blood brain barrier
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 39
Jihyoung Choi ◽  
Sanjana Mathew ◽  
Sabrina Oerter ◽  
Antje Appelt-Menzel ◽  
Jan Hansmann ◽  

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a noninvasive, reliable, and efficient method to analyze the barrier integrity of in vitro tissue models. This well-established tool is used most widely to quantify the transendothelial/epithelial resistance (TEER) of Transwell-based models cultured under static conditions. However, dynamic culture in bioreactors can achieve advanced cell culture conditions that mimic a more tissue-specific environment and stimulation. This requires the development of culture systems that also allow for the assessment of barrier integrity under dynamic conditions. Here, we present a bioreactor system that is capable of the automated, continuous, and non-invasive online monitoring of cellular barrier integrity during dynamic culture. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) casting and 3D printing were used for the fabrication of the bioreactors. Additionally, attachable electrodes based on titanium nitride (TiN)-coated steel tubes were developed to perform EIS measurements. In order to test the monitored bioreactor system, blood–brain barrier (BBB) in vitro models derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) were cultured for up to 7 days. We applied equivalent electrical circuit fitting to quantify the electrical parameters of the cell layer and observed that TEER gradually decreased over time from 2513 Ω·cm2 to 285 Ω·cm2, as also specified in the static control culture. Our versatile system offers the possibility to be used for various dynamic tissue cultures that require a non-invasive monitoring system for barrier integrity.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 410
Xiaoman Mao ◽  
Shuang Wu ◽  
Pilar Calero-Pérez ◽  
Ana P. Candiota ◽  
Paula Alfonso ◽  

Glioblastoma is the most malignant and frequently occurring type of brain tumors in adults. Its treatment has been greatly hampered by the difficulty to achieve effective therapeutic concentration in the tumor sites due to its location and the blood–brain barrier. Intranasal administration has emerged as an alternative for drug delivery into the brain though mucopenetration, and rapid mucociliary clearance still remains an issue to be solved before its implementation. To address these issues, based on the intriguing properties of proteins secreted by mussels, polyphenol and catechol functionalization has already been used to promote mucopenetration, intranasal delivery and transport across the blood–brain barrier. Thus, herein we report the synthesis and study of complex 1, a Pt(IV) prodrug functionalized with catecholic moieties. This complex considerably augmented solubility in contrast to cisplatin and showed a comparable cytotoxic effect on cisplatin in HeLa, 1Br3G and GL261 cells. Furthermore, preclinical in vivo therapy using the intranasal administration route suggested that it can reach the brain and inhibit the growth of orthotopic GL261 glioblastoma. These results open new opportunities for catechol-bearing anticancer prodrugs in the treatment for brain tumors via intranasal administration.

2022 ◽  
Felix Alonso-Valenteen ◽  
Sam Sances ◽  
HongQiang Wang ◽  
Simoun Mikhael ◽  
Jessica Sims ◽  

Abstract Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks selective biomarkers targeted by current clinical therapies and often metastasizes to the brain. Crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and reaching intracranial tumors is a clinical challenge contributing to poor prognoses for patients. The human epidermal growth factor receptor HER3 has emerged as a biomarker of metastasis and may provide a means of therapeutically targeting TNBC. We have developed HER3-targeted biological particles (bioparticles) that exhibit systemic homing to resistant and metastatic breast tumors. Here we show that HER3 is expressed on the brain endothelium and can mediate the passage of bioparticles across the BBB and into intracranial TNBC. Our findings show that the extravasation of systemic bioparticles in mice and in human induced pluripotent stem cell-based BBB chips corresponds to HER3 levels. Furthermore, systemically delivered bioparticles carrying tumoricidal agents reduced the growth of intracranial TNBC in mice and exhibited improved therapeutic profile compared to current therapies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
Ke Li ◽  
Jiayu Wang ◽  
Lei Chen ◽  
Meimei Guo ◽  
Ying Zhou ◽  

