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2022 ◽  
Vol 172 ◽  
pp. 107277
Liangliang Tao ◽  
Yanhua Zeng ◽  
Jie Li ◽  
Guichang Yang ◽  
Yong Fang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Rita Rani Chopra

PurposeThe study aims to evaluate the long- vs short-run relationships between crops' production (output) and crops' significant inputs such as land use, agricultural water use (AWU) and gross irrigated area in India during the period 1981–2018.Design/methodology/approachThe study applied the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to estimate the co-integration among the variables. The study uses the error correction model (ECM), which integrates the short-run dynamics with the long-run equilibrium.FindingsThe ARDL bounds test of co-integration confirms the strong evidence of the long-run relationship among the variables. Empirical results show the positive and significant relationship of crops' production with land use and gross irrigated area. The statistically significant error correction term (ECT) validates the speed of adjustment of the empirical models in the long-run.Research limitations/implicationsThe study suggests that the decision-makers must understand potential trade-offs between human needs and environmental impacts to ensure food for the growing population in India.Originality/valueFor a clear insight into the impact of climate change on crops' production, the current study incorporates the climate variables such as annual rainfall, maximum temperature and minimum temperature. Further, the study considered agro-chemicals, i.e. fertilizers and pesticides, concerning their negative impacts on increased agricultural production and the environment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 73 (1) ◽  
pp. 173-180
M.J. SINGH ◽  

This paper aims to study the long-term trends in different weather parameters, i.e., temperature, rainfall, rainy days, sunshine hours, evaporation, relative humidity and temperature over Lower Shivalik foothills of Punjab. The daily weather data of about 35 years from agrometeorological observatory of Regional Research Station Ballowal Saunkhri representing Lower Shivalik foothills had been used for trend analysis for kharif (May - October), rabi (November - April), winter (January - February), pre-monsoon (March - May), monsoon (June - September) and post monsoon (October - December) season. The linear regression method has been used to estimate the magnitude of change per year and its coefficient of determination, whose statistical significance was checked by the F test. The annual maximum temperature, morning and evening relative humidity has increased whereas rainfall, evaporation sunshine hours and wind speed has decreased significantly at this region. No significant change in annual minimum temperature and diurnal range has been observed. Monthly maximum temperature revealed significant increase except January, June and December, whereas, monthly minimum temperature increased significantly for February, March and October and decreased for June. Among different seasons, maximum temperature increased significantly for all seasons except winter season, whereas, minimum temperature increased significantly for kharif and post monsoon season only. The evaporation, sunshine hours and wind speed have also decreased and relative humidity decreased significantly at this region. Significant reduction in kharif, monsoon and post monsoon rainfall has been observed at Lower Shivalik foothills. As the region lacks assured irrigation facilities so decreasing rainfall and change in the other weather parameters will have profound effects on the agriculture in this region so there is need to develop climate resilient agricultural technologies.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 640
Yi Lu ◽  
Juan Chen ◽  
Jianxing Li ◽  
Wenjing Xu

In high-power microwave applications, the electromagnetic-thermal effect of frequency selective surface (FSS) cannot be ignored. In this paper, the electromagnetic-thermal coupling effects of cross-slot FSS were studied. We used an equivalent circuit method and CST software to analyze the electromagnetic characteristics of cross-slot FSS. Then, we used multi-field simulation software COMSOL Multiphysics to study the thermal effect of the FSSs. To verify the simulation results, we used a horn antenna with a power of 20 W to radiate the FSSs and obtain the stable temperature distribution of the FSSs. By using simulations and experiments, it is found that the maximum temperature of the cross-slot FSS appears in the middle of the cross slot. It is also found that the FSS with a narrow slot has severer thermal effect than that with a wide slot. In addition, the effects of different incident angles on the temperature variation of FSS under TE and TM polarization were also studied. It is found that in TE polarization, with the increase in incident angle, the maximum stable temperature of FSS increases gradually. In TM polarization, with the increase in incident angle, the maximum stable temperature of FSS decreases gradually.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. 461-473
Sintiani Perdani ◽  
Didik Ari Wibowo ◽  
Desmira Desmira

