cell adhesion
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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Anatoly Korotkov ◽  
Mark J. Luinenburg ◽  
Alessia Romagnolo ◽  
Till S. Zimmer ◽  
Jackelien van Scheppingen ◽  

Abstract Background The genetic disorder tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is frequently accompanied by the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, with varying degrees of impairment. These co-morbidities in TSC have been linked to the structural brain abnormalities, such as cortical tubers, and recurrent epileptic seizures (in 70–80% cases). Previous transcriptomic analysis of cortical tubers revealed dysregulation of genes involved in cell adhesion in the brain, which may be associated with the neurodevelopmental deficits in TSC. In this study we aimed to investigate the expression of one of these genes – cell-adhesion molecule contactin-3. Methods Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction for the contactin-3 gene (CNTN3) was performed in resected cortical tubers from TSC patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (n = 35, age range: 1–48 years) and compared to autopsy-derived cortical control tissue (n = 27, age range: 0–44 years), as well as by western blot analysis of contactin-3 (n = 7 vs n = 7, age range: 0–3 years for both TSC and controls) and immunohistochemistry (n = 5 TSC vs n = 4 controls). The expression of contactin-3 was further analyzed in fetal and postnatal control tissue by western blotting and in-situ hybridization, as well as in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line differentiation model in vitro. Results CNTN3 gene expression was lower in cortical tubers from patients across a wide range of ages (fold change = − 0.5, p < 0.001) as compared to controls. Contactin-3 protein expression was lower in the age range of 0–3 years old (fold change = − 3.8, p < 0.001) as compared to the age-matched controls. In control brain tissue, contactin-3 gene and protein expression could be detected during fetal development, peaked around birth and during infancy and declined in the adult brain. CNTN3 expression was induced in the differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells in vitro (fold change = 6.2, p < 0.01). Conclusions Our data show a lower expression of contactin-3 in cortical tubers of TSC patients during early postnatal period as compared to controls, which may affect normal brain development and might contribute to neuropsychiatric co-morbidities observed in patients with TSC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Liying Sun ◽  
Shan Li ◽  
Kaifeng Yang ◽  
Junchao Wang ◽  
Zhengjun Li ◽  

AbstractIn this study, we aimed at constructing polycaprolactone (PCL) reinforced keratin/bioactive glass composite scaffolds with a double cross-linking network structure for potential bone repair application. Thus, the PCL-keratin-BG composite scaffold was prepared by using keratin extracted from wool as main organic component and bioactive glass (BG) as main inorganic component, through both cross-linking systems, such as the thiol-ene click reaction between abundant sulfhydryl groups of keratin and the unsaturated double bond of 3-methacryloxy propyltrimethoxy silane (MPTS), and the amino-epoxy reaction between amino groups of keratin and the epoxy group in (3-glycidoxymethyl) methyldiethoxysilane (GPTMS) molecule, along with introduction of PCL as a reinforcing agent. The success of the thiol-ene reaction was verified by the FTIR and 1H-NMR analyses. And the structure of keratin-BG and PCL-keratin-BG composite scaffolds were studied and compared by the FTIR and XRD characterization, which indicated the successful preparation of the PCL-keratin-BG composite scaffold. In addition, the SEM observation, and contact angle and water absorption rate measurements demonstrated that the PCL-keratin-BG composite scaffold has interconnected porous structure, appropriate pore size and good hydrophilicity, which is helpful to cell adhesion, differentiation and proliferation. Importantly, compression experiments showed that, when compared with the keratin-BG composite scaffold, the PCL-keratin-BG composite scaffold increased greatly from 0.91 ± 0.06 MPa and 7.25 ± 1.7 MPa to 1.58 ± 0.21 MPa and 14.14 ± 1.95 MPa, respectively, which suggesting the strong reinforcement of polycaprolactone. In addition, the biomineralization experiment and MTT assay indicated that the PCL-keratin-BG scaffold has good mineralization ability and no-cytotoxicity, which can promote cell adhesion, proliferation and growth. Therefore, the results suggested that the PCL-keratin-BG composite scaffold has the potential as a candidate for application in bone regeneration field. Graphical Abstract

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Xiujin Chen ◽  
Nan Zhang ◽  
Yuanyuan Zheng ◽  
Zhichao Tong ◽  
Tuanmin Yang ◽  

Purpose. Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most primary bone malignant tumor in adolescents. Although the treatment of OS has made great progress, patients’ prognosis remains poor due to tumor invasion and metastasis. Materials and Methods. We downloaded the expression profile GSE12865 from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. We screened differential expressed genes (DEGs) by making use of the R limma software package. Based on Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, we performed the function and pathway enrichment analyses. Then, we constructed a Protein-Protein Interaction network and screened hub genes through the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes. Result. By analyzing the gene expression profile GSE12865, we obtained 703 OS-related DEGs, which contained 166 genes upregulated and 537 genes downregulated. The DEGs were primarily abundant in ribosome, cell adhesion molecules, ubiquitin-ubiquitin ligase activity, and p53 signaling pathway. The hub genes of OS were KDR, CDH5, CD34, CDC42, RBX1, POLR2C, PPP2CA, and RPS2 through PPI network analysis. Finally, GSEA analysis showed that cell adhesion molecules, chemokine signal pathway, transendothelial migration, and focal adhesion were associated with OS. Conclusion. In this study, through analyzing microarray technology and bioinformatics analysis, the hub genes and pathways about OS are identified, and the new molecular mechanism of OS is clarified.

