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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 625-629
Author(s):  
Chunpei Ou ◽  
Pengfei Chen ◽  
Jinqi Song ◽  
Xuefeng Deng ◽  
Feiqiang Chen ◽  
...  

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease of joints commonly occurring in the elderly and middleaged people. This study aimed to investigate the effect of recombinant human endostatin (rhEndo) on OA and the levels of MMP-13, IL-1 and IL-6 in the synovial fluid in osteoarthritis rats. OA models were made by injecting 4% papain into the knee joint cavity of rats once every three days for three times. The models were then injected subcutaneously with rhEndo and examined six weeks later for the Mankin scores and levels of MMP-13, IL-1 and IL-6 using ELISA. Compared with control, the Mankin score as well as the levels of IL-1, IL-6 and MMP-13 were significantly increased in the models (0.30 vs. 5.80, 1.12 vs. 12.84 pg/ mL, 12.22 vs. 43.82 pg/ mL and 0.23 vs. 26.31 ng/ mL). Following treatment with 4 mg/kg rhEndo, the Mankin score in model decreased to 0.90, meanwhile, the levels of IL-1, IL-6 and MMP-13 decreased significantly to 0.79 pg/ mL, 2.89 pg/mL and 1.17 ng/mL, respectively, in a dose dependent manner. Therefore, rhEndo can alleviate osteoarthritis by reducing MMP-13, IL-1 and IL-6 expression in rats.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Bohan Li ◽  
Hua Duan ◽  
Sha Wang ◽  
Jiajing Wu ◽  
Yazhu Li

Abstract Objectives: This study was anchored on the state of local immune-infiltration in the endometrium, which acts as critical factors affecting embryonic implantation, and aimed at establishing novel approaches to assess endometrial receptivity for patients with IVF failure.Methods: Immune-infiltration levels in the GSE58144 dataset (n=115) from GEO were analyzed by digital deconvolution and validated by immunofluorescence (n=30), illustrating that dysregulation of the ratio of Mf1 to Mf2 is an important factor contributing to implantation failure. Then, modules most associated with M1/M2 macrophages (Mfs) and their hub genes were then selected by weighted gene co-expression network and univariate analyses, then validated by GSE5099 macrophage dataset, qPCR analysis (n=16), and western blot. It revealed that closely related gene modules dominated three biological processes in macrophages: antigen presentation, interleukin−1−mediated signalling pathway, and phagosome acidification, respectively. Their hub genes were significantly altered in patients and related with ribosomal, lysosome, and proteasomal pathways. Finally, the artificial neural network (ANN) and nomogram models were established from hub genes, of which efficacy was compared and validated in the GSE165004 dataset (n=72). Models established by the selected hub genes exhibited excellent predictive values in both datasets, and ANN performed best with an accuracy of 98.3% and an AUC of 0.975 (95% CI 0.945-1). Conclusions: Macrophages, proven to be essential for endometrial receptivity, were regulated by gene modules dominating antigen presentation, interleukin−1−mediated signalling pathway, and phagosome acidification. Selected hub genes can effectively assess endometrial dysfunction receptivity for IVF outcomes by the ANN approach.


2022 ◽  
pp. 153537022110669
Author(s):  
Hassan Ahmed ◽  
Urooj Amin ◽  
Xiaolun Sun ◽  
Demetrius R Pitts ◽  
Yunbo Li ◽  
...  

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also known as endotoxin, can trigger septic shock, a severe form of inflammation-mediated sepsis with a very high mortality rate. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this endotoxin remain to be defined and detoxification of LPS is yet to be established. Macrophages, a type of immune cells, initiate a key response responsible for the cascade of events leading to the surge in inflammatory cytokines and immunopathology of septic shock. This study was undertaken to determine whether the LPS-induced inflammation in macrophage cells could be ameliorated via CDDO-IM (2-cyano-3,12 dioxooleana-1,9 dien-28-oyl imidazoline), a novel triterpenoid compound. Data from this study show that gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokine genes such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were considerably increased by treatment with LPS in macrophages differentiated from ML-1 monocytes. Interestingly, LPS-induced increase in expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels is reduced by CDDO-IM. In addition, endogenous upregulation of a series of antioxidant molecules by CDDO-IM provided protection against LPS-induced cytotoxicity in macrophages. LPS-mediated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) transcriptional activity was also noted to decrease upon treatment with CDDO-IM in macrophages suggesting the involvement of the NF-κB signaling. This study would contribute to improve our understanding of the detoxification of endotoxin LPS by the triterpenoid CDDO-IM.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 447
Author(s):  
Tomoko Takamatsu ◽  
Gaku Yamanaka ◽  
Koko Ohno ◽  
Kanako Hayashi ◽  
Yusuke Watanabe ◽  
...  

Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of West syndrome (WS). Inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β(IL-1β), have been reported to be associated with epilepsy. However, the assessment of cytokine changes in humans is not always simple or deterministic. This study aimed to elucidate the immunological mechanism of WS. We examined the intracellular cytokine profiles of peripheral blood cells collected from 13 patients with WS, using flow cytometry, and measured their serum cytokine levels. These were compared with those of 10 age-matched controls. We found that the WS group had significantly higher percentages of inter IL-1β, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA)-positive monocytes, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in their CD8+ T cells than the control group. Interestingly, the group with sequelae revealed significantly lower levels of intracellular IFN-γ and IL-6 in their CD8+ T and CD4+ T cells, respectively, than the group without sequelae. There was no correlation between the ratios of positive cells and the serum levels of a particular cytokine in the WS patients. These cytokines in the peripheral immune cells might be involved in the neuroinflammation of WS, even in the absence of infectious or immune disease. Overall, an immunological approach using flow cytometry analysis might be useful for immunological studies of epilepsy.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Author(s):  
Maria Francilene S. Souza ◽  
Juliano G. Penha ◽  
Nair Y. Maeda ◽  
Filomena R. B. G. Galas ◽  
Kelly C. O. Abud ◽  
...  

There is scarce information about the relationships between postoperative pulmonary hemodynamics, inflammation, and outcomes in pediatric patients with congenital cardiac communications undergoing surgery. We prospectively studied 40 patients aged 11 (8–17) months (median with interquartile range) with a preoperative mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 48 (34–54) mmHg who were considered to be at risk for postoperative pulmonary hypertension. The immediate postoperative pulmonary/systemic mean arterial pressure ratio (PAP/SAPIPO, mean of first 4 values obtained in the intensive care unit, readings at 2-hour intervals) was correlated directly with PAP/SAP registered in the surgical room just after cardiopulmonary bypass ( r = 0.68 , p < 0.001 ). For the entire cohort, circulating levels of 15 inflammatory markers changed after surgery. Compared with patients with PAP / SA P IPO ≤ 0.40 ( n = 22 ), those above this level ( n = 18 ) had increased pre- and postoperative serum levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor ( p = 0.040 ), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist ( p = 0.020 ), interleukin-6 ( p = 0.003 ), and interleukin-21 ( p = 0.047 ) (panel for 36 human cytokines) and increased mean platelet volume ( p = 0.018 ). Using logistic regression analysis, a PAP / SA P IPO > 0.40 and a heightened immediate postoperative serum level of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (quartile analysis) were shown to be predictive of significant postoperative cardiopulmonary events (respective hazard ratios with 95% CIs, 5.07 (1.10–23.45), and 3.29 (1.38–7.88)). Thus, the early postoperative behavior of the pulmonary circulation and systemic inflammatory response are closely related and can be used to predict outcomes in this population.


Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 340
Author(s):  
Hammad Ullah ◽  
Eduardo Sommella ◽  
Cristina Santarcangelo ◽  
Danilo D’Avino ◽  
Antonietta Rossi ◽  
...  

High consumption of fruit and vegetables has an inverse association with cardiometabolic risk factors. This study aimed to chemically characterize the hydroethanolic extract of P. domestica subsp. syriaca fruit pulp and evaluate its inhibitory activity against metabolic enzymes and production of proinflammatory mediators. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry(UHPLC-HRMS) analysis showed the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids, flavanols, and glycoside flavonols, while nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) analysis showed, among saccharides, an abundant presence of glucose. P. domestica fruit extract inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase, pancreatic lipase, and HMG CoA reductase enzyme activities, with IC50 values of 7.01 mg/mL, 6.4 mg/mL, 6.0 mg/mL, and 2.5 mg/mL, respectively. P. domestica fruit extract inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitrite, interleukin-1 β and PGE2 in activated J774 macrophages. The findings of the present study indicate that P. domestica fruit extracts positively modulate in vitro a series of molecular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of cardiometabolic diseases. Further research is necessary to better characterize these properties and their potential application for human health.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Christoph Kessel ◽  
Isabelle Kone-Paut ◽  
Stephanie Tellier ◽  
Alexandre Belot ◽  
Katja Masjosthusmann ◽  
...  

