Water Content
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2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (7) ◽  
pp. 3707-3731
Nadia Ouaadi ◽  
Jamal Ezzahar ◽  
Saïd Khabba ◽  
Salah Er-Raki ◽  
Adnane Chakir ◽  

Abstract. A better understanding of the hydrological functioning of irrigated crops using remote sensing observations is of prime importance in semi-arid areas where water resources are limited. Radar observations, available at high resolution and with a high revisit time since the launch of Sentinel-1 in 2014, have shown great potential for the monitoring of the water content of the upper soil and of the canopy. In this paper, a complete set of data for radar signal analysis is shared with the scientific community for the first time to our knowledge. The data set is composed of Sentinel-1 products and in situ measurements of soil and vegetation variables collected during three agricultural seasons over drip-irrigated winter wheat in the Haouz plain in Morocco. The in situ data gather soil measurements (time series of half-hourly surface soil moisture, surface roughness and agricultural practices) and vegetation measurements collected every week/2 weeks including aboveground fresh and dry biomasses, vegetation water content based on destructive measurements, the cover fraction, the leaf area index, and plant height. Radar data are the backscattering coefficient and the interferometric coherence derived from Sentinel-1 GRDH (Ground Range Detected High Resolution) and SLC (Single Look Complex) products, respectively. The normalized difference vegetation index derived from Sentinel-2 data based on Level-2A (surface reflectance and cloud mask) atmospheric-effects-corrected products is also provided. This database, which is the first of its kind made available open access, is described here comprehensively in order to help the scientific community to evaluate and to develop new or existing remote sensing algorithms for monitoring wheat canopy under semi-arid conditions. The data set is particularly relevant for the development of radar applications including surface soil moisture and vegetation variable retrieval using either physically based or empirical approaches such as machine and deep learning algorithms. The database is archived in the DataSuds repository and is freely accessible via the following DOI: https://doi.org/10.23708/8D6WQC (Ouaadi et al., 2020a).

2021 ◽  
Tianya Li ◽  
Ke Zhou ◽  
Guangyi Lin

Abstract Hydrogen is oxidized into H+ and e- on the anode side of fuel cell. H+ are transported from anode to cathode of fuel cell in the form of H3+O. When fuel cell is running under low humidity, the relatively small water content will reduce H+ transmission efficiency and causes an increase in ohmic impedance. In order to solve this problem, this paper prepared self-humidifying gas diffusion layer (GDL) by spraying method. The content of PTFE in the microporous layer (MPL) near carbon paper side is relatively high, and the content of PTFE in MPL near catalyst layer side is relatively low, thus forming MPL with graded hydrophobic structure. Since the MPL near catalyst layer side is relatively hydrophilic, it will condense into liquid water when external humidifying gas passes, thereby generating self-humidifying effect. Through research, self-humidifying GDL with double MPL structure can produce good self-humidification.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Bo Li ◽  
Laisheng Huang ◽  
Xiaoquan Lv ◽  
Yongjie Ren

AbstractTo determine the unfrozen water content variation characteristics of coal from the low temperature freezing based on the good linear relationship between the amplitude of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal and movable water, pulsed NMR technology was used to test water-saturated coal samples and analyze the relationship between the unfrozen water content, the temperature and pore pressure during freeze–thaw from a microscopic perspective. Experimental results show that the swelling stress of the ice destroys the original pore structure during the freezing process, causing the melting point of the pore ice to change, so the unfrozen water content during the melting process presents a hysteresis phenomenon. When phase equilibrium has been established in the freezing process, the unfrozen water is mainly the film water on the pore surface and pore water in pores with pore radius below 10 nm. At this time, the freezing point of the water in the system decreases exponentially as the temperature increases. The micropores of the coal samples from the Jiulishan Coalmine are well-developed, and the macropores and fractures are relatively small, with most pores having a pore radius between 0.1 and 10 nm. The pore water freezing point gradually decreases with the pore radius. When the pore radius decreases to 10 nm, the freezing point of pore water starts to decrease sharply with the decreasing pore radius. When the pore radius reaches 1.54 nm, the pore water freezing point changes as fast as 600 ℃/nm.

