signalling pathway
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Ashraf Marzouk El Tantawi ◽  

proper S6K /BTK and PLCγ2 are main regulations for thromboxane-A synthesis, and necessary for B-cell maturations and T-cells modulations and functions. The main factors that cause the Osteoarthritis “OA” and diabetes and linked between them are the deficiency of Ser amino acids and decreasing or down regulations of Ser phosphorylation signalling pathway which necessary for proper S6K productions, where normally the Ser phosphorylation signalling pathway is the basis of Ser /Thr phosphorylation signalling which normally necessary for proper Akt, S6K1 synthesis and necessary for RORs and IFNs synthesis and also necessary for running proper BTK and proper PLCγ2 productions , where S6K is main regulator for ATPase and for proper PLCγ1 and for PLCγ2 synthesis which necessary for bone growth and for increasing and modulating immune efficiency

2022 ◽  
Vol 103 ◽  
pp. 108445
Guochun Ou ◽  
Mingmei Zhu ◽  
Yufang Huang ◽  
Wen Luo ◽  
Jie Zhao ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 146 ◽  
pp. 112545
Tapan Behl ◽  
Tarapati Rana ◽  
Ghallab H. Alotaibi ◽  
Md. Shamsuzzaman ◽  
Maaz Naqvi ◽  

2022 ◽  
Bohan Li ◽  
Hua Duan ◽  
Sha Wang ◽  
Jiajing Wu ◽  
Yazhu Li

Abstract Objectives: This study was anchored on the state of local immune-infiltration in the endometrium, which acts as critical factors affecting embryonic implantation, and aimed at establishing novel approaches to assess endometrial receptivity for patients with IVF failure.Methods: Immune-infiltration levels in the GSE58144 dataset (n=115) from GEO were analyzed by digital deconvolution and validated by immunofluorescence (n=30), illustrating that dysregulation of the ratio of Mf1 to Mf2 is an important factor contributing to implantation failure. Then, modules most associated with M1/M2 macrophages (Mfs) and their hub genes were then selected by weighted gene co-expression network and univariate analyses, then validated by GSE5099 macrophage dataset, qPCR analysis (n=16), and western blot. It revealed that closely related gene modules dominated three biological processes in macrophages: antigen presentation, interleukin−1−mediated signalling pathway, and phagosome acidification, respectively. Their hub genes were significantly altered in patients and related with ribosomal, lysosome, and proteasomal pathways. Finally, the artificial neural network (ANN) and nomogram models were established from hub genes, of which efficacy was compared and validated in the GSE165004 dataset (n=72). Models established by the selected hub genes exhibited excellent predictive values in both datasets, and ANN performed best with an accuracy of 98.3% and an AUC of 0.975 (95% CI 0.945-1). Conclusions: Macrophages, proven to be essential for endometrial receptivity, were regulated by gene modules dominating antigen presentation, interleukin−1−mediated signalling pathway, and phagosome acidification. Selected hub genes can effectively assess endometrial dysfunction receptivity for IVF outcomes by the ANN approach.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 945
Marlena Gudelska ◽  
Kamil Dobrzyn ◽  
Marta Kiezun ◽  
Katarzyna Kisielewska ◽  
Edyta Rytelewska ◽  

Chemerin, belonging to the adipokine family, exhibits pleiotropic activity. We hypothesised that the adipokine could be involved in the regulation of steroidogenesis in the porcine endometrium. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of chemerin on the key steroidogenic enzyme proteins’ abundance (Western blot), as well as on P4 and E2 secretion (radioimmunoassay) by the porcine endometrium during early pregnancy and the mid-luteal phase of the oestrous cycle. Moreover, we investigated the hormone impact on Erk and Akt signalling pathway activation (Western blot). Chemerin stimulated E2 production on days 10 to 11 of pregnancy. On days 10 to 11 and 15 to 16 of gestation, and on days 10 to 11 of the cycle, chemerin enhanced the expression of StAR and all steroidogenic enzyme proteins. On days 12 to 13 of pregnancy, chemerin decreased StAR and most of the steroidogenic enzyme proteins’ abundance, whereas the P450C17 abundance was increased. On days 27 to 28 of pregnancy, chemerin increased StAR and P450C17 protein contents and decreased 3βHSD protein amounts. It was noted that the adipokine inhibited Erk1/2 and stimulated Akt phosphorylation. The obtained results indicate that chemerin affected P4 and E2 synthesis through the Erk1/2 and Akt signalling pathways.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Carla Usai ◽  
Joseph M. Gibbons ◽  
Corinna Pade ◽  
Wenhao Li ◽  
Sabina R. M. Jacobs ◽  