Postoperative delirium (POD) is a common and serious postoperative complication in elderly patients, and its underlying mechanism is elusive and without effective therapy at present. In recent years, the neuroinflammatory hypothesis has been developed in the pathogenesis of POD, in which the damaged blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role. Netrin-1 (NTN-1), an axonal guidance molecule, has been reported to have strong inflammatory regulatory and neuroprotective effects. We applied NTN-1 (45 μg/kg) to aged mice using a POD model with a simple laparotomy to assess their systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation by detecting interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and high mobility group box chromosomal protein-1 (HMGB-1) levels. We also assessed the reactive states of microglia and the permeability of the BBB by detecting cell junction proteins and the leakage of dextran. We found that a single dose of NTN-1 prophylaxis decreased the expression of IL-6 and HMGB-1 and upregulated the expression of IL-10 in the peripheral blood, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. Nerin-1 reduced the activation of microglial cells in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex and improved POD-like behavior. NTN-1 also attenuated the anesthesia/surgery-induced increase in BBB permeability by upregulating the expression of tight junction-associated proteins such as ZO-1, claudin-5, and occludin. These findings confirm the anti-inflammatory and BBB protective effects of NTN-1 in an inflammatory environment in vivo and provide better insights into the pathophysiology and potential treatment of POD.

2022 ◽  
Andrew V Stachulski ◽  
Tobias B-A Knausenberger ◽  
Sita N Shah ◽  
Lesley Hoyles ◽  
Simon McArthur

Purpose: The sequential activity of gut microbial and host processes can exert a powerful modulatory influence on dietary components, as exemplified by the metabolism of the amino acids tyrosine and phenylalanine to p-cresol by gut microbes, and then to p-cresol glucuronide (pCG) by host enzymes. Although such glucuronide conjugates are classically thought to be biologically inert, there is accumulating evidence that this may not always be the case. We investigated the activity of pCG, studying its interactions with the cerebral vasculature and the brain in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Male C57Bl/6J mice were used to assess blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and whole brain transcriptomic changes in response to pCG treatment. Effects were then further explored using the human cerebromicrovascular endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3, assessing paracellular permeability, transendothelial electrical resistance and barrier protein expression. Results: Mice exposed to pCG showed reduced BBB permeability and significant changes in whole brain transcriptome expression. Surprisingly, treatment of hCMEC/D3 cells with pCG had no notable effects until co-administered with bacterial lipopolysaccharide, at which point it was able to prevent the permeabilising effects of endotoxin. Further analysis suggested that pCG acts as an antagonist at the principal lipopolysaccharide receptor TLR4. Conclusion: The amino acid phase II metabolic product pCG is biologically active at the BBB, highlighting the complexity of gut microbe to host communication and the gut-brain axis.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 173
Clara Guido ◽  
Clara Baldari ◽  
Gabriele Maiorano ◽  
Angela Mastronuzzi ◽  
Andrea Carai ◽  

Pediatric brain tumors represent the most common types of childhood cancer and novel diagnostic and therapeutic solutions are urgently needed. The gold standard treatment option for brain cancers in children, as in adults, is tumor resection followed by radio- and chemotherapy, but with discouraging therapeutic results. In particular, the last two treatments are often associated to significant neurotoxicity in the developing brain of a child, with resulting disabilities such as cognitive problems, neuroendocrine, and neurosensory dysfunctions/deficits. Nanoparticles have been increasingly and thoroughly investigated as they show great promises as diagnostic tools and vectors for gene/drug therapy for pediatric brain cancer due to their ability to cross the blood–brain barrier. In this review we will discuss the developments of nanoparticle-based strategies as novel precision nanomedicine tools for diagnosis and therapy in pediatric brain cancers, with a particular focus on targeting strategies to overcome the main physiological obstacles that are represented by blood–brain barrier.

