Central Europe
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2022 ◽  
Vol 315 ◽  
pp. 108808
Lenka Bartošová ◽  
Milan Fischer ◽  
Jan Balek ◽  
Monika Bláhová ◽  
Lucie Kudláčková ◽  

Karin Bakran-Lebl ◽  
Hans Jerrentrup ◽  
Eleni Daroglou ◽  
Wolf Peter Pfitzner ◽  
Hans-Peter Fuehrer ◽  

AbstractAedes pulcritarsis is a tree-hole breeding species with its main distribution in the Mediterranean area. Within the scope of two independent monitoring programmes, this mosquito species was detected for the first time in Austria, in the province of Lower Austria (2018, districts Mistelbach and Gaenserndorf; 2020, district Bruck an der Leitha). As the climatic and habitat situation in Central Europe seems to be generally suitable for this species, the most likely explanation for the species not being recorded previously is that it might have been overlooked in the past due to its specialized breeding habitat. However, further research on the distribution of Ae. pulcritarsis in Austria would be needed to support this hypothesis. The results from this study will contribute to the investigation of the northern distribution limit of Ae. pulcritarsis in Europe and possible changes thereof.

А.Э. Титков

Статья посвящена т. н. «русскому фактору» в период после окончания Первой мировой войны и до 1920г. Революционные события в России радикально изменили внешнеполитическую ситуацию на европейском театре и одновременно стали оказывать серьезное влияние на внутреннюю повестку стран участниц конфликта, благодаря активной политике Советской России по продвижению революционных идей и поддержке революционных движений в Европе. Подобная практика была вызвана не столько искренним желанием раздуть революционный пожар и безусловной верой в его возможность, сколько необходимостью физического выживания молодого «пролетарского государства» во враждебном капиталистическом окружении. В статье подробно рассматривается идеологическая подоплека внешней политики Советской России в это период и деятельность на этом поприще ее вождя В.И. Ленина, его попытки повлиять на общественно-политические процессы в Германии, Венгрии и Польше, а также анализируются изменения в идеологической повестке большевиков после провала советской политики по созданию плацдармов для продвижения революции в центральную Европу. Также в статье обращается внимание на то, что за внешней ширмой буржуазной революции в России явно проступают признаки целенаправленной политики по удалению с карты Европы и Азии империй — Османской, Германской, Австро-Венгерской и Российской, чему предшествовала активная компания по девальвации самих монархических институтов. Большевистская же политика по полному демонтажу прежней системы, несмотря на внешнюю враждебность идеологических установок, оказалась вполне приемлемой для тех, кто стремился не допустить пересборки Центральных держав. The article deals with the influence of the so-called Russian factor in the events following the end of the First World War up until 1920. The revolution in Russia radically changed the situation in Europe, having a major impact on the domestic and foreign policies of the belligerent nations, caused by active Soviet support for revolutionary movements in Europe. This practice stemmed not from a sincere desire to fan the revolutionary flames but rather from the survival instinct of the newly-established proletarian state, surrounded by hostile capitalistic countries. The article examines the ideological motivations behind Soviet Russia's foreign policy during this period and the activities of its leader, Vladimir Lenin, as well as his attempts to influence social and political processes in Germany, Hungary, and Poland. The study also analyzes the changes in the ideological agenda of the Bolsheviks after the failure of Soviet policy to create springboards for the advancement of the revolution into Central Europe. Moreover, the paper points out that the smokescreen of the revolution in Russia reveals clear signs of a concerted effort to wipe the Ottoman Empire, the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the Russian Empire from the map of Europe and Asia, preceded by an active campaign aimed at undermining the monarchic institutions themselves. Meanwhile, the Bolshevik policy that sought to completely dismantle the old regime, despite the hostility of its ideology, eventually proved perfectly acceptable for those who aimed to prevent the Central Powers from rising up again.

