Water Content
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2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. 275-293
Takashi TSUCHIDA ◽  
Arlyn Aristo CKMIT

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Maximilian Dietrich ◽  
Sebastian Marx ◽  
Maik von der Forst ◽  
Thomas Bruckner ◽  
Felix C. F. Schmitt ◽  

Abstract Background Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) could provide extended haemodynamic monitoring of perioperative tissue oxygenation and tissue water content to visualize effects of haemodynamic therapy and surgical trauma. The objective of this study was to assess the capacity of HSI to monitor skin microcirculation and possible relations to perioperative organ dysfunction in patients undergoing pancreatic surgery. Methods The hyperspectral imaging TIVITA® Tissue System was used to evaluate superficial tissue oxygenation (StO2), deeper layer tissue oxygenation (near-infrared perfusion index (NPI)), haemoglobin distribution (tissue haemoglobin index (THI)) and tissue water content (tissue water index (TWI)) in 25 patients undergoing pancreatic surgery. HSI parameters were measured before induction of anaesthesia (t1), after induction of anaesthesia (t2), postoperatively before anaesthesia emergence (t3), 6 h after emergence of anaesthesia (t4) and three times daily (08:00, 14:00, 20:00 ± 1 h) at the palm and the fingertips until the second postoperative day (t5–t10). Primary outcome was the correlation of HSI with perioperative organ dysfunction assessed with the perioperative change of SOFA score. Results Two hundred and fifty HSI measurements were performed in 25 patients. Anaesthetic induction led to a significant increase of tissue oxygenation parameters StO2 and NPI (t1–t2). StO2 and NPI decreased significantly from t2 until the end of surgery (t3). THI of the palm showed a strong correlation with haemoglobin levels preoperatively (t2:r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and 6 h postoperatively (t4: r = 0.71, p = 0.001) but not before anaesthesia emergence (t3: r = 0.35, p = 0.10). TWI of the palm and the fingertip rose significantly between pre- and postoperative measurements (t2–t3). Higher blood loss, syndecan level and duration of surgery were associated with a higher increase of TWI. The perioperative change of HSI parameters (∆t1–t3) did not correlate with the perioperative change of the SOFA score. Conclusion This is the first study using HSI skin measurements to visualize tissue oxygenation and tissue water content in patients undergoing pancreatic surgery. HSI was able to measure short-term changes of tissue oxygenation during anaesthetic induction and pre- to postoperatively. TWI indicated a perioperative increase of tissue water content. Perioperative use of HSI could be a useful extension of haemodynamic monitoring to assess the microcirculatory response during haemodynamic therapy and major surgery. Trial registration German Clinical Trial Register, DRKS00017313 on 5 June 2019

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (11) ◽  
Toshiyuki Gotoh ◽  
Izumi Saito ◽  
Takeshi Watanabe

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Zhongnian Yang ◽  
Jianhang Lv ◽  
Wei Shi ◽  
Chao Jia ◽  
Chu Wang ◽  

AbstractThis paper presents an experimental investigation on the effect of freeze–thaw cycling on expansive soil slopes with different initial moisture contents. Clay soil from Weifang, China, was remolded and selected to build the expansive soil slope for the indoor slope model tests. A total of five freeze–thaw cycles were applied to the three expansive soil slopes with different moisture contents ranging from 20 to 40%. Variations of the crack developments, displacements, soil pressures and moisture contents of the expansive soil slope with different initial moisture contents during the freeze–thaw cycling were reported and discussed. The results indicate that higher moisture contents can slow the development of cracks and that the soil pressure increases with decreasing temperature. The soil pressure of slope decreases after freeze–thaw cycle, and the change amplitude of soil pressure after freeze–thaw is proportional to water content. The slopes with a moisture content of 20% and 30% shrinks during freezing and expands during thawing, which was named ES-FSTE Model, while the slope with a 40% moisture content shows the opposite behavior. During freeze–thaw cycles, moisture migrates to slope surface. As initial moisture contents increase, the soil heat transfer rate and bearing capacity decreases after five freeze–thaw cycling.

Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1654
Xiaoyi Chen ◽  
Liping Deng ◽  
Xin Wei ◽  
Mingpeng Li ◽  
Ge Wang ◽  

Bamboo has natural damping properties, but, due to the obvious gradient differences in bamboo walls, the damping properties of different layers may vary. Using bamboo slivers as the research object, this study investigated the underlying mechanism of the effect of microstructural and chemical components on the damping properties (η, damping ratio) of bamboo using the resonance and nonresonance methods. The damping ratio decreased on L3 (inner layer), L2 (middle layer), and L1 (outer layer) due to lower microfibril angles, increased crystallinity of cellulose, and decreased hemicellulose content. All of these limited the motion of the bamboo’s molecular chains. The damping ratio successively increased in the oven-dried, air-dried, and water saturated states because water acted as a plasticizer. The damping ratio of L1, in the oven-dried state, was slightly higher than that of the air-dried state because L1 had the lowest water content. This allowed less water to escape during drying, which intensified the molecular distortion. The initial tan δ (tangent of the loss angle) decreased successively on the L3, L2, and L1 layers of the bamboo, and the tan δ of L3 was lower than that of L2 due to changes in the temperature sensitivity of hemicellulose.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. 62
Risma Andriani ◽  
Yani Ambari ◽  
Iif Hanifa Nurrosyidah