BackgroundThe presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection varies from asymptomatic to severe COVID-19. Similarly, high variability in the presence, titre and duration of specific antibodies has been reported. While some host factors determining these differences, such as age and ethnicity have been identified, the underlying molecular mechanisms underpinning these differences remain poorly defined.MethodsWe analysed serum and PBMC from 17 subjects with a previous PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and 10 unexposed volunteers following the first wave of the pandemic, in the UK. Anti-NP IgG and neutralising antibodies were measured, as well as a panel of infection and inflammation related cytokines. The virus-specific T cell response was determined by IFN-γ ELISPOT and flow cytometry after overnight incubation of PBMCs with pools of selected SARS-CoV-2 specific peptides.ResultsSeven of 17 convalescent subjects had undetectable levels of anti-NP IgG, and a positive correlation was shown between anti-NP IgG levels and the titre of neutralising antibodies (IC50). In contrast, a discrepancy was noted between antibody levels and T cell IFN-γ production by ELISpot following stimulation with specific peptides. Among the analysed cytokines, β-NGF and IL-1α levels were significantly different between anti-NP positive and negative subjects, and only β-NGF significantly correlated with anti-NP positivity. Interestingly, CD4+ T cells of anti-NP negative subjects expressed lower amounts of the β-NGF-specific receptor TrkA.ConclusionsOur results suggest that the β-NGF/TrkA signalling pathway is associated with the production of anti-NP specific antibody in mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and the mechanistic regulation of this pathway in COVID-19 requires further investigation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 71 (1) ◽  
Shengyan Chen ◽  
Zheng Xu ◽  
Siqi Liu ◽  
Wei Duan ◽  
Yun Huang ◽  

Introduction. Biofilms are the natural growth state for most microorganisms. C. albicans biofilms are composed of multiple cell types (round budding yeast-form cells, oval pseudohyphal cells, and elongated hyphal cells) encased in an extracellular matrix. C. albicans biofilms are notorious for resistance to antimicrobial treatments, a property that might be determined by complex mechanisms. Exogenous farnesol exerts a certain antifungal activity against C. albicans with medical implications. Different from other microbes, C. albicans biofilms can tolerate exogenous farnesol at high concentration with some cells still surviving and even maintaining proliferation, but the mechanism is unclear. Hypothesis. The study hypothesizes that C. albicans resists farnesol by activating the PKC signalling pathway. Aim. The study aims to discuss the molecular mechanism of C. albicans resistance to farnesol. Methodology. The ROS levels, the genes and proteins of the PKC pathway were compared between the farnesol-tolerant and non-tolerant groups using ROS levels assay, q-RT PCR and Western blot, respectively. Further, the mutant strains (pkc1Δ/Δ and mkc1Δ/Δ) were constructed, then the survival rates and ROS levels of biofilms exposed to farnesol were compared between mutant and wild strains. The morphological changes were observed using TEM. Results. The survival rates of C. albicans biofilms decreased rapidly under the lower concentration of farnesol (P<0.05), and kept stable (P>0.05) as the concentration rose up to 200 µM. The gene expression of the PKC pathway increased, while ROS levels remained stable and even decreased in the farnesol-tolerant biofilms, compared with those in the farnesol-nontolerant biofilms after farnesol treatment (P<0.05); pkc1 and mkc1 were significantly upregulated by C. albicans during the development of biofilm tolerance to farnesol. The cell wall and cytoplasm of pkc1Δ/Δ and mkc1Δ/Δ were damaged, and the ROS level increased (P<0.05); meanwhile, the survival rate of biofilms decreased compared with that of wild-type strain under the same farnesol concentrations (P<0.05). ROS inhibitors reversed these changes in pkc1Δ/Δ and mkc1Δ/Δ when the mutant strains exposed to farnesol. Conclusion. C. albicans biofilms can tolerate high concentrations of farnesol by activating pkc1 and mkc1 of the PKC pathway and stabilizing ROS levels. The pkc1 and mkc1 are two key genes regulated by C. albicans in the process of biofilm tolerance to farnesol.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Feng Pan ◽  
Yue-jin Li ◽  
Ying Lu

Abstract Background P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated steroid resistance (SR) has been suggested to play a significant role in lupus nephritis (LN) treatment failure. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS), the main effective components of the traditional Chinese medicine notoginseng, exhibited potent reversal capability of P-gp-mediated SR, but its mechanism remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of PNS on reversing SR in lupus and its underlying mechanism in vivo and in vitro. Methods In this study, an SR animal and splenic lymphocyte model were established using low-dose methylprednisolone (MP). Flow cytometry was used to detect the effect of PNS on reversing P-gp-mediated SR and the expression of P-gp in different T-cells phenotypes. Serum levels of ANA and dsDNA in lupus mice were measured by ELISA. Apoptosis was identified by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. RT–PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the protein and mRNA expression levels of SIRT1, FoxO1, and MDR1 in SR splenic lymphocytes from lupus mice (SLCs/MPs). Results PNS could reverse the SR in lupus mice. Simultaneously, PNS increased the apoptotic effect of MP on SLCs/MP cells. The increased accumulation of rhodamine-123 (Rh-123) indicated that intracellular steroid accumulation could be increased by the action of PNS. Moreover, PNS decreased the expression of P-gp levels. Further experiments elucidated that the SIRT1/FoxO1/MDR1 signalling pathway existed in SLCs/MP cells, and PNS suppressed its expression level to reverse SR. The expression of P-gp in Th17 from SLCs/MP cells was increased, while PNS could reduce its level in a more obvious trend. Conclusion The present study suggested that PNS reversed P-gp-mediated SR via the SIRT1/FoxO1/MDR1 signalling pathway, which might become a valuable drug for the treatment of SR in lupus. Th17 might be the main effector cell of PNS reversing SR.

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