Tree Hole
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Author(s):  
Karin Bakran-Lebl ◽  
Hans Jerrentrup ◽  
Eleni Daroglou ◽  
Wolf Peter Pfitzner ◽  
Hans-Peter Fuehrer ◽  
...  

AbstractAedes pulcritarsis is a tree-hole breeding species with its main distribution in the Mediterranean area. Within the scope of two independent monitoring programmes, this mosquito species was detected for the first time in Austria, in the province of Lower Austria (2018, districts Mistelbach and Gaenserndorf; 2020, district Bruck an der Leitha). As the climatic and habitat situation in Central Europe seems to be generally suitable for this species, the most likely explanation for the species not being recorded previously is that it might have been overlooked in the past due to its specialized breeding habitat. However, further research on the distribution of Ae. pulcritarsis in Austria would be needed to support this hypothesis. The results from this study will contribute to the investigation of the northern distribution limit of Ae. pulcritarsis in Europe and possible changes thereof.


2022 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
Author(s):  
Martin M. Gossner ◽  
Jana S. Petermann

Forest ecosystems have a distinct vertical dimension, but the structuring of communities in this three-dimensional space is not well understood. Water-filled tree holes are natural microcosms structured in metacommunities. Here, we used these microcosms as model systems to analyze how insect communities and the occurrence and abundance of individual species are influenced by biotic and abiotic microhabitat characteristics, the vertical position of the tree hole, and stand-scale habitat availability. We found that both the characteristics of water-filled tree holes and their insect communities differ significantly between canopy and ground level. Individual insect species showed contrasting responses to the vertical position of the tree holes when important environmental factors at the stand and the tree-hole scale were considered. While some species, such as the mosquito Aedes geniculatus and the beetle Prionocyphon serricornis, decreased in abundance with increasing tree-hole height, the biting midge Dasyhelea sp., the non-biting midge Metriocnemus cavicola and the hoverfly Myiatropa florea increased in abundance. Our results suggest that vertical stratification in forests is most likely driven not only by variation in tree-hole microhabitat properties, i.e., niche separation, but also by individual species traits, such as adult dispersal propensity, food preferences and mating behavior of adult stages, and interspecific competition of larval stages. Therefore, communities of insect species developing in tree holes are likely structured by competition–colonization trade-offs predicted by metacommunity theory.


Author(s):  
Katherine E. Mullin ◽  
Izabela M. Barata ◽  
Jeff Dawson ◽  
Pablo Orozco-terWengel

AbstractEnvironmental DNA (eDNA) is becoming an increasingly used tool for monitoring cryptic species within terrestrial and aquatic systems. We present the first method for extracting water from tree holes for eDNA studies of tree-dwelling frogs, and the first use of eDNA for amphibian monitoring in Madagascar. This pilot study expands on a previously developed method and aims to provide a simple field protocol for DNA extraction from very small water samples, using a relatively inexpensive kit compared to other collection methods. We collected 20 ml of water from tree holes in Ambohitantely Special Reserve in Madagascar, with the aim to survey for the Critically Endangered tree frog Anodonthyla vallani, and we developed species specific cytochrome c oxidase 1 primers for this species. While our two samples did not detect A. vallani, we successfully extracted up to 16.6 ng/µl of eDNA from the samples and using 16S rRNA primers barcoded the tree frog Plethodontohyla mihanika in one of the samples. Despite just two samples being collected, we highlight the future potential of eDNA from tree holes for investigating cryptic habitat specialist amphibians given we extracted frog eDNA from just 20 ml of water. The method provides a rapid, simple, and cost-effective method which can assist cryptic species monitoring in challenging and time-consuming field conditions and should be developed further for frog surveying in Madagascar and beyond. The newly developed primers can be used for further work using this eDNA method to survey threatened Anodonthyla frog species.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
He Tianyu ◽  
Zheng Yuyu ◽  
Bai Jing ◽  
Chen Pan ◽  
Ma Yue ◽  
...  
Keyword(s):  

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
pp. 8
Author(s):  
Dieter Heylen ◽  
Beatrice Bisaglia ◽  
Gerardo Fracasso ◽  
Els Prinsen ◽  
Wendt Müller ◽  
...  