Soap is a type of cleaning product that is used to clean dust, oil, dirt, germs, and bacteria that stick to the skin. Ginger is a plant that contains a wide range of antibacterial compounds including E. Coli, Staphylococcus aureus, B. Cereus, L monocytogenes and Candida albicans bacteria. Soap is made by chemically reacting sodium or potassium compounds with fatty acids derived from vegetable oil or animal oil. This study aims to determine the physical characteristics of solid soap with ginger rhizome extract with a combination of coconut oil and palm oil and analyze the panelist’s response to the soap produced. In the third week of observation, it is known that the water content ranges from 0,07%-0,1% with foam stability 71,11%-88,23% and pH 8,96-9,08. The most preferred solid soap based on the response of the panelist is soap from a mixture of coconut oil and palm oil with a ratio of 15:5.

2021 ◽  
Daniel N Ginzburg ◽  
Flavia Bossi ◽  
Sueng Yon Rhee

Understanding the molecular and physiological mechanisms of how plants respond to drought is paramount to breeding more drought resistant crops. Certain mutations or allelic variations result in plants with altered water-use requirements. To correctly identify genetic differences which confer a drought phenotype, plants with different genotypes must therefore be subjected to equal levels of drought stress. Many reports of advantageous mutations conferring drought resistance do not control for soil water content variations across genotypes and may therefore need to be re-examined. Here, we reassessed the drought phenotype of the Arabidopsis thaliana dwarf mutant, chiquita1-1 (also called cost1), by growing mutant seedlings together with the wild type to ensure uniform soil water availability across genotypes. Our results demonstrate that the dwarf phenotype conferred by loss of CHIQ1 function results in constitutively lower water usage, but not increased drought resistance.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (23) ◽  
pp. 7981
Roxana P. F. de Sousa ◽  
Glauco S. Braga ◽  
Raphael R. da Silva ◽  
Giovanna L. R. Leal ◽  
Júlio C. O. Freitas ◽  

This work has developed and evaluated a microemulsion-based drilling fluid formulation with characteristics to be applied in oil wells. The microemulsion was formulated with a solution of water/glycerol, pine oil, and Tween 80, a nonionic and biodegradable surfactant. The physical and chemical properties of the drilling fluid obtained in this work were investigated through rheology and filtration analysis, solids content, aging, lubricity, toxicity, and thermal degradation. A non-toxic microemulsion-based drilling fluid oil-in-water (O/W) with high lubricity (0.07638) and thermal stability was obtained with suitable viscosity, gel strength and low fluid loss (4.0 mL), low solids content (6%), stability in a wide range of salinity conditions, and the possibility of high water content (above 85% in mass fraction). The fluid presented a pseudoplastic behavior, and statistically significant Herschel–Bulkley parameters were obtained.

Jean-Pascal Bilodeau ◽  
Mbayang Kandji ◽  
Mai Lan Nguyen

Over the past decades, the use of fast and reliable measurement techniques of soil mechanical properties has gained popularity. The lightweight deflectometer (LWD) is among the tools developed that can allow one to determine the elastic modulus of soil. Viscosity response components in pavement or soil typically induce phase shifts between stress and strain peaks, which can be translated to phase angle. Subgrade soil may exhibit varying response types depending on its nature and characteristics. Using large laboratory subgrade samples, an experiment was designed to measure the elastic modulus and phase angle with an LWD in different stress and humidity conditions. A model associating the elastic modulus inferred from LWD tests with parameters describing stress, water content and soil properties was proposed. This model is fundamentally inferred from the relationship between elastic modulus and phase shift, and was used to assess the relative contribution of varying conditions on soil stiffness.

Aouatef Boughdiri ◽  
Ibtissem Ounifi ◽  
Hajer Chemingui ◽  
Claudia Ursino ◽  
Amalia Gordano ◽  

Abstract This work reported a new perspective on improving the incorporation of nanoparticles(NPs) into membranes for several applications. Composite membranes were produced via the phase inversion method using cellulose acetate (CA) as the polymer, mixed with four different NPs: ZnO and Fe3O4 NPs were prepared by the co-precipitation method, while SiO2 and TiO2 NPs were commercial NPs. The impact of NPs on the membrane morphology was investigated by SEM and AFM. The composite CA membranes have been characterized by their contact angle, porosity, and water content. Membrane performance has been investigated in terms of water permeability and salt retention such as NaCl and Na2SO4. The produced CA composite membrane could be successfully applied for salt removal, particularly the CA-Fe3O4 composite membrane, which shows good water permeability (15.4 L/m2h bar) and higher salt rejection (93%).Consequently, the use of low-density hydrophilic NPs in the polymeric dope solution produces membranes with higher hydrophilicity and the ability to reduce the membrane fouling.

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