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 154
Shofiul Azam ◽  
Ju-Young Park ◽  
In-Su Kim ◽  
Dong-Kug Choi

Piperine (PIP) is an active alkaloid of black and long peppers. An increasing amount of evidence is suggesting that PIP and its metabolite’s could be a potential therapeutic to intervene different disease conditions including chronic inflammation, cardiac and hepatic diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. In addition, the omnipresence of PIP in food and beverages made this compound an important investigational material. It has now become essential to understand PIP pharmacology and toxicology to determine its merits and demerits, especially its effect on the central nervous system (CNS). Although several earlier reports documented that PIP has poor pharmacokinetic properties, such as absorption, bioavailability, and blood–brain barrier permeability. However, its interaction with metabolic enzyme cytochrome P450 superfamily and competitive hydrophobic interaction at Monoamine oxide B (MAO-B) active site have made PIP both a xenobiotics bioenhancer and a potential MAO-B inhibitor. Moreover, recent advancements in pharmaceutical technology have overcome several of PIP’s limitations, including bioavailability and blood–brain barrier permeability, even at low doses. Contrarily, the structure activity relationship (SAR) study of PIP suggesting that its several metabolites are reactive and plausibly responsible for acute toxicity or have pharmacological potentiality. Considering the importance of PIP and its metabolites as an emerging drug target, this study aims to combine the current knowledge of PIP pharmacology and biochemistry with neurodegenerative and neurological disease therapy.

2022 ◽  
Diana Pelizzari-Raymundo ◽  
Dimitrios Doultsinos ◽  
Raphael Pineau ◽  
Chloé Sauzay ◽  
Thodoris Koutsandreas ◽  

Inositol Requiring Enzyme 1 (IRE1) is a bifunctional serine/threonine kinase and endoribonuclease. It is a major mediator of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), which is activated during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Tumor cells experience ER stress due to adverse microenvironmental cues such as hypoxia or nutrient shortage and high metabolic/protein folding demand. To cope with those stresses, cancer cells utilize IRE1 signaling as an adaptive mechanism. Here we report the discovery of novel IRE1 inhibitors identified through a structural exploration of the IRE1 kinase domain. We first characterized these candidates in vitro and in cellular models. We showed that all molecules inhibit IRE1 signaling and sensitize glioblastoma cells to the standard chemotherapeutic temozolomide (TMZ). From these inhibitors, we retained a Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) permeable molecule (Z4P) and demonstrated its ability to inhibit Glioblastoma (GB) growth and to prevent relapse in vivo when administered together with TMZ. These results support the attractiveness of IRE1 as an adjuvant therapeutic target in GB. We thus satisfy an unmet need for targeted, non-toxic, IRE1 inhibitors as adjuvant therapeutic agents against GB.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 742
Shireen Mentor ◽  
Khayelihle Brian Makhathini ◽  
David Fisher

The brain capillary endothelium is highly regulatory, maintaining the chemical stability of the brain’s microenvironment. The role of cytoskeletal proteins in tethering nanotubules (TENTs) during barrier-genesis was investigated using the established immortalized mouse brain endothelial cell line (bEnd5) as an in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model. The morphology of bEnd5 cells was evaluated using both high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and immunofluorescence to evaluate treatment with depolymerizing agents Cytochalasin D for F-actin filaments and Nocodazole for α-tubulin microtubules. The effects of the depolymerizing agents were investigated on bEnd5 monolayer permeability by measuring the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER). The data endorsed that during barrier-genesis, F-actin and α-tubulin play a cytoarchitectural role in providing both cell shape dynamics and cytoskeletal structure to TENTs forming across the paracellular space to provide cell-cell engagement. Western blot analysis of the treatments suggested a reduced expression of both proteins, coinciding with a reduction in the rates of cellular proliferation and decreased TEER. The findings endorsed that TENTs provide alignment of the paracellular (PC) spaces and tight junction (TJ) zones to occlude bEnd5 PC spaces. The identification of specific cytoskeletal structures in TENTs endorsed the postulate of their indispensable role in barrier-genesis and the maintenance of regulatory permeability across the BBB.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document