Background: Variation in parasite burdens among hosts is typically related to differences in adaptive immunity. Comprehension of underlying mechanisms is hence necessary to gain better insights into endemic transmission cycles. Here we investigate whether wild songbirds that have never been exposed to ticks develop adaptive humoral immunity against endemic Ixodes ricinus ticks. Methods: Blue tits were exposed three times in succession to wild Ixodes ricinus ticks. For each infestation, serum samples were obtained. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed, using tick salivary antigens, in order to quantify the bird’s IgY response against ticks. In addition, at every sampling occasion the birds’ body weight (corrected for body size) and haematocrit level was determined. Results: Individual IgY levels against the ticks’ salivary proteins increased over three consecutive tick infestations, and large among-individual variation was observed. The responses were specifically directed against I. ricinus; cross-reactivity against the congeneric tree-hole tick Ixodes arboricola was negligibly low. IgY responses did not impinge on tick feeding success (engorgement weight and attachment success). Yet, those birds with the highest immune responses were more capable to reduce the acute harm (blood depletions) by compensating erythrocyte loss. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment, these birds had gained more body weight than birds with lower IgY levels. Conclusions: Latter observations can be considered as an effect of host quality and/or tolerance mechanisms. Birds anticipate the (future) costs of the activation of the immune system by ticks and/or ongoing tick-borne pathogen infections. Furthermore, although unsuccessful against tick feeding, the IgY responses may indirectly protect birds against tick-borne disease by acting against salivary protein secretions on which pathogens rely for transmission.


2021 ◽  
Vol 70 (1) ◽  
pp. 75-81
Author(s):  
Jozef Oboňa ◽  
Jan Ježek ◽  
Katarína Kanašová ◽  
Peter Manko

Abstract The cavities in trees (called dendrotelmata) in an urban environment stand at the periphery of researchers’ attention. This paper presents new data on the occurrence of three Diptera species considered as endangered, namely Systenus leucurus Loew, 1859, S. tener Loew, 1859 (both Dolichopodidae), and Lepiseodina rothschildi (Eaton, 1912) (Psychodidae) from just such a specific urban ecosystem in Prešov. The latter two species were also recorded for the first time in Slovakia. The distribution and conservation status of the reported species are reviewed and briefly discussed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
pp. 8
Author(s):  
Dieter Heylen ◽  
Beatrice Bisaglia ◽  
Gerardo Fracasso ◽  
Els Prinsen ◽  
Wendt Müller ◽  
...  

Background: Variation in parasite burdens among hosts is typically related to differences in adaptive immunity. Comprehension of underlying mechanisms is hence necessary to gain better insights into endemic transmission cycles. Here we investigate whether wild songbirds that have never been exposed to ticks develop adaptive humoral immunity against endemic Ixodes ricinus ticks. Methods: Blue tits were exposed three times in succession to wild Ixodes ricinus ticks. For each infestation, serum samples were obtained. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed, using tick salivary antigens, in order to quantify the bird’s IgY response against ticks. In addition, at every sampling occasion the birds’ body weight (corrected for body size) and haematocrit level was determined. Results: Individual IgY levels against the ticks’ salivary proteins increased over three consecutive tick infestations, and large among-individual variation was observed. The responses were specifically directed against I. ricinus; cross-reactivity against the congeneric tree-hole tick Ixodes arboricola was negligibly low. IgY responses did not impinge on tick feeding success (engorgement weight and attachment success). Yet, those birds with the highest immune responses were more capable to reduce the acute harm (blood depletions) by compensating erythrocyte loss. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment, these birds had gained more body weight than birds with lower IgY levels. Conclusions: Latter observations can be considered as an effect of host quality and/or tolerance mechanisms. Birds anticipate the (future) costs of the activation of the immune system by ticks and/or ongoing tick-borne pathogen infections. Furthermore, although unsuccessful against tick feeding, the IgY responses may indirectly protect birds against tick-borne disease by acting against salivary protein secretions on which pathogens rely for transmission.


