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2022 ◽  
Yuxia Wei ◽  
Tomas Andersson ◽  
Jessica Edstorp ◽  
Josefin E. Lofvenborg ◽  
Mats Talback ◽  

Objectives: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the offspring. We investigated whether this association is consistent with a causal interpretation by accounting for familial (shared genetic and environmental) factors using family-based, quasi-experimental designs. Design: A nationwide, prospective cohort study and a nested case-control study (quasi-experiment) comparing children with T1D to their age-matched siblings (or cousins). Setting: Swedish national registers. Participants: We included 2,995,321 children born in Sweden between 1983 and 2014. Exposure: Information on maternal smoking during pregnancy was retrieved from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Main outcome measures: Children were followed for a diagnosis of T1D until 2020 through the National Patient, Diabetes and Prescribed Drug Registers. Results: A total of 18,617 children developed T1D, with a median age at diagnosis of 9.4 years. The sibling and cousin comparison design included 14,284 and 7,988 of these children, respectively. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a 22% lower risk of offspring T1D in the full cohort (hazard ratio: 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75 to 0.82) in the multivariable-adjusted model. The corresponding odds ratio was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.69 to 0.88) in the sibling and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.66 to 0.79) in the cousin comparison analysis. Conclusions: This nationwide, family-based study provides support for a protective effect of maternal smoking on offspring T1D. Mechanistic studies are needed to elucidate the underlying pathways behind this link.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 241-262
Matheus Demambre Bacchi ◽  
Alexandre Nunes Almeida ◽  
Tiago Santos Telles ◽  

The milk production chain has relevance for the Brazilian economy, generating jobs and income. In addition, milk production, because of family-based farms, has an important social function. However, milk production is spatially heterogeneous in Brazil, especially due to the different technological patterns of production. In this context, the objective of this study was to verify the spatio-temporal distribution and dynamics of milk production in Brazil. For this purpose, milk production in Brazil in 2000 and 2016 was analyzed. The Brazilian microregions that specialize in milk production were identified using location quotient (LQ). An exploratory analysis of spatial data and Moran’s I were used to measure spatial autocorrelation among regions. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess the grouping relationships of variables as a function of the regions that specialize in milk production. Between 2000 and 2016, there was a decrease in the number of microregions that specialize in milk production. Thus, in 2016, approximately 20% of the microregions and over 22% of Brazilian municipalities specialized in milk production. The microregions and municipalities that specialize in milk production were concentrated mainly in the states of Minas Gerais and Goiás and in the Southern region of Brazil. There was an increase in milk productivity in all regions of the country, especially in those regions where production was concentrated. The formation of high-high clusters was found in the most productive regions of the country, i.e., in the South and Southeast, where the effects of technological spillover were observed, and the formation of low-low clusters was observed in the less productive regions, i.e., in the North and Northeast. Two main components were formed. The first component aggregated variables related to milk production in volume, and the second component aggregated variables inherent to productivity. It was possible to verify the recent growth in milk production and productivity in the country as well as to demonstrate the heterogeneity in production. Although there was a decrease in the number of microregions and municipalities that specialize in milk production, there was a concentration and increase in milk production and productivity in Brazil.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Qiang-Wei Wang ◽  
Wei-Wei Lin ◽  
Yong-Jian Zhu

Abstract Background Several studies have shown that members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family play an important role in cancer immunoregulation, and trials targeting these molecules are already underway. Our study aimed to integrate and analyze the expression patterns and clinical significance of TNF family-related genes in gliomas. Methods A total of 1749 gliomas from 4 datasets were enrolled in our study, including the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset as the training cohort and the other three datasets (CGGA, GSE16011, and Rembrandt) as validation cohorts. Clinical information, RNA expression data, and genomic profile were collected for analysis. We screened the signature gene set by Cox proportional hazards modelling. We evaluated the prognostic value of the signature by Kaplan–Meier analysis and timeROC curve. Gene Ontology (GO) and Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) analysis were performed for functional annotation. CIBERSORT algorithm and inflammatory metagenes were used to reveal immune characteristics. Results In gliomas, the expression of most TNF family members was positively correlated. Univariate analysis showed that most TNF family members were related to the overall survival of patients. Then through the LASSO regression model, we developed a TNF family-based signature, which was related to clinical, molecular, and genetic characteristics of patients with glioma. Moreover, the signature was found to be an independent prognostic marker through survival curve analysis and Cox regression analysis. Furthermore, a nomogram prognostic model was constructed to predict individual survival rates at 1, 3 and 5 years. Functional annotation analysis revealed that the immune and inflammatory response pathways were enriched in the high-risk group. Immunological analysis showed the immunosuppressive status in the high-risk group. Conclusions We developed a TNF family-based signature to predict the prognosis of patients with glioma.

