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2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-39
Jessica N. Rocheleau ◽  
Sonia Chiasson

Autistic teenagers are suspected to be more vulnerable to privacy and safety threats on social networking sites (SNS) than the general population. However, there are no studies comparing these users’ privacy and safety concerns and protective strategies online with those reported by non-autistic teenagers. Furthermore, researchers have yet to identify possible explanations for autistic teenagers’ increased risk of online harms. To address these research gaps, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 autistic and 16 non-autistic teenagers assessing their privacy- and safety-related attitudes and behaviors on SNS, and factors affecting them. We used videos demonstrating relevant SNS scenarios as prompts to engage participants in conversation. Through our thematic analyses, we found evidence that autistic teenagers may be more averse to taking risks on SNS than non-autistic teenagers. Yet, several personal, social, and SNS design factors may make autistic teenagers more vulnerable to cyberbullying and social exclusion online. We provide recommendations for making SNS safer for autistic teenagers. Our research highlights the need for more inclusive usable privacy and security research with this population.

2022 ◽  
Vol 91 ◽  
pp. 27-49
Marisa E. Marraccini ◽  
Katherine M. Ingram ◽  
Shereen C. Naser ◽  
Sally L. Grapin ◽  
Emily N. Toole ◽  

Barry Mauer

How do we know when a belief or behavior qualifies as pathological? Are institutions vulnerable to pathological beliefs and behaviors? Nicolas de Condorcet sought answers to these questions using Enlightenment reason. This chapter argues that Condorcet’s modern liberal approach to diagnosing and treating pathological beliefs and behaviors (1) didn’t go far enough, and (2) contained significant blind spots that we are only now coming to appreciate through scientific discoveries. Currently the United States and much of the world is crippled by two pandemics: the coronavirus (a physical virus) and the right-wing cult (a cognitive virus). This chapter introduces the theory of the cognitive immune system and discusses the affordances and limits of the metaphor to medical epidemiology.

2022 ◽  
Minh-Hoang Nguyen

While mindset plays a crucial role in determining our perceptions, thinking, attitudes, and behaviors in daily life (including creativity making and serendipity), I do not know for sure what forms one’s mindset. Yet, after several discussions with my mentor (Dr. Quan-Hoang Vuong) and my friend (Mr. Tam-Tri Le), I think that the survival demands of humans may heavily influence the mindset because, without these demands, humans would have gone extinct.

2022 ◽  
Hyemin Han ◽  
Clifford Ian Workman ◽  
Joshua May ◽  
Payton Scholtens ◽  
Kelsie J Dawson ◽  

Some stories of moral exemplars motivate us to emulate their admirable attitudes and behaviors, but why do some exemplars motivate us more than others? We systematically studied how motivation to emulate is influenced by the similarity between a reader and an exemplar in social or cultural background (Relatability) and how personally costly or demanding the exemplar’s actions are (Attainability). Study 1 found that university students reported more inspiration and related feelings after reading true stories about the good deeds of a recent fellow alum, compared to a famous moral exemplar from decades past. Study 2A developed a battery of short moral exemplar stories that more systematically varied Relatability and Attainability, along with a set of non-moral exemplar stories for comparison. Studies 2B and 2C examined the path from the story type to relatively low stakes altruism (donating to charity and intentions to volunteer) through perceived attainability and relatability, as well as elevation and pleasantness. Together, our studies suggest that it is primarily the relatability of the moral exemplars, not the attainability of their actions, that inspires more prosocial motivation, at least regarding acts that help others at a relatively low cost to oneself.

2022 ◽  
Kristin Lunz Trujillo ◽  
Matthew Baum ◽  
David Lazer ◽  
Katherine Ognyanova ◽  
James Druckman ◽  

How significant a problem is misinformation for the delivery of healthcare services? Misinformation, and any resulting misperceptions, certainly have the potential to negatively impact people’s attitudes and behaviors surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic. Whether or not someone internalizes misinformation depends on multiple factors, but one key consideration is their level of trust in established experts providing cues on COVID-19 behavior. For instance, people who do not trust sources such as the CDC will be less likely to follow its recommendations on COVID-19 prevention behaviors, and may instead opt to seek out information - which often turns out to be misinformation - on their own. Understanding the sources and effects of information and misinformation is therefore important.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 402-420
Marina Anjani ◽  
Insanul Qisti Barriyah ◽  
Moh. Rusnoto Susanto ◽  
Dwi Susanto

The creation of this artwork aims to be able to educate the public about discrimination against women which is often not realized, invite the wider community to stop attitudes and behaviors that discriminate against women, and be able to implement it into the form of painting so that it can be enjoyed by the wider community directly. as well as through print and electronic media. The creation of this painting is carried out using the exploration method, namely in the form of exploration of ideas and concepts, exploration of forms, exploration of media and techniques, aesthetic exploration, and data obtained from research conducted previously so as to produce primary and secondary data. In the creation of a painting with the title “Beauty Myths as Inspiration for the Creation of Paintings”, an embodiment of painting is produced with canvas as the main media with sizes ranging from 80x100 Cm, 130x100 Cm, to 120x100 Cm. With the creation of works of art regarding forms of discrimination against women, knowledge and lessons can be learned from these paintings. Keywords: Myth, Beauty, Inspiration, Creation, Art Painting

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262301
Carol Bruce ◽  
Maeve E. Gearing ◽  
Jill DeMatteis ◽  
Kerry Levin ◽  
Timothy Mulcahy ◽  

In May 2020, Westat, in partnership with Stanford University School of Medicine, conducted a nationally-representative household survey of American attitudes and behaviors regarding COVID-19. In this article, we examine what the Coronavirus Attitudes and Behaviors Survey tells us about the impact of COVID-19 on financial status and how this impact varies by demographic characteristics, the presence of health risk factors, and financial status (including employment factors). The survey reveals significant inequality in financial impact, as those who were most financially vulnerable prior to the pandemic found themselves under greater financial strain, while those who were more financially secure have experienced a neutral or even positive impact of the pandemic on household finances. These findings have important implications for public policy as policymakers seek to target aid to those who need it most.

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