antigen presentation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 142 ◽  
pp. 105-119
Ian Mantel ◽  
Barzan A. Sadiq ◽  
J. Magarian Blander

2022 ◽  
Bohan Li ◽  
Hua Duan ◽  
Sha Wang ◽  
Jiajing Wu ◽  
Yazhu Li

Abstract Objectives: This study was anchored on the state of local immune-infiltration in the endometrium, which acts as critical factors affecting embryonic implantation, and aimed at establishing novel approaches to assess endometrial receptivity for patients with IVF failure.Methods: Immune-infiltration levels in the GSE58144 dataset (n=115) from GEO were analyzed by digital deconvolution and validated by immunofluorescence (n=30), illustrating that dysregulation of the ratio of Mf1 to Mf2 is an important factor contributing to implantation failure. Then, modules most associated with M1/M2 macrophages (Mfs) and their hub genes were then selected by weighted gene co-expression network and univariate analyses, then validated by GSE5099 macrophage dataset, qPCR analysis (n=16), and western blot. It revealed that closely related gene modules dominated three biological processes in macrophages: antigen presentation, interleukin−1−mediated signalling pathway, and phagosome acidification, respectively. Their hub genes were significantly altered in patients and related with ribosomal, lysosome, and proteasomal pathways. Finally, the artificial neural network (ANN) and nomogram models were established from hub genes, of which efficacy was compared and validated in the GSE165004 dataset (n=72). Models established by the selected hub genes exhibited excellent predictive values in both datasets, and ANN performed best with an accuracy of 98.3% and an AUC of 0.975 (95% CI 0.945-1). Conclusions: Macrophages, proven to be essential for endometrial receptivity, were regulated by gene modules dominating antigen presentation, interleukin−1−mediated signalling pathway, and phagosome acidification. Selected hub genes can effectively assess endometrial dysfunction receptivity for IVF outcomes by the ANN approach.

2022 ◽  
Vol 219 (2) ◽  
Dimitra Kerdidani ◽  
Emmanouil Aerakis ◽  
Kleio-Maria Verrou ◽  
Ilias Angelidis ◽  
Katerina Douka ◽  

A key unknown of the functional space in tumor immunity is whether CD4 T cells depend on intratumoral MHCII cancer antigen recognition. MHCII-expressing, antigen-presenting cancer-associated fibroblasts (apCAFs) have been found in breast and pancreatic tumors and are considered to be immunosuppressive. This analysis shows that antigen-presenting fibroblasts are frequent in human lung non-small cell carcinomas, where they seem to actively promote rather than suppress MHCII immunity. Lung apCAFs directly activated the TCRs of effector CD4 T cells and at the same time produced C1q, which acted on T cell C1qbp to rescue them from apoptosis. Fibroblast-specific MHCII or C1q deletion impaired CD4 T cell immunity and accelerated tumor growth, while inducing C1qbp in adoptively transferred CD4 T cells expanded their numbers and reduced tumors. Collectively, we have characterized in the lungs a subset of antigen-presenting fibroblasts with tumor-suppressive properties and propose that cancer immunotherapies might be strongly dependent on in situ MHCII antigen presentation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Natasha Salame ◽  
Jean-Pierre Bikorimana ◽  
Nehme El-Hachem ◽  
Wael Saad ◽  
Mazen Kurdi ◽  

