scholarly journals The distribution pattern of mire specialist butterflies in raised bogs of the northern lowlands of Central Europe

2022 ◽  
Vol 45 ◽  
pp. 41-52
Robert S. Sommer ◽  
Volker Thiele ◽  
Gennadi Sushko ◽  
Marcin Sielezniew ◽  
Detlef Kolligs ◽  

Raised bogs are extreme and azonal ecosystems with a characteristic hydrological balance, microclimatic conditions and a specific flora and fauna. Recently, these ecosystems have increasingly become the focus of scientific and general attention because of their important ecosystem roles in the face of global warming and providing biodiversity refuges. From a biogeographical and evolutionary context, the peat bogs of the European Lowlands serve as palaeorefugia, acting as cold, edaphic island habitats for arcto-alpine or boreo-montane insect species in temperate biomes. Analysing 105 peat bog sites in the northern lowlands of Central Europe, we compare the diversity and geographic distribution pattern of a subset of six butterfly species, which appear to be tyrphobiontic or tyrphophile mire specialists. We demonstrate a decrease in mean species number in the European Lowlands on a gradient from the east (Northern Belarus, about 4 species) to the west (Northern Germany, about 1 species), and suggest that the decreasing species number may be mainly caused by human impact in the past. The individual distribution pattern shows a nearly complete gap in occurrence of the sensitive bog specialist species Colias palaeno and Boloria eunomia in Northern Germany and an increasing presence of those species in peat bogs of eastern Europe. Boloria aquilonaris shows a different pattern, which, in contrast to C. palaeno, is continuously distributed in all sampled regions and seems to be the more tolerant of tyrphobiontic butterflies in the face of human impact on peat bogs. In the light of other recent findings our results also suggest that Boloria aquilonaris and Plebejus optilete may serve as target species reflecting success in ecological restoration of peat bog ecosystems.

The Holocene ◽  
2017 ◽  
Vol 28 (4) ◽  
pp. 595-608 ◽  
Piotr Kołaczek ◽  
Monika Karpińska-Kołaczek ◽  
Katarzyna Marcisz ◽  
Mariusz Gałka ◽  
Mariusz Lamentowicz

Water ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 1224 ◽  
Zofia Sotek ◽  
Małgorzata Stasińska ◽  
Ryszard Malinowski ◽  
Renata Gamrat ◽  
Małgorzata Gałczyńska

Birch bog is formed on the margins of or within raised bogs, on secondary habitats. The study aim was to understand the vegetation and mycological diversity of birch bog on the background of habitat conditions on raised bogs subject to anthropogenic changes, including 15 areas located on seven bogs. Two of the analyzed areas were located on a peat bog not subject to human impact. Phytosociological and mycosociological relevés were taken and substrate analyses were carried out (pH, humidity, N-NH4, N-NO2, N-NO3 and P-PO4). Based on habitat predictors, two area groups were distinguished, differing primarily in humidity. More humid habitats were present on the margins of bogs, and were characterized by lower acidity and higher N-NH4 and P-PO4 abundance. Despite the fact they were enriched by runoffs from the neighboring arable fields, this was not always reflected in the plant and fungi species richness. Quercus robur appeared on less humid habitats, which may be a symptom of unfavorable changes toward habitat drying. In the majority of cases, changes in the habitat independent of the birch patches located and the human impact type are not yet reflected in the vegetation. However, they may be indicated by the fungal diversity, highest in former peat extraction pits, and lowest in pristine peat.

Christoph Schwörer ◽  
Erika Gobet ◽  
Jacqueline F. N. van Leeuwen ◽  
Sarah Bögli ◽  
Rachel Imboden ◽  

