cancer biology
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2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Reza Hosseini ◽  
Hamzeh Sarvnaz ◽  
Maedeh Arabpour ◽  
Samira Molaei Ramshe ◽  
Leila Asef-Kabiri ◽  

AbstractTumor-derived exosomes (TDEs) play pivotal roles in several aspects of cancer biology. It is now evident that TDEs also favor tumor growth by negatively affecting anti-tumor immunity. As important sentinels of immune surveillance system, natural killer (NK) cells can recognize malignant cells very early and counteract the tumor development and metastasis without a need for additional activation. Based on this rationale, adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded NK cells/NK cell lines, such as NK-92 cells, has attracted great attention and is widely studied as a promising immunotherapy for cancer treatment. However, by exploiting various strategies, including secretion of exosomes, cancer cells are able to subvert NK cell responses. This paper reviews the roles of TDEs in cancer-induced NK cells impairments with mechanistic insights. The clinical significance and potential approaches to nullify the effects of TDEs on NK cells in cancer immunotherapy are also discussed.

NAR Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Laurence Faucher-Giguère ◽  
Audrey Roy ◽  
Gabrielle Deschamps-Francoeur ◽  
Sonia Couture ◽  
Ryan M Nottingham ◽  

ABSTRACT Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are an omnipresent class of non-coding RNAs involved in the modification and processing of ribosomal RNA (rRNA). As snoRNAs are required for ribosome production, the increase of which is a hallmark of cancer development, their expression would be expected to increase in proliferating cancer cells. However, assessing the nature and extent of snoRNAs’ contribution to cancer biology has been largely limited by difficulties in detecting highly structured RNA. In this study, we used a dedicated midsize non-coding RNA (mncRNA) sensitive sequencing technique to accurately survey the snoRNA abundance in independently verified high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) and serous borderline tumour (SBT) tissues. The results identified SNORA81, SNORA19 and SNORA56 as an H/ACA snoRNA signature capable of discriminating between independent sets of HGSC, SBT and normal tissues. The expression of the signature SNORA81 correlates with the level of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) modification and its knockdown inhibits 28S rRNA pseudouridylation and accumulation leading to reduced cell proliferation and migration. Together our data indicate that specific subsets of H/ACA snoRNAs may promote tumour aggressiveness by inducing rRNA modification and synthesis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 839
Dávid Kovács ◽  
Nóra Igaz ◽  
Mohana K. Gopisetty ◽  
Mónika Kiricsi

As an emerging new class, metal nanoparticles and especially silver nanoparticles hold great potential in the field of cancer biology. Due to cancer-specific targeting, the consequently attenuated side-effects and the massive anti-cancer features render nanoparticle therapeutics desirable platforms for clinically relevant drug development. In this review, we highlight those characteristics of silver nanoparticle-based therapeutic concepts that are unique, exploitable, and achievable, as well as those that represent the critical hurdle in their advancement to clinical utilization. The collection of findings presented here will describe the features that distinguish silver nanoparticles from other anti-cancer agents and display the realistic opportunities and implications in oncotherapeutic innovations to find out whether cancer therapy by silver nanoparticles is fiction or reality.

2022 ◽  
Markus Galhuber ◽  
Helene Michenthaler ◽  
Christoph Heininger ◽  
Isabel Reinisch ◽  
Christoph Nössing ◽  

Abstract Signaling trough p53 is a major cellular stress response mechanism and increases upon nutrient stresses such as starvation. Here, we show in a human hepatoma cell line that starvation leads to robust nuclear p53 stabilization. Using BioID, we determine the cytoplasmic p53 interaction network within the immediate-early starvation response and show that p53 is dissociated from several metabolic enzymes and the kinase PAK2 for which direct binding with the p53 DNA-binding domain was confirmed with NMR studies. Furthermore, proteomics after p53 immunoprecipitation (RIME) uncovered the nuclear interactome under prolonged starvation, where we confirmed the novel p53 interactors SORBS1 (insulin receptor signaling) and UGP2 (glycogen synthesis). Finally, transcriptomics after p53 re-expression revealed a distinct starvation-specific transcriptome response and suggested previously unknown nutrient-dependent p53 target genes. Together, our complementary approaches delineate several nodes of the p53 signaling cascade upon starvation, shedding new light on the mechanisms of p53 as nutrient stress sensor. Given the central role of p53 in cancer biology and the beneficial effects of fasting in cancer treatment, the identified interaction partners and networks could pinpoint novel pharmacologic targets to fine-tune p53 activity.