Abstract Background Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been extensively used in the clinic due to their exquisite tissue repair capacity. However, they also hold promise in the field of cellular vaccination as they can behave as conditional antigen presenting cells in response to interferon (IFN)-gamma treatment under a specific treatment regimen. This suggests that the immune function of MSCs can be pharmacologically modulated. Given the capacity of the agonist pyrimido-indole derivative UM171a to trigger the expression of various antigen presentation-related genes in human hematopoietic progenitor cells, we explored the potential use of UM171a as a means to pharmacologically instill and/or promote antigen presentation by MSCs. Methods Besides completing a series of flow-cytometry-based phenotypic analyses, several functional antigen presentation assays were conducted using the SIINFEKL-specific T-cell clone B3Z. Anti-oxidants and electron transport chain inhibitors were also used to decipher UM171a’s mode of action in MSCs. Finally, the potency of UM171a-treated MSCs was evaluated in the context of therapeutic vaccination using immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice with pre-established syngeneic EG.7T-cell lymphoma. Results Treatment of MSCs with UM171a triggered potent increase in H2-Kb cell surface levels along with the acquisition of antigen cross-presentation abilities. Mechanistically, such effects occurred in response to UM171a-mediated production of mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species as their neutralization using anti-oxidants or Antimycin-A mitigated MSCs’ ability to cross-present antigens. Processing and presentation of the immunogenic ovalbumin-derived SIINFEKL peptide was caused by de novo expression of the Psmb8 gene in response to UM171a-triggered oxidative stress. When evaluated for their anti-tumoral properties in the context of therapeutic vaccination, UM171a-treated MSC administration to immunocompetent mice with pre-established T-cell lymphoma controlled tumor growth resulting in 40% survival without the need of additional supportive therapy and/or standard-of-care. Conclusions Altogether, our findings reveal a new immune-related function for UM171a and clearly allude to a direct link between UM171a-mediated ROS induction and antigen cross-presentation by MSCs. The fact that UM171a treatment modulates MSCs to become antigen-presenting cells without the use of IFN-gamma opens-up a new line of investigation to search for additional agents capable of converting immune-suppressive MSCs to a cellular tool easily adaptable to vaccination. Graphical abstract

Immunity ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 55 (1) ◽  
pp. 3-6
Lavanya Sivapalan ◽  
Valsamo Anagnostou

Theranostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 639-656
Kaili Liu ◽  
Ashley R. Hoover ◽  
Jason R. Krawic ◽  
Christa I. DeVette ◽  
Xiao-Hong Sun ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 141 ◽  
pp. 305-308
Sebastien Apcher ◽  
Maria Tovar-Fernadez ◽  
Sarah Ducellier ◽  
Aikaterini Thermou ◽  
Megane Nascimento ◽  

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0261987
David Possamaï ◽  
Laïla-Aïcha Hanafi ◽  
Angélique Bellemare-Pelletier ◽  
Katia Hamelin ◽  
Paméla Thébault ◽  

Nanoparticles made of the coat protein of papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) and a single-strand RNA were previously shown to be an efficient antigen presentation system for the trigger of cellular immunity. Engineering of PapMV nano with a cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope was previously shown activating specific T lymphocytes through a proteasome-independent major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) cross-presentation. In this study, we provide new insights into the mechanism of the MHC-I cross-presentation mediated by PapMV nanoparticles. We demonstrate that PapMV nanoparticles do not require the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP), but rather depend on lysosome acidification and cathepsin S protease activity for presentation of the T cell epitope. We have also linked the induction of autophagy with this vacuolar MHC-I cross-presentation process. Interestingly, autophagy is induced in antigen-presenting cells after PapMV nanoparticles exposure and inhibition of autophagy reduce MHC-I cross-presentation. This study demonstrates that autophagy is associated with TAP- and proteasome-independent MHC-I cross-presentation. A deeper understanding of the autophagy-dependent MHC-I cross-presentation will be useful in designing vaccination platforms that aim to trigger an efficient cytotoxic T lymphocyte response.

Annette Paschen ◽  
Ignacio Melero ◽  
Antoni Ribas

Resistance to immunotherapy is due in some instances to the acquired stealth mechanisms of tumor cells that lose expression of MHC class I antigen–presenting molecules or downregulate their class I antigen–presentation pathways. Most dramatically, biallelic β2-microglobulin (B2M) loss leads to complete loss of MHC class I expression and to invisibility to CD8+ T cells. MHC class I expression and antigen presentation are potently upregulated by interferon-γ (IFNγ) in a manner that depends on IFNγ receptor (IFNGR) signaling via JAK1 and JAK2. Mutations in these molecules lead to IFNγ unresponsiveness and mediate loss of recognition and killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Loss of MHC class I augments sensitivity of tumor cells to be killed by natural killer (NK) lymphocytes, and this mechanism could be exploited to revert resistance, for instance, with interleukin-2 (IL-2)-based agents. Moreover, in some experimental models, potent local type I interferon responses, such as those following intratumoral injection of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) or TLR3 agonists, revert resistance due to mutations of JAKs. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Cancer Biology, Volume 6 is April 2022. Please see for revised estimates.

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