AbstractObserving natural vegetation dynamics over the entire Holocene is difficult in Central Europe, due to pervasive and increasing human disturbance since the Neolithic. One strategy to minimize this limitation is to select a study site in an area that is marginal for agricultural activity. Here, we present a new sediment record from Lake Svityaz in northwestern Ukraine. We have reconstructed regional and local vegetation and fire dynamics since the Late Glacial using pollen, spores, macrofossils and charcoal. Boreal forest composed of Pinus sylvestris and Betula with continental Larix decidua and Pinus cembra established in the region around 13,450 cal bp, replacing an open, steppic landscape. The first temperate tree to expand was Ulmus at 11,800 cal bp, followed by Quercus, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia and Corylus ca. 1,000 years later. Fire activity was highest during the Early Holocene, when summer solar insolation reached its maximum. Carpinus betulus and Fagus sylvatica established at ca. 6,000 cal bp, coinciding with the first indicators of agricultural activity in the region and a transient climatic shift to cooler and moister conditions. Human impact on the vegetation remained initially very low, only increasing during the Bronze Age, at ca. 3,400 cal bp. Large-scale forest openings and the establishment of the present-day cultural landscape occurred only during the past 500 years. The persistence of highly diverse mixed forest under absent or low anthropogenic disturbance until the Early Middle Ages corroborates the role of human impact in the impoverishment of temperate forests elsewhere in Central Europe. The preservation or reestablishment of such diverse forests may mitigate future climate change impacts, specifically by lowering fire risk under warmer and drier conditions.

2021 ◽  
pp. 20-28
Bartłomiej Igliński ◽  
Anna Iglińska ◽  
Urszula Kiełkowska ◽  
Dariusz Kamiński ◽  
Grzegorz Piechota

The metal content was determined using the WD-XRF method in the peat from the Wąpiersk bog and the Las Nadwelski bog (Welski Landscape Park, Poland). The results of the study show that the concentration of metals, especially heavy metals in peat bogs in Welski Landscape Park is low in general. In both bogs, the concentration of heavy metals was lower in the center than on the border. This shows that heavy metals are absorbed by the peat at the border and their further migration is limited. There are more elements such as iron, calcium and magnesium in the Las Nadwelski bog. There is more light on the border of the forest, which also plays an important role in decomposing plant debris, releasing metals. Heavy metals content was higher in Wąpiersk bog – a bog with higher anthropopressure. To sum up, the peat bog actively captures heavy metals, immobilizing them, and acts as a kind of “filter”. Peat is a good agent for retrospective monitoring of metals migration and accumulation in the environment.

2012 ◽  
Vol 2012 ◽  
pp. 1-22 ◽  
C. G. Diedrich

The Fürstenau Formation (Lutetian, Paleogene, Eocene) is based on type sections near Fürstenau in Germany (central Europe) and is built of 22 meter thick marine glauconitic and strongly bioturbated sands, clays, and a vertebrate-rich conglomerate bed. The conglomerate layer from the Early Lutetian transgression reworked Lower Cretaceous, and Paleogene marine sediments. It is dominated by pebbles from the locally mountains which must have been transported by an ancient river in a delta fan. Marine reworked Lower Cretaceous and Paleogen pebbles/fossils, were derived from the underlying deposits of northern Germany (= southern pre North Sea basin). The benthic macrofauna is cold upwelling water influenced and non-tropical, and medium divers. The vertebrate fish fauna is extremely rich in shark teeth, with about 5,000 teeth per cubic meter of gravel. The most dominant forms are teeth from sand shark ancestors Striatolamia macrota, followed by white shark ancestors Carcharodon auriculatus. Even teeth from the magatooth shark ancestor Carcharocles sokolovi are present in a moderately diverse and condensed Paleogene fish fauna that also includes rays, chimaeras, and more then 80 different bony fish. Fragmentary turtle remains are present, and few terrestrial vertebrates and even marine mammals with phocids, sirenians and possibly whales.

Sönke Hartz ◽  
Harald Lübke ◽  
Thomas Terberger

The border between the Mesolithic and the Neolithic in Central Europe is traditionally defined on the basis of subsistence strategy. It is the development from hunter-gatherer groups in the forests of the early Holocene to the first farmers. The debate on the character of this process has been going on for over 100 years. This chapter presents results of new research on this subject, with an emphasis on northern Germany.

2020 ◽  
Vol 49 (6) ◽  
pp. 1276-1292
Terry Cox

This article reviews the main developments in social welfare provision in East Central Europe (ECE), the emergence of nonprofit organizations as welfare providers, and changing nonprofit–government relations in social welfare provision since the early 1990s. In assessing the strengths and weaknesses of nonprofit organization (NPO)–government relations in social welfare provision in ECE, the article suggests that after establishing a firm basis by the mid-2000s, to varying degrees in different countries, nonprofits have not been able to maintain a secure independent role in the face of fluctuating government attitudes to their role and growing competition from private sector and church organizations.

