Water Content
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2021 ◽  
Victoria Kamnetochi IKPEZE ◽  
John Olusoji OWOLABI ◽  
Idowu Iyabo OLATEJU ◽  
Abdulwahab GIWA

Abstract This work has been carried out to model and simulate a typical acid gas absorption process using Aspen HYSYS process simulator. The chemical components involved in the process development were water, methane, ethane, propane, higher alkanes, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen and amines: monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), triethanolamine (TEA) and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). The fluid package selected for the simulation before entering the simulation environment was Acid Gas – Chemical Solvents. In the simulation environment, the model was developed by picking an absorber from the Model Palette, placing it and assigning the input and the output streams involved before inputting the parameters required for model convergence. The carbon dioxide-rich feed gas was made to enter the absorber at the bottom inlet stream while the lean amine stream entered at the top inlet and showered down on the uprising gas thereby trapping the carbon dioxide molecules within the gas. The top product from the absorber was the treated gas while the amine solution and the trapped carbon dioxide left the absorber as the bottom product. Different simulations were run to investigate the performance of the amines under the same operating conditions. It was discovered that, of all the four amine solvents considered in this work for the removal of carbon dioxide by chemical absorption, MEA had the highest efficiency but would require more dehydration because it had the highest water content. DEA was also found to scrub the carbon dioxide down to acceptable levels. However, TEA and MDEA barely scrubbed any carbon dioxide under these conditions, as their carbon dioxide compositions were found to be unacceptable. The analyses of the results obtained from the simulations indicated that Aspen HYSYS can be used to study the process of acid gas absorption successfully.

S. Di Meo ◽  
J. Bonello ◽  
I. Farhat ◽  
L. Farrugia ◽  
M. Pasian ◽  

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 1591
Patrícia Carvalho da Silva ◽  
Walter Quadros Ribeiro Junior ◽  
Maria Lucrecia Gerosa Ramos ◽  
Sonia Maria Costa Celestino ◽  
Alberto do Nascimento Silva ◽  

Quinoa stands out as an excellent crop in the Cerrado region for cultivation in the off-season or irrigated winter season. Here, we tested the effects of different water regimes on the agronomic characteristics, physiology, and grain quality of different elite quinoa genotypes under field conditions. The experiment was conducted under field conditions at Embrapa Cerrados (Planaltina, DF, Brazil). The experimental design was in randomized blocks, in a split-plot scheme, with four replications. The plots were composed of 18 quinoa genotypes and modified BRS Piabiru (the currently used genotype), and the split-plots were divided into 4 different water regimes. The following variables were evaluated: productivity and productivity per unit of applied water (PUAA), plant height, flavonoids, anthocyanins, gas exchange, chlorophyll, leaf proline, and relative water content. Our results showed that water regimes between 309 and 389 mm can be recommended for quinoa in the Cerrado region. CPAC6 and CPAC13 presented the highest yield and PUAA under high and intermediate WRs, and hence were the most suitable for winter growth under irrigation. CPAC17 is most suitable for off-season growth under rainfed conditions, as it presented the highest PUAA under the low WRs (247 and 150). CPAC9 stood out in terms of accumulation of flavonoids and anthocyanins in all WRs. Physiological analyses revealed different responses of the genotypes to water restriction, together with symptoms of stress under lower water regimes. Our study reinforces the importance of detailed analyses of the relationship between productivity, physiology, and water use when choosing genotypes for planting and harvest in different seasons.

Jingjing Ren ◽  
Wangshu Tan ◽  
Xiaoqing Tian ◽  
Zhaolong Wu ◽  
Chengcai Li ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-8
In Rahmi Fatria Fajar ◽  
Dewi Rahma Fitri ◽  
Nisa Fitriyani ◽  
Michael Chuanvin ◽  

Background: Tespong herbs (O. Javanica DC.) contain numerous chemical compounds considered beneficial for medications, including flavonoids, phenols, and tannins, which can function as antioxidants. Nanoparticles are materials with a size range of 1-1000 nanometers which can increase the bioavailability of drugs, thus accelerating the drug delivery system in the body. Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the characteristics of herbal extract and nanoextract of Tespong and to compare their antioxidant activity. Methods: Extraction of tespong herbs was done using maceration for three days, nanoextract was formulated using the ionic gelation method with herbal extract of tespong, chitosan, and Na-TPP. Antioxidant activity testing was carried out using the DPPH method. Results: The water content of tespong herbal extract was 1.78%, and the total ash content was 4.95%. The tespong herbal nanoextract was 148.1nm in diameter with a polydispersity index of 0.362 and a zeta potential value of -39.16 mV. The IC50 values of tespong herbal extract and nanoextract were 65.424 ppm and 97.106 ppm, respectively, which fell into the strong category. Conclusion: Tespong herbal extract had a higher antioxidant activity compared to its nanoextract. Keywords: Tespong herb, nanoextract, chitosan, Na-TPP

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. 34-37
Anang Lastriyanto ◽  
Silvi Astri Cahyani