2022 ◽  
Vol 45 ◽  
pp. 41-52
Robert S. Sommer ◽  
Volker Thiele ◽  
Gennadi Sushko ◽  
Marcin Sielezniew ◽  
Detlef Kolligs ◽  

Raised bogs are extreme and azonal ecosystems with a characteristic hydrological balance, microclimatic conditions and a specific flora and fauna. Recently, these ecosystems have increasingly become the focus of scientific and general attention because of their important ecosystem roles in the face of global warming and providing biodiversity refuges. From a biogeographical and evolutionary context, the peat bogs of the European Lowlands serve as palaeorefugia, acting as cold, edaphic island habitats for arcto-alpine or boreo-montane insect species in temperate biomes. Analysing 105 peat bog sites in the northern lowlands of Central Europe, we compare the diversity and geographic distribution pattern of a subset of six butterfly species, which appear to be tyrphobiontic or tyrphophile mire specialists. We demonstrate a decrease in mean species number in the European Lowlands on a gradient from the east (Northern Belarus, about 4 species) to the west (Northern Germany, about 1 species), and suggest that the decreasing species number may be mainly caused by human impact in the past. The individual distribution pattern shows a nearly complete gap in occurrence of the sensitive bog specialist species Colias palaeno and Boloria eunomia in Northern Germany and an increasing presence of those species in peat bogs of eastern Europe. Boloria aquilonaris shows a different pattern, which, in contrast to C. palaeno, is continuously distributed in all sampled regions and seems to be the more tolerant of tyrphobiontic butterflies in the face of human impact on peat bogs. In the light of other recent findings our results also suggest that Boloria aquilonaris and Plebejus optilete may serve as target species reflecting success in ecological restoration of peat bog ecosystems.

Roland Barthel ◽  
Ezra Haaf ◽  
Michelle Nygren ◽  
Markus Giese

AbstractVisual analysis of time series in hydrology is frequently seen as a crucial step to becoming acquainted with the nature of the data, as well as detecting unexpected errors, biases, etc. Human eyes, in particular those of a trained expert, are well suited to recognize irregularities and distinct patterns. However, there are limits as to what the eye can resolve and process; moreover, visual analysis is by definition subjective and has low reproducibility. Visual inspection is frequently mentioned in publications, but rarely described in detail, even though it may have significantly affected decisions made in the process of performing the underlying study. This paper presents a visual analysis of groundwater hydrographs that has been performed in relation to attempts to classify groundwater time series as part of developing a new concept for prediction in data-scarce groundwater systems. Within this concept, determining the similarity of groundwater hydrographs is essential. As standard approaches for similarity analysis of groundwater hydrographs do not yet exist, different approaches were developed and tested. This provided the opportunity to carry out a comparison between visual analysis and formal, automated classification approaches. The presented visual classification was carried out on two sets of time series from central Europe and Fennoscandia. It is explained why and where visual classification can be beneficial but also where the limitations and challenges associated with the approach lie. It is concluded that systematic visual analysis of time series in hydrology, despite its subjectivity and low reproducibility, should receive much more attention.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 53-75
Marie-Elizabeth Ducreux

Abstract The main components of the Habsburgs’ dynastical piety—worship of the Crucified, of the Eucharist, of the Blessed Mary and her spouse St. Joseph—are already well-known. They were common to both branches of the House of Austria, the Spanish as well as the Austrian one. However, they are far from exhausting the variety of manifestations with which they fostered the cult of the saints. More than other sovereigns, Austrian Habsburgs intervened on behalf of patron saints with the popes and the Roman Congregation of Sacred Rites. During the seventeenth century and still in the eighteenth century, they promulgated public feasts in the Austrian hereditary lands as well as in the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia. This paper focuses mainly on the veneration they addressed to the Jesuit saints: Ignatius of Loyola, Francis Xavier, Luigi Gonzaga, Stanisław Kostka, and Peter Canisius using archive and printed materials from Rome, Vienna, Prague, and Budapest.

Agriculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 82
Stanislav Rojík ◽  
Martina Zámková ◽  
Martina Chalupová ◽  
Ladislav Pilař ◽  
Martin Prokop ◽  

This article compares attitudes to buying organic food in selected countries in Central Europe. The current research was conducted in 2019 on a total sample of 2800 respondents in the Czech Republic, Slovakia (Central Europe, with a relatively new organic food market), and Germany (a traditional Western Europe country with a mature food market). The study results demonstrate significant differences between the three selected markets. The product quality is the most important for German consumers. Slovak consumers consider organic food to be the least recognizable and least promoted of all the regions surveyed, and they are also the least likely to encounter targeted advertising for organic products. Germany is the country where most respondents regularly or occasionally buy organic food. In Slovakia, an interesting finding is the highest proportion of respondents who do not buy organic food at all. Czech respondents often buy organic products in specialized shops and like to grow organic products themselves. The results also suggest that Slovak consumers slightly more often prefer foreign organic products to the local ones, whereas consumers in Germany select regional organic products more often and prefer to buy regional products at farmers’ markets.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 89
Katarzyna Patejuk ◽  
Anna Baturo-Cieśniewska ◽  
Wojciech Pusz ◽  
Agata Kaczmarek-Pieńczewska

Biscogniauxia nummularia (Bull.) Kuntze is a fungus which induces strip-cankers on beech, commonly referred to as charcoal canker. The symptoms of infection are visible on the host tree’s bark as elongated, blackish bark lesions on the trunk and branches. Recent years have shown that, due to climate change causing local epidemics, the species is increasing its economic impact in Mediterranean regions. Until recently, B. nummularia was considered rare and uncommon in central Europe. However, in the last few years it has been noticed more often, mostly in coniferous trees, which are out of B. nummularia’s host range. A similar situation has been observed with the closely related species Biscogniauxia mediterranea (De Not.) Kuntze, which prior to 2017 had not been observed in central Europe at all. This study shows the genetic diversity of mid-European strains of Biscogniauxia spp. (based on the ITS, TEF1, TUB2 and ACT regions) and, as the first in Europe, presents a molecular investigation of this species isolated from coniferous trees. It is also the first attempt at estimating the potential impact of this pathogenic fungus on European forestry management in the close future.

Antiquity ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-19
Niccolò Mazzucco ◽  
Amalia Sabanov ◽  
Ferran Antolín ◽  
Goce Naumov ◽  
Ljubo Fidanoski ◽  

North Macedonia is a crucial region for understanding the spread of agriculture into the Mediterranean and Central Europe. To date, however, the area has been subject to relatively limited archaeological research. Here, the authors present use-wear and archaeobotanical analyses on material from two Neolithic sites, Govrelevo and Vrbjanska Čuka, to investigate practices that were previously unstudied in this part of the Balkans, such as sowing, cultivation and harvesting techniques. The results suggest the presence of permanent crop fields located in wetlands, with autumn and spring sowing, and harvesting using curved sickles. The study illuminates early agricultural practices in North Macedonia and adds to our knowledge of the spread of the Neolithic package across Europe.

Geology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Michele Lustrino ◽  
Natascia Luciani ◽  
Vincenzo Stagno ◽  
Silvia Narzisi ◽  
Matteo Masotta ◽  

In this experimental study, we documented the formation of strongly ultrabasic and ultracalcic melts through the interaction of melilititic and basanitic melts with calcite. Three strongly to moderately SiO2-undersaturated volcanic rocks from the Bohemian Massif (central Europe) were mixed with 10, 30, and 50 wt% CaCO3 and melted at 1100, 1200, and 1300 °C at 2 kbar to evaluate the maximum amount of carbonate that can be assimilated by natural ultrabasic melts at shallow depths. Experiments revealed a surprisingly complete dissolution of the CaCO3, only rarely reaching carbonate saturation, with typical liquidus phases represented by olivine, spinel, melilite, and clinopyroxene. Only in the runs with the most SiO2-undersaturated compositions did abundant monticellite form instead of clinopyroxene. For all starting mixtures, strongly ultrabasic (SiO2 down to 15.6 wt%), lime-rich (CaO up to 43.6 wt%), ultracalcic (CaO/Al2O3 up to ~27) melt compositions were produced at 1200 and 1300 °C, with up to ~25 wt% dissolved CO2. When present, quenched olivine showed much higher forsterite content (Fo95–97) than olivine in the natural samples (Fo79–85). The two major results of this study are (1) silicate-carbonatite melt compositions do not necessarily imply the existence of carbonatitic components in the mantle, because they are also produced during limestone assimilation, and (2) Fo-rich olivines cannot be used to infer any primitive character of the melt nor high potential temperature (Tp).

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