The Holocene ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 29 (10) ◽  
pp. 1596-1606 ◽  
Ingo Feeser ◽  
Walter Dörfler ◽  
Jutta Kneisel ◽  
Martin Hinz ◽  
Stefan Dreibrodt

This paper aims at reconstructing the population dynamics during the Neolithic and Bronze Age, c. 4500–500 cal. BC, in north-western Central Europe. The approach is based on the assumption that increased population density is positively linked with human activity and human impact on the environment, respectively. Therefore, we use archaeological 14C dates and palaeoenvironmental data from northern Germany and south-western Denmark to construct and compare independent proxies of human activity. The latter involves relative quantification of human impact based on pollen analysis and soil erosion history inferred from summarizing of dated colluvial layers. Concurring patterns of changes in human activity are frequently recorded on a multi-centennial scale. Whereas such multi-proxy patterns are interpreted to indicate relative population changes, divergent patterns are discussed in the context of proxy-related uncertainties and potential biases. Patterns of temporal distribution of increasing and decreasing human activity are understood as ‘boom and bust’ phases in population density/size. Based on the comparison of the three proxies, we identify five phases of growing (boom) and four phases of decreasing (bust) population. The boom phases date to ca. 4000–3500, 3000–2900, 2200–2100, 1450–1300 and 1000–750 cal. BC. The bust phases to ca. 3200–3000, 2400–2300, 1650–1500 and 1200–1100 cal. BC.

2007 ◽  
Vol 29 (-1) ◽  
pp. 23-43 ◽  
Krystyna Bałaga

Transformation of Lake Ecosystem into Peat Bog and Vegetation History Based on Durne Bagno Mire (Lublin Polesie, E Poland)In this paper, the history of Durne Bagno, i.e. the largest peat bog in the Lublin Polesie, is shown. Peat bogs are a unique element of the Polesie landscape. They occur mostly in the subregion of the Łęczna-Włodawa Lake District occupying 1.07% of its area. They fill basin-shaped depressions without outflow, often in the immediate vicinity of dystrophic lakes. Based on interdisciplinary research, the changes of vegetation cover and the Durne Bagno lake-mire ecosystem in the Late Glacial and Holocene are presented. The environmental conditions are reconstructed from pollen analysis, detailed identification of algae ofPediastrumgenus and chemical composition of deposits, together with the results of Cladocera analysis. The distribution of archaeological artefacts in the surroundings of Durne Bagno peat bog gives the view on the intensity of settlement in this area. The duration of the limnic and mire stages during the development of the ecosystem was different in different parts of the examined depression. In its central part the limnic stage lasted about 8000 years and included the period from the Late Glacial to the middle Holocene (to about 6000 BP). It is represented by 7 pollen zones and 6 chemical zones. The mire stage contained a part the Atlantic period and on the Subboreal and Subatlantic periods. It is represented by 4 pollen zones and 5 chemical zones. Limnic and mire deposits differ widely in the concentrations of chemical elements. The contents of mineral material and almost all analyzed elements in limnic deposits are high. These deposits are characterized by positive correlation between the contents of Zn and Cr and the frequency of Cladocera fauna. Peat contains very low amount of mineral material. The contents of Ca, Sr and Ba are rather high in sedgemoss peat. The concentrations of these elements decrease upwards due to oligotrophic processes and sedentation of sedge-Eriophorum-Sphagnumpeat. Peat succession was modified by pastoral economy of prehistoric man.

Radiocarbon ◽  
1995 ◽  
Vol 37 (2) ◽  
pp. 567-573 ◽  
Högne Jungner ◽  
Eloni Sonninen ◽  
Göran Possnert ◽  
Kimmo Tolonen

We used moss increment counting to obtain well-defined samples of the topmost peat layers of two Sphagnum fuscum hummocks. The two ombrotrophic bogs, Lakkasuo in central Finland and Korvinsuo in eastern Finland, are of different ages, covering 3 and 9 ka, respectively. Using AMS dating, we traced bomb-produced 14C through the topmost parts of the two peat profiles. A well-defined 14C activity peak was found in both sequences dating the corresponding layer to ad 1965. A comparison between the maximum peat activities and the corresponding atmospheric values for the period of interest provides an opportunity to evaluate the amount of CO2 emanating from the decaying peat bog, and taken up by the living sphagnum plants.Considerable variations in δ13C values were also observed. These variations indicate, at least partly, annual variations in the emission rate of CO2 from decomposition of older peat in the bog, and are connected with climatic factors such as temperature and precipitation.

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