Honey that has a moisture content above 22% should be done moisture reduction process. reduction of water content is done so that honey does not undergo fermentation and has a longer shelf life. One of the ways that can be used to reduce water content in honey is evaporation. Evaporation is of converting some of the water content in the material into steam by utilizing temperatures close to the boiling point of water. However, the minor content of honey, such as the diastase enzyme, is very sensitive to high temperatures. Therefore, vacuum evaporation is used so that the process uses a lower temperature to minimize the damage to the diastase enzyme. The research method was carried out in 3 stages, namely sampling, evaporation process, and sample testing. The results of this study indicate that the process of vacuum evaporation and vacuum cooling can change the proximate content of cassava honey to comply with SNI.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (15) ◽  
pp. 4286
Zhenghong Yang ◽  
Sijia Liu ◽  
Long Yu ◽  
Linglin Xu

The main concern of this work is to evaluate the influences of supplementary cementitious materials (fly ash, slag) and a new type of polycarboxylate superplasticizer containing viscosity modifying agents (PCE-VMA) on the performance of self-compacting concrete (SCC). The workability, hydration process, mechanical property, chloride permeability, degree of hydration and pore structure of SCC were investigated. Results indicate that the addition of fly ash and slag slows down early hydration and decreases the hydration degree of SCC, and thus leads to a decline in compressive strengths, especially within the first 7 days. The addition of slag refines pore structure and contributes to lower porosity, and thus the chloride permeability of SCC is decreased during the late hydration stage. Additionally, a new factor of calculated water–binder ratio is put forward, which can directly reflect the free water content of concrete mixture after mixing, and guide the mix proportion design of SCC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 10-22
Alfian Adie Chandra

The problem of the bearing capacity of the subgrade is one of the most important thingsconsidered in a planning and work of a civil building construction. This matterbecause the soil functions as a medium that withstands the load or action of the constructionbuilt on it. Changes in weather and temperature in the field are factors that makeunstable ground. Many stabilizations have been carried out using cement soil, howeverrequires no small cost and also the results of the implementation of the soil stabilizationrelatively short-lived. Therefore, this research was conducted using a mixture ofsirtu with mixed variations of 15%, 20% and 30%. More variety of mixThe added sirtu causes the water content to decrease which will make the power value decreasethe bearing capacity of the soil increases, the value of the plastic limit increases, while the value of the liquid limit and indexthe plasticity of the soil decreases.

Jurnal Agro ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 14-24
Kusumiyati Kusumiyati ◽  
Diky Indrawibawa ◽  
Syariful Mubarok ◽  
Gustiono Tegar Prasetyo

Semakin tingginya permintaan bahan baku kentang untuk french fries khususnya, perlu diimbangi oleh peningkatan suplai kentang dengan kualitas yang memenuhi persyaratan skala industri. Aplikasi dosis pupuk NPK yang tepat serta umur panen yang sesuai merupakan strategi dalam meningkatkan kualitas kentang. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menentukan  dosis pupuk NPK dan umur panen yang dapat menghasilkan ubi kentang dengan kualitas olah terbaik. Percobaan dilakukan dengan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok pola faktorial dengan dua faktor dan tiga ulangan. Faktor pertama, yaitu dosis pupuk NPK (50, 100, 150% dosis rekomendasi) dan umur panen (90, 105, 120 HST). Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa perlakuan dosis pupuk NPK dan umur panen tidak memperlihatkan interaksi. Kadar air dan gula reduksi tidak dipengaruhi oleh perlakuan dosis pupuk dan umur panen. Perlakuan dosis pupuk 150 kg N ha-1, 225 kg P ha-1, dan 225 kg K ha-1 menunjukkan kadar pati ubi tertinggi dengan tingkat kerenyahan french fries paling disukai. Perlakuan umur panen 120 hari setelah tanam (HST) memberikan kadar pati dan tingkat kesukaan warna dan kerenyahan french fries paling tinggi. AbstractThe potato demand is increasing, as a raw material for french fries in particular, yet followed by potato improvement to fulfil the industry requirement. The application of NPK fertilizer in appropriate dosage and harvesting time is the essential strategy to increase potato quality. This study aimed to determine the proper dosage of NPK and harvesting time to obtain the best characteristics of potato tuber for processing. The experimental design used a factorial randomized block design consisting of two factors; NPK fertilizer dosages (50, 100, 150% recommended dosage) and harvesting time (90, 105, 120 DAP). NPK fertilizer dosage had no interaction with harvesting time. Tuber water content and reducing sugars were not affected by NPK fertilizer dosage and harvesting time. The treatment of 150 kg N ha-1, 225 kg P ha-1 and 225 kg K ha-1 had the best tuber starch content, and after processing to be french fries, it showed the most favored crispness. Meanwhile, harvesting time at 120 DAP resulted in the highest tuber starch content, french fries colour and crispness score. Giving a certain dose of NPK fertilizer will affect the quality of potato tubers. The right harvesting time affects on the potato tuber quality.  

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