2022 ◽  
Francisca M. Real ◽  
Miguel Lao-Perez ◽  
Miguel Burgos ◽  
Stefan Mundlos ◽  
Dario G. Lupianez ◽  

In species with seasonal breeding, male specimens undergo substantial testicular regression during the non-breeding period of the year. However, the molecular mechanisms that control this biological process are largely unknown. Here, we report a transcriptomic analysis on the Iberian mole, Talpa occidentalis, in which the desquamation of live, non-apoptotic germ cells is the major cellular event responsible for testis regression. By comparing testes at different reproductive states (active, regressing and inactive), we demonstrate that the molecular pathways controlling the cell adhesion function in the seminiferous epithelium, such as the MAPK, ERK and TGF-beta signalling, are altered during the regression process. In addition, inactive testes display a global upregulation of genes associated with immune response, indicating a selective loss of the immune privilege that normally operates in sexually active testes. Interspecies comparative analyses using analogous data from the Mediterranean pine vole, a rodent species where testis regression is controlled by halting meiosis entry, revealed a common gene expression signature in the regressed testes of these two evolutionary distant species. Our study advances in the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms associated to gonadal seasonal breeding, highlighting the existence of a conserved transcriptional program of testis involution across mammalian clades.

2022 ◽  
Cheerneni Sai Srinivas ◽  
Gayathri Sindhuri Singaraju ◽  
Sayan Das ◽  
Amin Sagar ◽  
Anuj Kumar ◽  

Cis and trans-interactions in cadherins are the foundations of multicellularity. While the trans-interaction mediate cell-cell adhesion, the cis-interaction is postulated as strengthening to trans by clustering. The well-accepted model in cadherin-adhesion is that the trans precedes cis via a diffusion-trap kinetic model. Here we report that cadherin-23, a non-classical cadherin with an extended extracellular region, undergoes clustering in solution via lateral interactions independent of trans and phase separate as liquid droplets. In cellulo using fluorescence-recovery after the photobleaching, we noticed a significantly slow-diffusion of cadherin-23 at the intercellular junctions, indicating the diffusion of a cluster. The cis-clustering accelerates the cell-cell adhesion and, thus, kinetically controls cell-adhesion via cis precedes trans model. Though the connection of cis-clustering with the rapid adhesion is yet to explore, M2-macrophages that predominantly express cadherin-23 undergo fast attachments to circulatory tumor cells during metastasis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Elham Kalantari ◽  
Tahereh Taheri ◽  
Saba Fata ◽  
Maryam Abolhasani ◽  
Mitra Mehrazma ◽  

Abstract Background The crucial oncogenic role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in tumor maintenance, progression, drug resistance, and relapse has been clarified in different cancers, particularly in colorectal cancer (CRC). The current study was conducted to evaluate the co-expression pattern and clinical significance of epithelial cell adhesion molecules (EpCAM) and activated leukocyte cell adhesion (CD166 or ALCAM) in CRC patients. Methods This study was carried out on 458 paraffin-embedded CRC specimens by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray (TMA) slides. Results Elevated expression of EpCAM and CD166 was observed in 61.5% (246/427) and 40.5% (164/405) of CRC cases. Our analysis showed a significant positive association of EpCAM expression with tumor size (P = 0.02), tumor stage (P = 0.007), tumor differentiate (P = 0.005), vascular (P = 0.01), neural (P = 0.01), and lymph node (P = 0.001) invasion. There were no significant differences between CD166 expression and clinicopathological parameters. Moreover, the combined analysis demonstrated a reciprocal significant correlation between EpCAM and CD166 expression (P = 0.02). Interestingly, there was a significant positive correlation between EpCAM/CD166 phenotypes expression and tumor stage (P = 0.03), tumor differentiation (P = 0.05), neural, and lymph node invasion (P =0.01). Conclusions The significant correlation of EpCAM and CD166 expression and their association with tumor progression and aggressive behavior is the reason for the suggestion of these two CSC markers as promising targets to promote novel effective targeted-therapy strategies for cancer treatment in the present study.

2022 ◽  
Hao Li ◽  
Zihan Yan ◽  
Ran Huo ◽  
Xiaolong Ya ◽  
Hongyuan Xu ◽  

Abstract BackgroundBrain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) arises as congenital vascular abnormalities with a significant risk for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). RNA sequencing technology has been recently used to investigate the mechanism of diseases owing to its ability to identify the gene changes on a transcriptome-wide level. In this study, we aimed to gain insights into the potential mechanism involved in BAVM rupture. MethodsSixty-five BAVM nidus samples were collected among which 28 were ruptured and 37 were un-ruptured. Then next-generation RNA sequencing were performed on all of them to obtain differential expressed genes (DEGs) between these two groups. In addition, bioinformatics analysis was performed to evaluate the involved biological processes and pathways by GO and KEGG analysis. Finally, univariate Cox regression analysis was utilized to obtain the early rupture-prone DEGs. Results: A total of 951 genes were differentially expressed between ruptured and un-ruptured BAVM group, of which 740 genes were up-regulated and 211 genes were down-regulated in ruptured BAVMs. Then bioinformatics analysis showed the biological processes and pathways related to the inflammatory processes and extracellular matrix organization were significantly enriched. Meanwhile, some of down-regulated genes are involved in cell adhesion and genes participating in response to muscle activity, as well as the terms about nervous system development. Finally, one hundred and twenty-five genes, a large number of which were involved in inflammation, were correlated with the early rupture of BAVMs. Conclusions: The up-regulated genes in ruptured BAVM group were involved in inflammatory processes and extracellular matrix organization while some of the down-regulated genes were participating in cell adhesion and myofibril assembly, indicating the role of enhanced inflammation and reduced vessel strength in BAVMs rupture.

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