Lindsay M. LaFave ◽  
Rachel Savage ◽  
Jason D. Buenrostro

Cancer initiation is driven by the cooperation between genetic and epigenetic aberrations that disrupt gene regulatory programs critical to maintain specialized cellular functions. After initiation, cells acquire additional genetic and epigenetic alterations influenced by tumor-intrinsic and -extrinsic mechanisms, which increase intratumoral heterogeneity, reshape the cell's underlying gene regulatory network, and promote cancer evolution. Furthermore, environmental or therapeutic insults drive the selection of heterogeneous cell states, with implications for cancer initiation, maintenance, and drug resistance. The advancement of single-cell genomics has begun to uncover the full repertoire of chromatin and gene expression states (cell states) that exist within individual tumors. These single-cell analyses suggest that cells diversify in their regulatory states upon transformation by co-opting damage-induced and nonlineage regulatory programs that can lead to epigenomic plasticity. Here, we review these recent studies related to regulatory state changes in cancer progression and highlight the growing single-cell epigenomics toolkit poised to address unresolved questions in the field. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Cancer Biology, Volume 6 is April 2022. Please see for revised estimates.

BMC Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Karin Ekström ◽  
Rossella Crescitelli ◽  
Hafsteinn Ingi Pétursson ◽  
Junko Johansson ◽  
Cecilia Lässer ◽  

Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer, and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths, among females world-wide. Recent research suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a major role in the development of breast cancer metastasis. Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is a procedure in patients with known lymph node metastases, and after surgery large amounts of serous fluid are produced from the axilla. The overall aim was to isolate and characterize EVs from axillary serous fluid, and more specifically to determine if potential breast cancer biomarkers could be identified. Methods Lymphatic drain fluid was collected from 7 patients with breast cancer the day after ALND. EVs were isolated using size exclusion chromatography, quantified and detected by nanoparticle tracking analysis, electron microscopy, nano flow cytometry and western blot. The expression of 37 EV surface proteins was evaluated by flow cytometry using the MACSPlex Exosome kit. Results Lymphatic drainage exudate retrieved after surgery from all 7 patients contained EVs. The isolated EVs were positive for the typical EV markers CD9, CD63, CD81 and Flotillin-1 while albumin was absent, indicating low contamination from blood proteins. In total, 24 different EV surface proteins were detected. Eleven of those proteins were detected in all patients, including the common EV markers CD9, CD63 and CD81, cancer-related markers CD24, CD29, CD44 and CD146, platelet markers CD41b, CD42a and CD62p as well as HLA-DR/DP/DQ. Furthermore, CD29 and CD146 were enriched in Her2+ patients compared to patients with Her2- tumors. Conclusions Lymphatic drainage exudate retrieved from breast cancer patients after surgery contains EVs that can be isolated using SEC isolation. The EVs have several cancer-related markers including CD24, CD29, CD44 and CD146, proteins of potential interest as biomarkers as well as to increase the understanding of the mechanisms of cancer biology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Yang Wu ◽  
Ellora Hui Zhen Chua ◽  
Alvin Wei Tian Ng ◽  
Arnoud Boot ◽  
Steven G. Rozen

AbstractMutational signatures are characteristic patterns of mutations generated by exogenous mutagens or by endogenous mutational processes. Mutational signatures are important for research into DNA damage and repair, aging, cancer biology, genetic toxicology, and epidemiology. Unsupervised learning can infer mutational signatures from the somatic mutations in large numbers of tumors, and separating correlated signatures is a notable challenge for this task. To investigate which methods can best meet this challenge, we assessed 18 computational methods for inferring mutational signatures on 20 synthetic data sets that incorporated varying degrees of correlated activity of two common mutational signatures. Performance varied widely, and four methods noticeably outperformed the others: hdp (based on hierarchical Dirichlet processes), SigProExtractor (based on multiple non-negative matrix factorizations over resampled data), TCSM (based on an approach used in document topic analysis), and mutSpec.NMF (also based on non-negative matrix factorization). The results underscored the complexities of mutational signature extraction, including the importance and difficulty of determining the correct number of signatures and the importance of hyperparameters. Our findings indicate directions for improvement of the software and show a need for care when interpreting results from any of these methods, including the need for assessing sensitivity of the results to input parameters.

2022 ◽  
Lauren Marazzi ◽  
Milan Shah ◽  
Shreedula Balakrishnan ◽  
Ananya Patil ◽  
Paola Vera-Licona

The search for effective therapeutic targets in fields like regenerative medicine and cancer research has generated interest in cell fate reprogramming. This cellular reprogramming paradigm can drive cells to a desired target state from any initial state. However, methods for identifying reprogramming targets remain limited for biological systems that lack large sets of experimental data or a dynamical characterization. We present NETISCE, a novel computational tool for identifying cell fate reprogramming targets in static networks. NETISCE identifies reprogramming targets through the innovative use of control theory within a dynamical systems framework. Through validations in studies of cell fate reprogramming from developmental, stem cell, and cancer biology, we show that NETISCE can predict previously identified cell fate reprogramming targets and identify potentially novel combinations of targets. NETISCE extends cell fate reprogramming studies to larger-scale biological networks without the need for full model parameterization and can be implemented by experimental and computational biologists to identify parts of a biological system that are relevant for the desired reprogramming task.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Mehdi Azizi ◽  
Hadi Kokabi ◽  
Hassan Dianat-Moghadam ◽  
Mohammad Mehrmohammadi

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