Dagmar Pauli ◽  
Nicole Flütsch ◽  
Nadine Hilti ◽  
Christiane Schräer ◽  
Mariama Soumana ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-06
Agussalim Agussalim ◽  
Muhammad Saleng ◽  
Hermansyah Hermansyah ◽  
Ardhanari Hendra Kusuma ◽  
Bahruddin Bahruddin ◽  

Various aspects of human life are organized in Muslim community, including health problems. Islam highly upholds the health in which many people are deceived from such health. One of the efforts that can be done to maintain the health given by god is to implement clean and Healthy Living Behavior in families, schools and others. This research was conducted at Mosque of Antang, Makassar. This research was conducted using Cross Sectional design. The sample used as many as 40 respondents; data analysis used is univariate and bivariate with chi-square test. The results of statistical tests of Hand Washing Orders and defecation obtained a value of p Value of 0.000, and Smoking Prohibition obtained a value of p Value of 0.001, the test results showed that there is a relationship between Hand Washing Orders, defecation and Smoking Prohibition with Clean and Healthy Living Behavior, because the calculated value of P < α = 0.05. Based on the research, it can be concluded that Clean and Healthy Living Behavior of Applied Mosque Antang is in the good category. Where they are washing Their Hands, Make Latrines and without Smoking because of the encouragement of faith in their hearts, fear and obedience to the command of God and the magnitude of their love for the Messenger. Therefore, it is expected through this research that the People of Indonesia to further increase faith and following to god and love and practice of the Messenger of God in daily life.

2022 ◽  
Dolly Reyes‐Dumeyer ◽  
Kelley Faber ◽  
Badri Vardarajan ◽  
Alison Goate ◽  
Alan Renton ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 511
Yanjie Zhang ◽  
Yu Ma ◽  
Ruiqi Liu ◽  
Guanglin Li

K-homologous (KH) family is a type of nucleic acid-binding protein containing the KH domain and has been found to affect splicing and transcriptional regulation. However, KH family genes haven’t been investigated in plant species systematically. In this study, we identified 30 genes that belonged to the KH family based on HMM of the KH domain in Arabidopsis thaliana. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the KH family is grouped into three subgroups. Synteny analysis showed that AtKH9 and AtKH29 have the conserved synteny relationship between A. thaliana and the other five species. The AtKH9 and AtKH29 were located in the cytoplasm and nucleus. The seed germination rates of the mutants atkh9 and atkh29 were higher than wild-type after abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) treatments. In addition, the expression of ABA-related genes, such as ABRE-binding factor 2 (ABF2), ABRE-binding factor 4 (ABF4), and delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), and an SA-related gene pathogenesis-related proteins b (PR1b) were downregulated after ABA and SA treatments, respectively. These results suggested that atkh9 and atkh29 mutants inhibit the effect of ABA and SA on seed germination. In conclusion, our results provide valuable information for further exploration of the function of KH family genes and propose directions and ideas for the identification and characterization of KH family genes in other plants.

Soren Newman ◽  
Darin Saul ◽  
Christy Dearien ◽  
Nancy Hernandez

AbstractAs the economic and social importance of Latina-owned businesses continues to grow, research is needed on the factors that motivate entrepreneurship among Latinas and that facilitate and constrain their success. This study draws on in-depth interviews and survey data to explore the experiences of Latina entrepreneurs in Idaho, USA, from an embeddedness perspective combining family embeddedness and intersectionality frameworks to illustrate how family and social positioning affects motivations, opportunities, and access to resources. We found Latinas were motivated to start businesses by a range of interacting factors, including centrally a strong sense of responsibility to their nuclear and families of origin. Prominent family motivations included the desire to provide opportunities for younger and older generations and the need for flexibility to manage family and work obligations. Compared to their middle-class peers, working-class Latina entrepreneurs were more likely to need flexibility because they could not afford third-party care for a family member, to experience greater barriers to accessing traditional financing and professional advice, and to be more dependent on family support for their success, although not all had family-based resources upon which they could rely. Latinas struggled to fulfill traditional family role expectations and obligations while assuming the expanded responsibilities of running a business. While a central tension in their lives, this struggle provides the impetus to renegotiate and update traditional gender and family expectations as they navigate role conflict and strain.