Around 35% of the total utilization of coconuts at this time is still not fully utilized. Thermoelectric is a technology that converts heat energy directly into electrical energy or converts electrical energy into heating and cooling energy. Data retrieval using two multimeters and an electric thermometer, data collection was carried out for 2 minutes. From the test results, this tool can produce an average voltage of 10.05 Volt for 200gram coconut shells, an average current of 0.99 Ampere and an average power of 13.84 Watts and can fully charge the battery up to 3 hours 33 minutes, while for 300 grams produces an average voltage of 10.59 Volts for 300gram coconut shells, an average current of 0.995 Ampere and an average power of 13.56 Watts and the battery can be fully charged in about 3 hours 36 minutes, while a coconut shell weighing 400 grams can produces an average voltage of 10.94 Volts, an average current of 1 Ampere and an average power of 13.70 Watts and the battery can be fully charged in about 3 hours 30 minutes. The more coconut shells used for combustion, the hotter the temperature and the faster the voltage and current are obtained, but with a note that the maximum temperature limit of the thermoelectric is T not more than 200o C. Keywords: Coconut Shell, Thermoelectric, Electrical Energy.

Lubricants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 11
Edward H. Smith

The active control of hydrodynamic bearings is beginning to receive more attention in the pursuit of lower power losses and reduced maintenance. This paper presents a method by which, from simple measurements, rich information can be deduced from a running bearing that can used to modify the operating parameters of the unit. The bearing is a line-pivot, unidirectional, steadily loaded, directly lubricated tilting pad thrust bearing. This control is achieved by designing an Observer whose inputs include the output measurement(s) from the bearing. The Observer is, in some ways, an inverse model of the bearing (or Plant) that runs in parallel to the bearing and estimates the states of the bearing, such as the applied load, pivot height, minimum film thickness, maximum temperature, effective temperature and power loss. These estimated parameters can then be used in a control algorithm to modify bearing parameters such as inlet temperature or pivot location. It is demonstrated that disturbances in the load on the bearing can be detected simply by measuring a representative temperature in the bearing or changes in pivot height. Appropriate corrective action can then be employed. Whilst only steady-state operation is considered, the method could be developed to study time-varying situations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 952
Kun Li ◽  
Xuefei Li ◽  
Keji Yao

Under the influence of the urban heat island effect, the thermal environments of urban built-up areas are poor, leading to the loss of urban vitality and the extreme deterioration of thermal comfort. In this paper, the outdoor thermal environment in Wuhan’s main urban area is studied via the use of field measurements. From June to August in the years 2015 to 2017, 20 measurement points were selected for monitoring from 08:00 to 19:00 h, which were located in spaces such as residential areas, parklands, commercial streets, and college/university campuses. The measurements for the same types of land and different types of land use are analyzed. A comprehensive thermal environment index is used to quantitatively evaluate the overall situations of thermal environments. The results showed that the cooling effect of vegetation shading was stronger than the effect of water evaporation and the maximum temperature difference between the two cooling methods reached 6.1 °C. The cooling effect of the canopy shading of tall trees was stronger than the effect of grassland transpiration and the maximum temperature difference was 2.8 °C. The streets with higher aspect ratios might improve the ventilation, but the wind speeds remained low, which did not provide a strong cooling effect. This study helps urban planners understand the thermal environment of Wuhan or similar cities with hot summer and diversified urban areas, and puts forward suggestions to reduce the heat island effect from the aspect of building layout, green coverage, shading mode, and street aspect ratio, so as to establish sustainable cities that are climate adaptable and environmentally friendly.

