maintain community mental health.

Waleed Abdualaziz Mohammad Dahag ◽  
Abdulwahab Ismail Mohamed Al-Kholani ◽  
Taghreed Ahmed M Al-Kibsi ◽  
Hussein Shoga Al-Deen ◽  
Hassan Abdulwahab Al-Shamahy ◽  

Introduction and objective: Mixed dentition space analysis methods via Tanaka-Johnston analysis are regularly used all over the world. Conversely, the appropriate of this analysis between different ethnic groups is dubious. The study aimed to test the appropriate of the Tanaka-Johnston analysis for Yemeni adults and to arise regression equations designed for Yemen population if needed.  Methods: The study included two hundred and twenty-seven (106 males and 121 females) Yemenis from Sana'a University, University of Science and Technology, and Al-Rehab Private Clinic. The mesiodistal widths of the four permanent lower canines, incisors, and premolars for the entire quadrants were determined with a digital caliper to the nearest 0.01 mm. To compare average presentation values ​​derived from this study with values ​​derived using Tanaka-Johnston equations, Student's paired t-test was used, as well as the chi-square (χ2) test used for appropriateness of fit. Result: Gender differences were observed in the total mesiodistal width of both canines and premolars in both arches as revealed by the t-test (p < 0.001). The sum of the actual mesiodistal width of the canines and premolars was compared with the expected widths derived from the Tanaka and Johnston equation and significant differences (p<0.001) were found. Regression analysis indicated that the sum of the mesiodistal width of the permanent mandibular incisors is a good predictor of that of un-erupted canines and premolars, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.51 to 0.61. Accordingly, two linear regression equations were developed to predict tooth width for Yemeni males and females. Conclusion: It was concluded from this study that the Tanaka-Johnston analysis did not accurately predict the mesiodistal width of the unruptured canines and premolars of the Yemeni population. Moreover, new regression equations have been developed for the research sample that can be a standard for Yemen. However, further studies must be performed to verify the applicability and accuracy of these equations.                   Peer Review History: Received: 10 November 2021; Revised: 12 December; Accepted: 29 December, Available online: 15 January 2022 Academic Editor: Dr. Asia Selman Abdullah, Pharmacy institute, University of Basrah, Iraq, [email protected] UJPR follows the most transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system. The identity of the authors and, reviewers will be known to each other. This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review. As a result of this unique system, all reviewers will get their due recognition and respect, once their names are published in the papers. We expect that, by publishing peer review reports with published papers, will be helpful to many authors for drafting their article according to the specifications. Auhors will remove any error of their article and they will improve their article(s) according to the previous reports displayed with published article(s). The main purpose of it is ‘to improve the quality of a candidate manuscript’. Our reviewers check the ‘strength and weakness of a manuscript honestly’. There will increase in the perfection, and transparency.  Received file:                Reviewer's Comments: Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 6.5/10 Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.5/10 Reviewers: Dr. A.A. Mgbahurike, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, [email protected] Rola Jadallah, Arab American University, Palestine, [email protected] Similar Articles: PREVALENCE AND CAUSES OF TRAUMATIC DENTAL INJURIES TO ANTERIOR TEETH AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN SANA'A CITY, YEMEN OCCLUSAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PRIMARY DENTITION AMONG A SAMPLE OF YEMENI PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 7
Maren Eikerling ◽  
Matteo Secco ◽  
Gloria Marchesi ◽  
Maria Teresa Guasti ◽  
Francesco Vona ◽  

Ideally, language and reading skills in bilingual children are assessed in both languages spoken in order to avoid misdiagnoses of communication or learning disorders. Due to limited capacity of clinical and educational staff, computerized screenings that allow for automatic evaluation of the children’s performance on reading tasks (accuracy and speed) might pose a useful alternative in clinical and school settings. In this study, a novel web-based screening platform for language and reading assessment is presented. This tool has been preliminarily validated with monolingual Italian, Mandarin–Italian and English–Italian speaking primary school children living and schooled in Italy. Their performances in the screening tasks in Italian and—if bilingual—in their native language were compared to the results of standardized/conventional reading assessment tests as well as parental and teacher questionnaires. Correlations revealed the tasks that best contributed to the identification of risk for the presence of reading disorders and showed the general feasibility and usefulness of the computerized screening. In a further step, both screening administrators (Examiners) and child participants (Examinees) were invited to participate in usability studies, which revealed general satisfaction and provided suggestions for further improvement of the screening platform. Based on these findings, the potential of the novel web-based screening platform is discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Lotte Prevo ◽  
Maria Jansen ◽  
Dave Van Kann ◽  
Stef Kremers

The number of children dealing with behavioural problems is increasing. A major challenge in many health-supportive programmes is the recruitment and retention of these children. In the current study, Sport Mix Club (SMC), an approach to enhance socioemotional disorders of 4- to 12-year-old children through sport classes in municipality Vaals, the Netherlands, is used as an illustration. Where many studies faced difficulties getting and keeping children in their interventions, SMC overcame this challenge. Therefore, we decided to explore “What factors contribute to enhanced recruitment and retention procedures among children with behavioural problems in Sport Mix Club?” A qualitative case study design using the analysis of the administrative logbook of the SMC coach and trainees, individual interviews with the SMC coach, trainees (n = 2), school teachers (n = 3) and parents of participating children (n = 9), and four focus group interviews with children (n = 13) were carried out. During the recruitment and retention of SMC, the human psychological need of relatedness seemed to be of crucial value. The fact that the SMC coach: (1) made efforts to become a familiar face for children, parents and community partners beforehand; (2) showed enthusiasm; and (3) placed her focus on having fun as opposed to the children's problems, seemed to be decisive in the process of getting children to participate in SMC and retaining their participation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 8
Vincenzo Sorgente ◽  
Erez James Cohen ◽  
Riccardo Bravi ◽  
Diego Minciacchi