Author(s):  
Cody W Koloski ◽  
Ivan Drahun ◽  
Bryan J Cassone

Abstract Native to the Eastern United States and Eastern Canada, Aedes triseriatus (eastern tree hole mosquito) is an important vector of La Crosse virus and dog heartworm. Although its range has been well characterized in the United States, few studies have surveyed its distribution within Canada. In this study, mosquitoes were collected from a variety of urban and rural communities throughout Manitoba, Canada between the years of 2018 and 2020. Aedes triseriatus was identified and confirmed molecularly to be present in 13 communities. This includes localities that expand the species known distribution to new northern and western areas, and suggests that past surveillance efforts have not been comprehensive or environmental factors have caused this mosquito species to be present in areas in which it was not found previously. As Canada is showing signs of a changing climate, this may be driving the broader occurrence of Ae. triseriatus.


Author(s):  
Pradya Somboon ◽  
Thanari Phanitchakun ◽  
Jassada Saingamsook ◽  
Rinzin Namgay ◽  
Ralph E Harbach

Abstract A new subgenus, Reinertia Somboon, Namgay & Harbach, of the genus Aedes Meigen and its type species, Ae. suffusus Edwards, are described from specimens reared from larvae and pupae found in a tree hole in Bhutan. The scutum of the adults is mostly covered with narrow pale falcate scales. The proboscis, maxillary palpus, tibiae, and tarsi are dark-scaled. The gonocoxite of the male genitalia bears a unique setose basomesal sclerite. The larva closely resembles larvae of the subgenus Downsiomyia Vargus in having setae 4–6-C with numerous branches and inserted more or less on level with seta 7-C, abdominal seta 12-I is present and the comb is composed of 6–10 spine-like scales arranged in an irregular row. Surprisingly, Reinertia shares features of the adult habitus, male genitalia, and larva with the Palearctic subgenus Dahliana Reinert, Harbach & Kitching. However, in phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial COI gene of species representing 38 subgenera of Aedes and six other genera of the tribe Aedini Neveu-Lemaire, Reinertia was not associated with Dahliana or Downsiomyia. In both maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of the data, Ae. suffusus was recovered as the weakly supported sister of a clade composed of five species of the subgenus Protomacleaya Theobald. In the absence of strong support, and because Protomacleaya is an unnatural group of species that resemble each other phenetically by virtue of what they lack, Ae. suffusus cannot be placed in the subgenus Protomacleaya. Thus, the morphological and molecular data attest the uniqueness of Ae. suffusus and its recognition as a monobasic subgeneric lineage.


2021 ◽  
Vol 251 ◽  
pp. 02022
Author(s):  
Shih-Feng Chang ◽  
Wei-Zheng Zhang ◽  
Wan-Yin Liang ◽  
Jia-Yue Qiu ◽  
Sui Pan ◽  
...  

Under the thinking of “sharing economy”, Wish Magic wants to create a platform called “shared time bank”, so that users of the platform can store their free time in the “shared time bank” platform in advance. Then, according to the precise docking of products and services as well as supply and demand, Wish Magic also carries out the “wishing tree hole” platform to effectively interact with users according to the latest news and wish list released by users, and regularly goes to poor areas to carry out relevant poverty alleviation activities, so as to provide education support for local people with educational needs and truly play the role of targeted poverty alleviation. In addition, in today’s situation of prevailing pressure, Wish Magic will also create a “spitting tree hole” platform to provide a space for everyone to spit and vent their negative energy, and provide advice for everyone in work, study, love or marriage and other aspects, and help to solve practical problems. The combination of these three platforms enable people to arrange their time reasonably, make effective use of resources, and help people improve their work efficiency and quality of life, so as to create greater economic and social benefits.


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