Blood Perfusion
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Haijiao Jing ◽  
Nan Zuo ◽  
Valerie A. Novakovic ◽  
Jialan Shi

Cancer patients have increased SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and are prone to developing severe COVID-19 infections. The incidence of venous thrombosis is approximately 20% in COVID-19 patients with cancer. It has been suggested that thrombus formation has been suggested to correlate with severe clinical manifestations, mortality, and sequelae. In this review, we primarily elaborate on the pathophysiological mechanisms of thrombosis in COVID-19 patients with cancer, emphasize the role of microparticles (MPs) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in coagulation, and propose an antithrombotic strategy. The coagulation mechanisms of COVID-19 and cancer synergistically amplify the coagulation cascade, and collectively promotes pulmonary microvascular occlusion. During systemic coagulation, the virus activates immune cells to release abundant proinflammatory cytokines, referred to as cytokine storm, resulting in the apoptosis of tumor and blood cells and subsequent MPs release. Additionally, we highlight that tumor cells contribute to MPs and coagulation by apoptosis owing to insufficient blood supply. A positive feedback loop of cytokines storm and MPs storm promotes microvascular coagulation storm, leading to microthrombi formation and inadequate blood perfusion. Microthrombi-damaged endothelial cells (ECs), tumor, and blood cells further aggravate the apoptosis of the cells and facilitate MPs storm. PS, especially on MPs, plays a pivotal role in the blood coagulation process, contributing to clot initiation, amplification, and propagation. Since coagulation is a common pathway of COVID-19 and cancer, and associated with mortality, patients would benefit from antithrombotic therapy. The above results lead us to assert that early stage antithrombotic therapy is optimal. This strategy is likely to maintain blood flow patency contributing to viral clearance, attenuating the formation of cytokines and MPs storm, maintaining oxygen saturation, and avoiding the progress of the disease.

Rosa Hugosdottir ◽  
Mindy Kasting ◽  
Carsten Dahl Mørch ◽  
Ole Kæseler Andersen ◽  
Lars Arendt-Nielsen

Heat/capsaicin sensitization and electrical high frequency stimulation (HFS) are well known model of secondary hyperalgesia, a phenomenon related to chronic pain conditions. This study investigated whether priming with heat/capsaicin would facilitate hyperalgesia to HFS in healthy subjects. Heat/capsaicin priming consisted of a 45 °C heat stimulation for 5 min followed by a topical capsaicin patch (4x4 cm) for 30 minutes on the volar forearm of 20 subjects. HFS (100 Hz, 5 times 1s, minimum 1.5 mA) was subsequently delivered through a transcutaneous pin electrode approximately 1.5 cm proximal to the heat/capsaicin application. Two sessions were applied in a crossover design; traditional HFS (HFS) and heat/capsaicin sensitization followed by HFS (HFS+HEAT/CAPS). Heat pain threshold (HPT), mechanical pain sensitivity (MPS) and superficial blood perfusion were assessed at baseline, after capsaicin removal, and up to 40 min after HFS. MPS was assessed with pinprick stimulation (128 mN and 256 mN) in the area adjacent to both HFS and heat/capsaicin, distal but adjacent to heat/capsaicin and in a distal control area. HPT was assessed in the area of heat/capsaicin. Higher sensitivity to 128 mN pinprick stimulation (difference from baseline and control area) was observed in the HFS+HEAT/CAPS session than in the HFS session 20 and 30 minutes after HFS. Furthermore, sensitivity was increased after HFS+HEAT/CAPS compared to after heat/capsaicin in the area adjacent to both paradigms, but not in the area distal to heat/capsaicin. Results indicate that heat/capsaicin causes priming of the central- and peripheral nervous system, which facilitates secondary mechanical hyperalgesia to HFS.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 683
Katalin Kauser ◽  
Kevin S. Warner ◽  
Blake Anderson ◽  
Edgar Dalles Keyes ◽  
RB Hayes ◽  

The development of bioscaffolds for cardiovascular medical applications, such as peripheral artery disease (PAD), remains to be a challenge for tissue engineering. PAD is an increasingly common and serious cardiovascular illness characterized by progressive atherosclerotic stenosis, resulting in decreased blood perfusion to the lower extremities. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement are routinely performed on these patients with suboptimal outcomes. Natural Vascular Scaffolding (NVS) is a novel treatment in the development for PAD, which offers an alternative to stenting by building on the natural structural constituents in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the blood vessel wall. During NVS treatment, blood vessels are exposed to a photoactivatable small molecule (10-8-10 Dimer) delivered locally to the vessel wall via an angioplasty balloon. When activated with 450 nm wavelength light, this therapy induces the formation of covalent protein–protein crosslinks of the ECM proteins by a photochemical mechanism, creating a natural scaffold. This therapy has the potential to reduce the need for stent placement by maintaining a larger diameter post-angioplasty and minimizing elastic recoil. Experiments were conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action of NVS, including the molecular mechanism of light activation and the impact of NVS on the ECM.