2021 ◽  
pp. 281-286
Wahyuning Setyani ◽  
Christine Patramurti ◽  
Agatha Budi Susiana Lestari ◽  
Raysha Mcseer ◽  
Day Stella Maris Gewab ◽  

Introduction: Fish innards contain 14.01% protein, 20% lipid, 4.75% ash, and 60.62% water. Fish innards are formulated into granules for practicality in their application as animal feed. Aim: This research on the proximate analysis of animal feed granules composed of raw material from fish innards wastes used a descriptive quantitative method. Results: The result indicated that the water content measured using the thermogravimetric method was 6.62%, the ash content observed using the dry ashing method was 10.25%, the protein content checked using the biuret method was 37.03%, fat content using the soxhlet method was 6.13%, and carbohydrate content measured using phenol sulfate method was 26.14%. Conclusion: These findings show that nutrient contents in the composition of animal feed granules of raw material from fish innards wastes fulfill the regulation of animal feed content based on SNI-8509-2018.

Mey Mahamat Imar ◽  
Zounedou Ntieche ◽  
Eric Parfait Ze ◽  
Jean Calvin Bidoung ◽  
Theophile Mbakop Tchakounte ◽  

Ran Tao ◽  
Fan Zhang ◽  
Huong Giang Nguyen ◽  
Philip Bernstein ◽  
Amanda L. Forster ◽  

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (8) ◽  
pp. 1163
Ana Júlio ◽  
Anaisa Sultane ◽  
Ana Silveira Viana ◽  
Joana Portugal Mota ◽  
Tânia Santos de Almeida

Lipidic implants are valuable controlled delivery systems that present good biocompatibility and are useful for long-lasting therapies. However, these promising systems can present inflexible drug release profiles that limit their performance. Thus, finding new materials to overcome this drawback is crucial. Herein, lipidic implants containing caffeine and poorly soluble salicylic acid and rutin were developed. The inclusion of Gelucire® 50/02, sucrose, and two biobased ionic liquids, [Cho][Phe] and [Cho][Glu], were evaluated as a mean to improve the performance of the systems. The formulation procedure, dye content distribution, drug content, drug release, water content, and lipidic erosion of the developed systems were assessed. AFM analysis of the implants containing ILs was also performed. The results demonstrated that neither Gelucire® 50/02 nor sucrose were suitable tools to improve the drug release profile. In contrast, the ILs proved to be promising materials for multiple reasons; not only did they facilitate the formulation and incorporation of the studied drugs into the implants, but they also allowed a more suitable release profile, with [Cho][Glu] allowing a higher drug release due to its ability to increase surface wrinkling. Hence, this study showcases ILs as multitalented materials in lipid-based drug implants.

A. Ammaiyappan ◽  
R. Arockia Infant Paul ◽  
A. Veeramani ◽  
P. Kannan

Background: Pulses play an important role in Indian agriculture and they are the rich sources of protein. Redgram is an essential food legume, mostly cultivated under rainfed condition in India. Due to increasing population the demand of pulses is increased; hence the redgram productivity has to be increased to meet out the requirement. To overcome this problem an investigation was carried out to study the effect of crop geometry, modified canopy architecture and 1% PPFM application on morpho-physiological and biochemical responses of rainfed redgram during north-east monsoon season. Methods: The treatments comprised of varied crop geometries viz, broad casting (farmer’s practice), high density planting at 30 × 30 cm and recommended spacing of 60 × 30 cm; modified canopy architectures viz. nipping of primary branches at 45 and 60 days after the receipt of soaking rain and foliar application of 1% PPFM spray at 50% flowering to avoid the moisture stress. Result: The results revealed that sowing at 60 × 30 cm spacing with nipping at 45th day recorded significantly higher seed yield and protein yield of redgram in rainfed condition. Further, nipping at 45th day showed higher level of relative water content (51.6%) associated with lower level of proline (26.61 mg g-1).

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (15) ◽  
pp. 4565
Sergiu Pădureţ

The textural properties of butter are influenced by its fat content and implicitly by the fatty acids composition. The impact of butter’s chemical composition variation was studied in accordance with texture and color properties. From 37 fatty acids examined, only 18 were quantified in the analyzed butter fat samples, and approximately 69.120% were saturated, 25.482% were monounsaturated, and 5.301% were polyunsaturated. The butter samples’ viscosity ranged between 0.24 and 2.12 N, while the adhesiveness ranged between 0.286 to 18.19 N·mm. The principal component analysis (PCA) separated the butter samples based on texture parameters, fatty acids concentration, and fat content, which were in contrast with water content. Of the measured color parameters, the yellowness b* color parameter is a relevant indicator that differentiated the analyzed sample into seven statistical groups; the ANOVA statistics highlighted this difference at a level of p < 0.001.

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