Parasitology Research
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Published By Springer-Verlag

1432-1955, 0932-0113

Funmilola Elizabeth Audu ◽  
Mohammed Aliyu Usman ◽  
Foredapwa Nzedeno Raphael ◽  
Aminu Abdulmutallab ◽  
Faruk Moses Jimoh ◽  

Karin Bakran-Lebl ◽  
Hans Jerrentrup ◽  
Eleni Daroglou ◽  
Wolf Peter Pfitzner ◽  
Hans-Peter Fuehrer ◽  

AbstractAedes pulcritarsis is a tree-hole breeding species with its main distribution in the Mediterranean area. Within the scope of two independent monitoring programmes, this mosquito species was detected for the first time in Austria, in the province of Lower Austria (2018, districts Mistelbach and Gaenserndorf; 2020, district Bruck an der Leitha). As the climatic and habitat situation in Central Europe seems to be generally suitable for this species, the most likely explanation for the species not being recorded previously is that it might have been overlooked in the past due to its specialized breeding habitat. However, further research on the distribution of Ae. pulcritarsis in Austria would be needed to support this hypothesis. The results from this study will contribute to the investigation of the northern distribution limit of Ae. pulcritarsis in Europe and possible changes thereof.

Luciana Silami Carvalho ◽  
Maria das Graças Braga ◽  
Dário Alves da Silva Costa ◽  
Taynãna César Simões ◽  
Mariana Dias Lula ◽  

Stefan Schlabe ◽  
Patricia Korir ◽  
Christine Lämmer ◽  
Frederic Landmann ◽  
Bettina Dubben ◽  

Abstract The filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus causes onchocerciasis (river blindness), a neglected tropical disease affecting 21 million people, mostly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Targeting the endosymbiont Wolbachia with antibiotics leads to permanent sterilization and killing of adult worms. The gold standard to assess Wolbachia depletion is the histological examination of adult worms in nodules beginning at 6 months post-treatment. However, nodules can only be used once, limiting the time points to monitor Wolbachia depletion. A diagnostic to longitudinally monitor Wolbachia depletion from microfilariae (MF) at more frequent intervals < 6 months post-treatment would accelerate clinical trials of antiwolbachials. We developed a TaqMan qPCR amplifying the single-copy gene wOvftsZ to quantify Wolbachia from as few as one MF that had migrated from skin biopsies and compared quantification using circular and linearized plasmids or synthetic dsDNA (gBlock®). qPCR for MF from the rodent nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis was used to support the reproducibility and validate the principle. The qPCR using as few as 2 MF from O. volvulus and L. sigmodontis reproducibly quantified Wolbachia. Use of a linearized plasmid standard or synthesized dsDNA resulted in numbers of Wolbachia/MF congruent with biologically plausible estimates in O. volvulus and L. sigmodontis MF. The qPCR assay yielded a median of 48.8 (range 1.5–280.5) Wolbachia/O. volvulus MF. The qPCR is a sensitive tool for quantifying Wolbachia in a few MF from skin biopsies and allows for establishing the qPCR as a surrogate parameter for monitoring Wolbachia depletion in adult worms of new antiwolbachial candidates.

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