2022 ◽  
Lin Lin ◽  
Franca Witjas ◽  
Konrad Fischer ◽  
Marten Engelse ◽  
Annemarie de Graaf ◽  

Abstract Genetically tailored pigs to eliminate human immune rejection of xenografts is one promising solution to the global donor organ shortage. The development of xenograft transplantation has however been hampered by incomplete understanding of its immune rejection and the inability to test this in a human transplantation setting. Here we use an ex vivo organ perfusion system with human whole blood to assess the initial immune activation within the xenograft endothelium at single cell transcriptome level. Renal injury, complement deposition, coagulation and lymphocyte influx are all strongly reduced in genetically modified pig kidneys with porcine MHC class I and three xenoantigens (GGTA1, CMAH, B4GALNT2) eliminated (4KO) compared to wildtype (WT) pig kidneys after 6-hours human blood perfusion. Single cell RNA sequencing of endothelial cells (EC) from 4KO and WT pig kidneys respectively reveal that there is a compartment (cortex, glomeruli and medulla) specific endothelial activation, with cortical and glomeruli endothelial cells being more affected. Differential gene expression analysis shows a downregulation of endothelial transcriptome activation response to human blood perfusion in the 4KO ECs. Pathway enrichment analysis further identify the NF-kB pathway as strongly activated in human blood perfused WT ECs but diminished in the 4KO. In conclusion, the 4KO pig model has strongly reduced endothelial immune activation response when perfused with human whole blood, that goes beyond prevention of humoral rejection. Our data support further development of the 4KO for use in clinical transplantation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (2) ◽  
pp. e2026201119
Arka Bhowmik ◽  
Biswajoy Ghosh ◽  
Mousumi Pal ◽  
Ranjan Rashmi Paul ◽  
Jyotirmoy Chatterjee ◽  

Precise information on localized variations in blood circulation holds the key for noninvasive diagnostics and therapeutic assessment of various forms of cancer. While thermal imaging by itself may provide significant insights on the combined implications of the relevant physiological parameters, viz. local blood perfusion and metabolic balance due to active tumors as well as the ambient conditions, knowledge of the tissue surface temperature alone may be somewhat inadequate in distinguishing between some ambiguous manifestations of precancer and cancerous lesions, resulting in compromise of the selectivity in detection. This, along with the lack of availability of a user-friendly and inexpensive portable device for thermal-image acquisition, blood perfusion mapping, and data integration acts as a deterrent against the emergence of an inexpensive, contact-free, and accurate in situ screening and diagnostic approach for cancer detection and management. Circumventing these constraints, here we report a portable noninvasive blood perfusion imager augmented with machine learning–based quantitative analytics for screening precancerous and cancerous traits in oral lesions, by probing the localized alterations in microcirculation. With a proven overall sensitivity >96.66% and specificity of 100% as compared to gold-standard biopsy-based tests, the method successfully classified oral cancer and precancer in a resource-limited clinical setting in a double-blinded patient trial and exhibited favorable predictive capabilities considering other complementary modes of medical image analysis as well. The method holds further potential to achieve contrast-free, accurate, and low-cost diagnosis of abnormal microvascular physiology and other clinically vulnerable conditions, when interpreted along with complementary clinically evidenced decision-making perspectives.

2021 ◽  
Vol 62 (15) ◽  
pp. 30
Xuan Zhou ◽  
Sen Zhang ◽  
Fan Yang ◽  
Yaozhen Yang ◽  
Qin Huang ◽  

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 66
Wei Wang ◽  
Dingding Shen ◽  
Lilei Zhang ◽  
Yanan Ji ◽  
Lai Xu ◽  

Denervated muscle atrophy is a common clinical disease that has no effective treatments. Our previous studies have found that oxidative stress and inflammation play an important role in the process of denervated muscle atrophy. Extracellular vesicles derived from skin precursor-derived Schwann cells (SKP-SC-EVs) contain a large amount of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory factors. This study explored whether SKP-SC-EVs alleviate denervated muscle atrophy by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation. In vitro studies have found that SKP-SC-EVs can be internalized and caught by myoblasts to promote the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. Nutrient deprivation can cause myotube atrophy, accompanied by oxidative stress and inflammation. However, SKP-SC-EVs can inhibit oxidative stress and inflammation caused by nutritional deprivation and subsequently relieve myotube atrophy. Moreover, there is a remarkable dose-effect relationship. In vivo studies have found that SKP-SC-EVs can significantly inhibit a denervation-induced decrease in the wet weight ratio and myofiber cross-sectional area of target muscles. Furthermore, SKP-SC-EVs can dramatically inhibit highly expressed Muscle RING Finger 1 and Muscle Atrophy F-box in target muscles under denervation and reduce the degradation of the myotube heavy chain. SKP-SC-EVs may reduce mitochondrial vacuolar degeneration and autophagy in denervated muscles by inhibiting autophagy-related proteins (i.e., PINK1, BNIP3, LC3B, and ATG7). Moreover, SKP-SC-EVs may improve microvessels and blood perfusion in denervated skeletal muscles by enhancing the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells. SKP-SC-EVs can also significantly inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in target muscles after denervation, which indicates that SKP-SC-EVs elicit their role by upregulating Nrf2 and downregulating ROS production-related factors (Nox2 and Nox4). In addition, SKP-SC-EVs can significantly reduce the levels of interleukin 1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor α in target muscles. To conclude, SKP-SC-EVs may alleviate the decrease of target muscle blood perfusion and passivate the activities of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome systems by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammatory response, then reduce skeletal muscle atrophy caused by denervation. This study not only enriches the molecular regulation mechanism of denervated muscle atrophy, but also provides a scientific basis for SKP-SC-EVs as a protective drug to prevent and treat muscle atrophy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 185
Hong Zhe Zhang ◽  
Dong-Sik Chae ◽  
Sung-Whan Kim