Abstract Purpose A recent phase II open-label study of the interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) anakinra in treating IVIG-resistant Kawasaki Disease (KD) patients reported promising results. Here, we aimed to characterize the immunological impact of IL-1 blockade in this unique study population. Methods Patients’ and control sera and supernatants of cells (whole blood, neutrophils, coronary artery endothelial cells) stimulated with recombinant IL-1β were analyzed for single or multiple marker (n=22) expression by ELISA or multiplexed bead array assay. Data were analyzed using unsupervised hierarchical clustering, multiple correlation and multi-comparison statistics and were compared to retrospective analyses of KD transcriptomics. Results Inflammation in IVIG-resistant KD (n=16) is hallmarked by over-expression of innate immune mediators (particularly IL-6>CXCL10>S100A12>IL-1Ra). Those as well as levels of immune or endothelial cell activation markers (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1) declined most significantly in course of anakinra treatment. Prior as well as following IL-1R blockade, over-expression of leucine-rich-α2-glycoprotein 1 (LRG1) associated best with remnant inflammatory activity and the necessity to escalate anakinra dosage and separated inflammatory KD patients from sJIA-MAS (n=13) and MIS-C (n=4). Protein as well as retrospective gene expression analyses indicated tight association of LRG1 with IL-1β signaling and neutrophilia, while particularly neutrophil stimulation with recombinant IL-1β resulted in concentration-dependent LRG1 release. Conclusion Our study identifies LRG1 as known trigger of endothelial activation and cardiac re-modelling to associate with IL-1β signaling in KD. Besides a potential patho-mechanistic implication of these findings, our data suggest blood leukocyte and neutrophil counts to best predict response to IL-1Ra treatment in IVIG-resistant KD.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rabaa Takala ◽  
Dipak Ramji ◽  
Robert Andrews ◽  
You Zhou ◽  
Mustafa Farhat ◽  
...  

Abstract Objectives: Pinolenic acid (PNLA), an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid from pine nuts, has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects. We aimed to investigate the actions of PNLA on activated purified monocytes from peripheral blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).Methods: Flow cytometry was used to assess the intracellular expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-8 in purified monocytes from patients with RA after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation with/without PNLA pre-treatment. The whole genomic transcriptomic (WGT) profile of PNLA-treated, and LPS-activated monocytes from patients with active RA was investigated by RNA-sequencing.Results: PNLA reduced percentage of monocytes expressing the cytokines TNF-α by 23% (p=0.048), IL-6 by 25% (p=0.011), IL-1β by 23% (p=0.050) and IL-8 by 19% (p=0.066). Canonical pathway analysis showed that PNLA inhibited oxidative phosphorylation (p= 9.14E-09) and mitochondrial dysfunction (p=4.18E-08), while the sirtuin (SIRTs) signalling pathway was activated (p=8.89E-06). Pathway analysis predicted upstream activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), sirtuin3, and let7miRNA, which are anti-inflammatory and antioxidative. In contrast, DAP3, LIF and STAT3, which are involved in TNF-α, and IL-6 signal transduction, were inhibited. Many miRNAs were modulated by PNLA suggesting potential post-transcriptional regulation of metabolic and immune response that has not been described previously. Multiple miRNAs target pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4), single-immunoglobulin interleukin-1 receptor-related molecule (SIGIRR), mitochondrially encoded ATP synthase membrane subunit 6 (MT-ATP6) and acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 2 (ACAA2); genes implicated in cell metabolism, inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction.Conclusion: PNLA has anti-inflammatory and immune-metabolic effects on monocytes that are pathogenic in RA and atherosclerosis. Dietary PNLA supplementation may regulate key miRNAs that are involved in mitochondrial, metabolic, and inflammatory pathways.


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yosuke Tanaka ◽  
Reina Takeda ◽  
Tsuyoshi Fukushima ◽  
Keiko Mikami ◽  
Shun Tsuchiya ◽  
...  

AbstractLeukemia stem cells (LSCs) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are quiescent, insensitive to BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and responsible for CML relapse. Therefore, eradicating quiescent CML LSCs is a major goal in CML therapy. Here, using a G0 marker (G0M), we narrow down CML LSCs as G0M- and CD27- double positive cells among the conventional CML LSCs. Whole transcriptome analysis reveals NF-κB activation via inflammatory signals in imatinib-insensitive quiescent CML LSCs. Blocking NF-κB signals by inhibitors of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1/4 (IRAK1/4 inhibitors) together with imatinib eliminates mouse and human CML LSCs. Intriguingly, IRAK1/4 inhibitors attenuate PD-L1 expression on CML LSCs, and blocking PD-L1 together with imatinib also effectively eliminates CML LSCs in the presence of T cell immunity. Thus, IRAK1/4 inhibitors can eliminate CML LSCs through inhibiting NF-κB activity and reducing PD-L1 expression. Collectively, the combination of TKIs and IRAK1/4 inhibitors is an attractive strategy to achieve a radical cure of CML.


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