Abstract High-resolution historical climate grids are readily available and frequently used as inputs for a wide range of regional management and risk assessments including water supply, ecological processes, and as baseline for climate change impact studies that compare them to future projected conditions. Because historical gridded climates are produced using various methods, their portrayal of landscape conditions differ, which becomes a source of uncertainty when they are applied to subsequent analyses. Here we tested the range of values from five gridded climate datasets. We compared their values to observations from 1,231 weather stations, first using each dataset’s native scale, and then after each was rescaled to 270-meter resolution. We inputted the downscaled grids to a mechanistic hydrology model and assessed the spatial results of six hydrological variables across California, in 10 ecoregions and 11 large watersheds in the Sierra Nevada. PRISM was most accurate for precipitation, ClimateNA for maximum temperature, and TopoWx for minimum temperature. The single most accurate dataset overall was PRISM due to the best performance for precipitation and low air temperature errors. Hydrological differences ranged up to 70% of the average monthly streamflow with an average of 35% disagreement for all months derived from different historical climate maps. Large differences in minimum air temperature data produced differences in modeled actual evapotranspiration, snowpack, and streamflow. Areas with the highest variability in climate data, including the Sierra Nevada and Klamath Mountains ecoregions, also had the largest spread for Snow Water Equivalent (SWE), recharge and runoff.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 624
Jinhyuk Kim ◽  
Jungwoo Lee

We recently proposed an analytical design method of Langevin transducers for therapeutic ultrasound treatment by conducting parametric study to estimate the effect of compression force on resonance characteristics. In this study, experimental investigations were further performed under various electrical conditions to observe the acoustic power of the fully equipped transducer and to assess its heat-related bioeffect. Thermal index (TI) tests were carried out to examine temperature rise and thermal damage induced by the acoustic energy in fatty porcine tissue. Acoustic power emission, TI values, temperature characteristics, and depth/size of thermal ablation were measured as a function of transducer’s driving voltage. By exciting the transducer with 300 Vpp sinusoidal continuous waveform, for instance, the average power was 23.1 W and its corresponding TI was 4.1, less than the 6 specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guideline. The maximum temperature and the depth of the affected site were 74.5 °C and 19 mm, respectively. It is shown that thermal ablation is likely to be more affected by steep heat surge for a short duration rather than by slow temperature rise over time. Hence, the results demonstrate the capability of our ultrasonic transducer intended for therapeutic procedures by safely interrogating soft tissue and yet delivering enough energy to thermally stimulate the tissue in depth.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 550
Guohai Jia ◽  
Guoshuai Tian ◽  
Daming Zhang

Taking a plateau high-pressure common-rail diesel engine as the research model, a model was established and simulated by AVL FIRE according to the structural parameters of a diesel engine. The combustion and emission characteristics of D, B20, and B50 diesel engines were simulated in the plateau atmospheric environment at 0 m, 1000 m, and 2000 m. The calculation results show that as the altitude increased, the peak in-cylinder pressure and the cumulative heat release of diesel decreased with different blending ratios. When the altitude increased by 1000 m, the cumulative heat release was reduced by about 5%. Furthermore, the emission trend of NO, soot, and CO was to first increase and then decrease. As the altitude increased, the mass fraction of NO emission decreased. As the altitude increased, the mass fractions of soot and CO increased. Additionally, when the altitude was 0 m and 1000 m, the maximum temperature, the mass fraction of OH, and the fuel–air ratio of B20 were higher and more uniform. When the altitude was 2000 m, the maximum temperature, the mass fraction of OH, and the fuel–air ratio of B50 were higher and more uniform. Lastly, as the altitude increased, the maximum combustion temperature of D and B20 decreased, and combustion became more uneven. As the altitude increased, the maximum combustion temperature of B50 increased, and the combustion became more uniform. As the altitude increased, the fuel–air ratio and the mass fractions of OH and NO decreased. When the altitude increased, the soot concentration increased, and the distribution area was larger.

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