Previously, we reported the angio-vasculogenic properties of human stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs). In this study, we investigated whether the combination of ASCs and SVF cells exhibited synergistic angiogenic properties. We conducted quantitative (q)RT-PCR, Matrigel plug, tube formation assays, and in vivo therapeutic assays using an ischemic hind limb mouse model. Immunohistochemical analysis was also conducted. qRT-PCR results revealed that FGF-2 was highly upregulated in ASCs compared with SVF, while PDGF-b and VEGF-A were highly upregulated in SVF. Conditioned medium from mixed cultures of ASCs and SVF (A+S) cells showed higher Matrigel tube formation and endothelial cell proliferation in vitro. A+S cell transplantation into ischemic mouse hind limbs strongly prevented limb loss and augmented blood perfusion compared with SVF cell transplantation. Transplanted A+S cells also showed high capillary density, cell proliferation, angiogenic cytokines, and anti-apoptotic potential in vivo compared with transplanted SVF. Our data indicate that A+S cell transplantation results in synergistic angiogenic therapeutic effects. Accordingly, A+S cell injection could be an alternative therapeutic strategy for treating ischemic diseases.

2021 ◽  
Dillon McClintock ◽  
Neil T. Wright

Abstract Cryolipolysis is a noninvasive clinical procedure for the local reduction of adipose tissue. Paddles as cold as ~10 °C are placed in good thermal contact the epidermis. The goal is to cool the subcutaneous adipose tissue to ~10 °C, which induces apoptosis and an inflammatory response in the adipocytes. The dermis is, of course, cooler than the adipocytes, but the triglyceride in the adipocytes are thought to crystalize, causing apoptosis. The clinical procedure have been developed empirically. A mathematical model could aid in understanding the mechanisms of response and improving the design of the procedure. Here, the Pennes equation is used to model the temperature of the tissue during cooling. The two parameters identified are the thermal diffusivity of the tissue and a blood perfusion parameter, which also gives the characteristic length. Green's functions are used to solve the Pennes equation, which simplifies to a transient fin equation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Qin Zhu ◽  
Chunwen Chen ◽  
Jingyan Yao

Purpose. To evaluate and quantify blood perfusion and retinal thickness (RT) from the perspective of quadrants by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in adolescents with myopia and explore the relationship between axial elongation and related indexes of OCTA. Methods. A total of 88 subjects (149 eyes) with different degrees of myopia were included in this cross-sectional study. Vessel density (VD) and RT of quadrants in macular and peripheral regions were measured through OCTA. Results. The superficial VD (SVD) of the parainferior region was significantly correlated with axial length (AL) between the emmetropia (EM) group and high myopia (HI) group ( P = 0.012 ). There were significant differences in deep VD (DVD) in all quadrants, except for the foveal, perifoveal, and peri-inferior regions ( P > 0.05 ). However, there were significant alterations in the whole, parainferior, and perinasal regions ( P = 0.030 , 0.023, and 0.035) in the low-to-moderate myopia (L–M) group compared with those in the HI group. There were significant differences in the RT in all quadrants, except for the foveal, paratemporal, and paranasal regions ( P > 0.05 ) between the EM and L–M groups and the foveal region ( P > 0.05 ) between the EM and HI groups. Nevertheless, only RT in the peri-inferior region of the L–M and HI groups showed significant differences. AL was negatively correlated with SVD in the perifoveal and parainferior regions (r = −0.179, P = 0.029 ; r = −0.227, P = 0.005 ) and inversely correlated with DVD and RT in almost all quadrants, except for the foveal region (r = −0.020, P = 0.811 ; r = 0.135, P = 1.000 ). Conclusion. DVD and RT were closely associated with the severity of myopia and might be new indexes in assessing and detecting myopia development via OCTA.

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