Francesco Sanmarchi ◽  
Francesco Esposito ◽  
Sofia Marini ◽  
Alice Masini ◽  
Susan Scrimaglia ◽  

Childhood obesity is an established health problem, and there is a growing need for health promotion interventions focused on healthy behaviors in collaboration with parents and schools. The Mediterranean diet (MD) could help to tackle obesity, but it is essential to maintain a good level of physical activity (PA) and limit time spent in sedentary activities (ST). To explore family determinants, adherence to the MD and PA levels as potential predictors of a child’s health-related behaviors, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of 368 Italian primary school children with a mean age of 8.95 years (SD = 1.43). Data were collected from May to June 2017 using a weekly diary, an interactive tool to assess the child’s and parents’ lifestyle. The child’s degree of adherence to the MD was calculated using the KIDMED index. Adherence to the MD was high, medium and poor in 5.2%, 62.5% and 32.3% of children, respectively. Higher maternal educational level was positively associated with children’s MD and PA (p < 0.05) and negatively correlated to ST. Maternal fruit and vegetable consumption was positively related to the MD and negatively related to ST (p < 0.05). Maternal PA was positively associated with the MD (p < 0.001). Paternal PA, and fruit and vegetable consumption, were positively associated with children’s PA (p < 0.05). Our results underline the need for future studies, mainly focused on school-based and family-based interventions, to promote healthy lifestyles and nutritional habits.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 08-13
Dewi Rury Arindari ◽  
Dessy Suswitha ◽  
Shinta Maharani ◽  
Lela Aini

ABSTRAKCovid-19 merupakan penyakit yang penyebabnya adalah virus corona yang menyerang sistem pernapasan. Pemerintah sudah menghimbau masyarakatnya dengan memberikan protokol kesehatan untuk menghindari penularan wabah COVID-19, untuk dapat menerapkannya dibutuhkan kesadaran masyarakat. Salah satu hal yang bisa dilakukan untuk meningkatkan kesadaran masyarakat adalah dengan memberikan penyuluhan tentang Pencegahan COVID-19 berbasis Keluarga dengan Menerapkan 5M. Tujuan Pengabdian adalah untuk Meningkatkan Kesadaran Masyarakat RT 22 Kelurahan Pahlawan Palembang tentang Pencegahan COVID-19 berbasis Keluarga dengan Menerapkan 5M dapat terlaksana dengan baik. Metode yang digunakan dalam kegiatan pengabdian masyarakat adalah berbentuk pendidikan kesehatan dengan metode ceramah dan demontrasi. Kesimpulan adanya peningkatan kesadaran masyarakat berbasis keluarga di RT 22 kelurahan Pahlawan Palembang dalam menerapkan protokol Kesehatan 5M. Disarankan bagi peneliti selanjutnya agar dapat mengimplementasikan dan memberikan informasi terbaru tentang pencegahan virus Covid 19 selain penerapan 5M pada masyarakat yang lebih luas. Kata Kunci: Peningkatan Kesadaran Masyarakat, Menerapkan 5M, Pencegahan        Covid 19 ABSTRACTCovid-19 is a disease caused by a coronavirus that attacks the respiratory system. The government has appealed to the public by providing health protocols to avoid the transmission of the COVID-19 outbreak, to be able to implement it, public awareness is needed. One of the things that can be done to increase public awareness is to provide counseling about Family-based COVID-19 Prevention by Implementing 5M. The purpose of this service is to increase public awareness of RT 22 Pahlawan Palembang Village regarding Family-based COVID-19 Prevention by Implementing 5M can be carried out properly. The method used in community service activities is in the form of health education with lecture and demonstration methods. The conclusion is that there is an increase in family-based community awareness in RT 22, Pahlawan Palembang village in implementing the 5M Health protocol. It is recommended for further researchers to be able to implement and provide the latest information about the prevention of the Covid 19 virus in addition to the application of 5M to the wider community. Keywords: Increasing Public Awareness, Implementing 5M, Prevention of Covid             19

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