Two observational learning approaches have been shown to be successful in improving children’s motor performances: one is “technique-focused”, another is “goal-focused”. In this study, we sought to compare the effectiveness of these two strategies, thus testing for the more efficient method of observational learning to enhance motor skills in primary school children. To this end, two experiments were designed. Experiment 1 involved a precision ball throwing task. Experiment 2 involved a standing long jump task. A total of 792 subjects (aged 6–11) participated in this study and were divided into technique-focus (Experiment 1 n = 200; Experiment 2 n = 66), goal-focus (Experiment 1 n = 195; Experiment 2 n = 68), and control groups (Experiment 1 n = 199; Experiment 2 n = 64). The experiments were divided into pretest, practice, and retention phases. During the practice phase, the technique-focus and goal-focus groups were given different visual instructions on how to perform the task. The results showed that children aged 10–11 belonging to the technique-focus group performed significantly better in the practice phase than both the goal-focus and the control group (p < 0.001), but only for the precision ball throwing task. These findings could be useful for training adaptation in the context of motor learning and skills acquisition.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Laura Dallolio ◽  
Sofia Marini ◽  
Alice Masini ◽  
Stefania Toselli ◽  
Rita Stagni ◽  

Abstract Background The World Health Organization stated an average of 60 min of Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) that children should accumulate every day. Nevertheless physical inactivity is growing and, due to restrictions imposed during pandemic, PA levels of children might be more negatively affected. The study aimed to analyse the impact of COVID-19 on the PA of an Italian sample of primary school children by comparing it before and during COVID-19 considering gender differences. Methods A pre-post analysis (October 2019–January 2021) was conducted using a randomized sample (N = 77) from the I-MOVE study settled in an Italian primary school. Both objective (Actigraph accelerometers) and self-reported (PAQ-c questionnaires) assessments of PA were performed. Changes were compared using T-Student and Chi-Square test. Gender differences were calculated using Anova. Results Weekly and daily minutes time spent in MVPA significantly decreased respectively by − 30.59 ± 120.87 and − 15.32 ± 16.21 from before to during pandemic while the weekly time spent in sedentary behaviour increased (+ 1196.01 ± 381.49). PAQ-c scores followed the same negative trend (− 0.87 ± 0.72). Boys seem to have suffered more than girls from the imposed restrictions. Conclusion These findings outline the need for strategies to promote PA and reduce sedentary behaviours in children to prevent COVID-19 restriction long-term effects.

Janet Antwi ◽  
Esi Quaidoo ◽  
Agartha Ohemeng ◽  
Boateng Bannerman

Background: Dietary diversity is generally considered as a good indicator of nutrient adequacy and is influenced by various factors at the national, household, and individual levels. Objective: The present study sought to determine the relationships between household food insecurity, primary caregivers’ nutrition knowledge, and dietary diversity of school-aged children in Ghana. Methods: This forms part of a longitudinal study conducted in the Ayawaso West Municipal district in Accra (urban setting) and the Upper Manya Krobo district (rural setting) in Ghana. Data were collected from a total of 116 caregiver-child dyads using 24-h dietary recall and a short version of the US 12-month Household Food Security Survey Module. Nutrition knowledge and sociodemographic data were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was used to check for factors associated with children’s dietary diversity. Results: Majority of households reported food insecurity, with a higher percentage of insecure households located in the rural area (88.9% vs. 46.5%, P ≤ 0.0001), compared to the urban setting. Diet diversity among the study children was low, with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) of 5.8 (2.1) out of 14 food groups. Children living in food insecure households were three times more likely to have received low diverse diet compared to those from food secure households (adjusted odds ratio [OR] =3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–8.0). Caregivers’ nutrition knowledge was, however, not related to children’s dietary diversity. Discussion and conclusion: Household food insecurity was a main predictor of dietary diversity among school-age children in this study. Thus, caregiver knowledge in nutrition may not be enough, particularly in the presence of food insecurity to guarantee adequate nutrition for school-aged children.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262359
Esi Quaidoo ◽  
Agartha Ohemeng ◽  
Mawuli K. Kushitor ◽  
Janet Antwi

Introduction Nutrition literacy has been cited as a crucial life skill. Nutrition education as a primary school subject has been treated inconsequentially when compared to other subjects. We investigated an aspect of the current state of nutrition education in Ghana by engaging stakeholders about their sources of nutrition information and the perceived barriers in implementing nutrition education in mainstream primary schools. Methods Three hundred and fifty one (351) primary school children, 121 homebased caregivers, six schoolteachers, two headteachers, two Ghana Education Service (GES) officials, and six school cooks were involved in the study. Surveys were used to collect data on nutrition information acquisition behaviors and to record perceived barriers. Key Informant Interviews were conducted among GES officials, headteachers, schoolteachers and school cooks, while Focus Group Discussions were used among homebased caregivers and children to gather qualitative information. Results Only 36.3% of the primary school children had heard about nutrition, and 71% of those got nutrition information from their family members. About 70% of homebased caregivers had heard or seen nutrition messages, and their source of nutrition information was predominantly traditional media. Schoolteachers mostly received their nutrition information from non-governmental organizations and the Internet, while most of the school cooks stated their main source of nutrition information was hospital visits. Perceived barriers included schoolteachers’ knowledge insufficiency, and lack of resources to adequately deliver nutrition education. Lack of a clear policy appeared to be an additional barrier. Conclusion The barriers to the implementation of nutrition education in the mainstream curriculum at the primary school level that were identified in this study can be resolved by: providing schoolteachers with learning opportunities and adequate nutrition education resources for practical delivery, having specific national policy framework, and including family members and school cooks in the nutrition education knowledge and information dissemination process.

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