The central Liaoning urban agglomeration is an important heavy industry development base in China, and also an important part of the economy in northeast China. The atmospheric environmental problems caused by the development of heavy industry are particularly prominent. Trajectory clustering, potential source contribution (PSCF), and concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis are used to discuss the temporal and spatial pollution characteristics of PM2.5 and ozone concentrations and reveal the regional atmospheric transmission pattern in central Liaoning urban agglomeration from 2015 to 2020. The results show that: (1) PM2.5 in the central Liaoning urban agglomeration showed a decreasing trend from 2015 to 2020. The concentration of PM2.5 is the lowest in 2018. Except for Benxi (34.7 µg/m3), the concentrations of PM2.5 in other cities do not meet the standard in 2020. The ozone concentration in Anshan, Liaoyang, and Shenyang reached the peaks in 2017, which are 68.76 µg/m3, 66.27 µg/m3, and 63.46 µg/m3 respectively. PM2.5 pollution is the highest in winter and the lowest in summer. The daily variation distribution of PM2.5 concentration showed a bimodal pattern. Ozone pollution is the most serious in summer, with the concentration of ozone reaching 131.14 µg/m3 in Shenyang. Fushun is affected by Shenyang intercity pollution, and the ozone concentration is high. (2) In terms of spatial distribution, the high values of PM2.5 are concentrated in monitoring stations in urban areas. On the contrary, the concentration of ozone in suburban stations is higher. The high concentration of ozone in the northeast of Anshan, Liaoyang, Shenyang to Tieling, and Fushun extended in a band distribution. (3) Through cluster analysis, it is found that PM2.5 and ozone in Shenyang are mainly affected by short-distance transport airflow. In winter, the weighted PSCF high-value area of PM2.5 presents as a potential contribution source zone of the northeast trend with wide coverage, in which the contribution value of the weighted CWT in the middle of Heilongjiang is the highest. The main potential source areas of ozone mass concentration in spring and summer are coastal cities and the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea. We conclude that the regional transmission of pollutants is an important factor of pollution, so we should pay attention to the supply of industrial sources and marine sources of marine pollution in the surrounding areas of cities, and strengthen the joint prevention and control of air pollution among regions. The research results of this article provide a useful reference for the central Liaoning urban agglomeration to improve air quality.
ABSTRACT. Concentration of ozone near the ground has been recorded at Pune (India) since 1972 with the help of a continuous surface ozone recorder using electro-chemical sensor. The analysis of the records of winter season indicates a sharp rise in ozone amount in the forenoon around 1000 to 1200 LST. Prior to 1985 this forenoon: higher value in surface ozone concentration was followed by another maximum in the afternoon hours coinciding with the maximum temperature epoch of the day. After 1985 the surface ozone data indicates that the forenoon peak value has become invariably higher than the afternoon value. Due to increasing concentration of anthropogenic gases in the atmosphere there is a possibility of photochemical production of ozone in the troposphere which may give rise to higher surface ozone values, when the meteorological conditions are favourable for the accumulation of such gases which are involved in ozone production.
Aerosols can interact with other meteorological variables in the air via aerosol–radiation or aerosol–cloud interactions (ARIs/ACIs), thus affecting the concentrations of particle pollutants and ozone. The online-coupled model WRF-Chem was applied to simulate the changes in the PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) and ozone concentrations that are caused by these mechanisms in China by conducting three parallel sensitivity tests. In each case, availabilities of aerosol–radiation interactions and aerosol–cloud interactions were set differently in order to distinguish each pathway. Partial correlation coefficients were also analyzed using statistical tools. As suggested by the results, the ARIs reduced ground air temperature, wind speed, and planetary boundary height while increasing relative humidity in most places. Consequently, the ozone concentration in the corresponding region declined by 4%, with a rise in the local annual mean PM2.5 concentration by approximately 12 μm/m3. The positive feedback of the PM2.5 concentration via ACIs was also found in some city clusters across China, despite the overall enhancement value via ACIs being merely around a quarter to half that via ARIs. The change in ozone concentration via ACIs exhibited different trends. The ozone concentration level increased via ACIs, which can be attributed to the drier air in the south and the diminished solar radiation that is received in central and northern China. The correlation coefficient suggests that the suppression in the planetary boundary layer is the most significant factor for the increase in PM2.5 followed by the rise in moisture required for hygroscopic growth. Ozone showed a significant correlation with NO2, while oxidation rates and radiation variance were also shown to be vitally important.
This paper presents an analysis of the effect of flare index (Q) on the stratospheric ozone concentration over Dumdum station, Kolkata for the period 1979-95. As Dumdum is situated in northern hemisphere we have considered the flare index values for the northern hemisphere only.
Ozone is a very important trace gas in the stratosphere and, thus, we need to know its time evolution over the globe. However, ground-based measurements are rare, especially in the Southern Hemisphere, and while satellite observations provide broader spatial coverage generally, they are not available everywhere. On the other hand, reanalysis data have regular spatial and temporal structure, which is beneficial for trend analysis, but temporal discontinuities might exist in the data. These discontinuities may influence the results of trend studies. The aim of this paper is to detect discontinuities in ozone data of the following reanalyses: MERRA-2, ERA-5 and JRA-55 with the help of the Pettitt, the Buishand, and the Standard Normal Homogeneity tests above the 500 hPa level. The share of discontinuities varies from 30% to 70% and they are strongly layer dependent. The share of discontinuities is the lowest for JRA-55. Differences between reanalyses were found to be larger than differences between homogeneity tests within one reanalysis. Another aim of this paper is to test the ability of homogeneity tests to detect the discontinuities in 2004 and 2015, when changes in versions of satellite data took place. We showed the discontinuities in 2004 are better detected than those in 2015.