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2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (1) ◽  
pp. 20-29
Ali S. HYASAT ◽  
Ghazi A. AL-WESHAH ◽  
Dana F. KAKEESH ◽  

This study is designed to assess and identify the status of hospitality training needs, methods and potential challenges within the hospitality industry, in order to recognize gaps and develop training programmes that address and enhance the competitiveness of small businesses within it. A qualitative approach was employed, whereby face-to-face and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 owners and managers of small businesses in the hospitality industry. Using thematic analysis, the study concludes that communication skills, especially foreign languages, are the most the important training need at both managerial and operational levels. Moreover, the study found that on-the-job training is one of the most important training methods. Furthermore, a lack of training budgets is found to be the most critical challenge to training. The study provides empirical evidence and practical implications for decision-makers in the hospitality industry.

Shu Jiang ◽  
Zuchao Li ◽  
Hai Zhao ◽  
Bao-Liang Lu ◽  
Rui Wang

In recent years, the research on dependency parsing focuses on improving the accuracy of the domain-specific (in-domain) test datasets and has made remarkable progress. However, there are innumerable scenarios in the real world that are not covered by the dataset, namely, the out-of-domain dataset. As a result, parsers that perform well on the in-domain data usually suffer from significant performance degradation on the out-of-domain data. Therefore, to adapt the existing in-domain parsers with high performance to a new domain scenario, cross-domain transfer learning methods are essential to solve the domain problem in parsing. This paper examines two scenarios for cross-domain transfer learning: semi-supervised and unsupervised cross-domain transfer learning. Specifically, we adopt a pre-trained language model BERT for training on the source domain (in-domain) data at the subword level and introduce self-training methods varied from tri-training for these two scenarios. The evaluation results on the NLPCC-2019 shared task and universal dependency parsing task indicate the effectiveness of the adopted approaches on cross-domain transfer learning and show the potential of self-learning to cross-lingual transfer learning.

Atallah Mahmoud Al-Shatnawi ◽  
Faisal Al-Saqqar ◽  
Alireza Souri

This paper is aimed at improving the performance of the word recognition system (WRS) of handwritten Arabic text by extracting features in the frequency domain using the Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT) method using machine learning, which is a wavelet transform approach created to compensate for the absence of translation invariance in the  Discrete Wavelets Transform (DWT) method. The proposed SWT-WRS of Arabic handwritten text consists of three main processes: word normalization, feature extraction based on SWT, and recognition. The proposed SWT-WRS based on the SWT method is evaluated on the IFN/ENIT database applying the Gaussian, linear, and polynomial support vector machine, the k-nearest neighbors, and ANN classifiers. ANN performance was assessed by applying the Bayesian Regularization (BR) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) training methods. Numerous wavelet transform (WT) families are applied, and the results prove that level 19 of the Daubechies family is the best WT family for the proposed SWT-WRS. The results also confirm the effectiveness of the proposed SWT-WRS in improving the performance of handwritten Arabic word recognition using machine learning. Therefore, the suggested SWT-WRS overcomes the lack of translation invariance in the DWT method by eliminating the up-and-down samplers from the proposed machine learning method.

2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 14-16
Wei Zong

ABSTRACT Introduction: Brief introduction: Taekwondo is a sport that integrates explosive power and reaction speed. The reaction speed of the athletes has a direct bearing on the result of the competition. Objective: To improve the reaction time effect of athletes. Methods: Forty-one Taekwondo team athletes were selected as the research subjects. Then, the training methods were introduced, and special technology using an emg tester and a synchronous camera system was implemented to analyze the earliest emg signals and the moment of the hit, the time from signal emergence to the emg reaction for reaction time, and from signal emergence to hit for the total time. Results: The average score of the 41 athletes before the test was 0.282673,with standard deviation of 0.0377349 and standard error of 0.0058932. The average score, standard deviation, and standard error of the 41 athletes after small training were 0.28217, 0.037744 and 0.005895. Conclusions: From the test results of the three training modes, the small training mode had a significant impact on the reaction time of Taekwondo athletes, while the medium and large training modes did not have significant effects. The results show that a small amount of training is best and plays a significant role in improving the reaction of an athlete. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.

2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 27-30
Keyin Liu

ABSTRACT Introduction: Basketball can enhance the physical fitness of young people, promote the growth and development of their bodies, and improve health and athletic ability. Objective: To explore the characteristics of basketball players’ cardiac response to increasing load training. Methods: By analyzing 12 juvenile male amateur basketball training athletes, when performing incremental load exercises on the treadmill, using a 12-lead electrocardiograph to record the electrocardiogram, HR, and blood pressure responses for each level of exercise. Results: The mean heart rate of the basketball players before movement was 82.45± 11.44 bpm, slightly higher than the heart rate at rest. Depending on the exercise load, the blood pressure should increase by 5 to 12 mmHg. Under different load training conditions, each level of blood pressure in the Bruce treadmill test procedure should increase 12.5 ~ 44mmHg. The basketball player’s systolic pressure increased by 2.25 ~ 15.7mmHg, diastolic pressure increased by 0.43 to 11.37 mmHg. Conclusions: In basketball players, the psychological stress is less than that of the average person performing the same exercise. The strong ability to adapt to exercise under incremental load training, the contractility of the ventricular muscles and the development of the heart are good. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.

Jina Yang ◽  
Kon Hee Kim

In this descriptive study, we aimed to identify factors related to emergency room nurses’ disaster triage ability. A total of 166 nurses who worked for emergency departments of general hospitals completed a structured questionnaire consisting of the Disaster Triage Ability Scale (DTAS), the Strategic Thinking Scale (STS), the Problem-Solving Inventory (PSI), and the Original Grit Scale (Grit-O). The data were analyzed using SPSS/WIN 25.0 by means of descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, the Scheffé post hoc test, Pearson’s correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression. Participants’ DTAS averaged 14.03 ± 4.28 (Range 0–20) and showed a statistically significant difference according to their experience of triage education (t = 2.26, p = 0.022) as a disaster triage-related attribute. There were significant correlations among DTAS and confidence in the PSI (r = 0.30, p < 0.001), the approach-avoidance style in the PSI (r = −0.28, p < 0.001), and futurism in the STS (r = 0.19, p = 0.019). The strongest predictor was confidence in the PSI; in addition, 14.1% of the DTAS was explained by confidence in the PSI, approach-avoidance in the PSI, and futurism in the STS. Emergency room nurses who received triage education showed a higher level of the DTAS and their DTAS could be explained by problem-solving skills and strategic thinking. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and implement triage education programs integrated with stress management to improve the approach-avoidance style to ensure better problem-solving skills and to utilize various training methods to enhance confidence to improve problem-solving skills and futurism as part of strategic thinking.

2022 ◽  
Stephanie J. Morris ◽  
Jon L. Oliver ◽  
Jason S. Pedley ◽  
G. Gregory Haff ◽  
Rhodri S. Lloyd

Abstract Background Weightlifting training (WLT) is commonly used to improve strength, power and speed in athletes. However, to date, WLT studies have either not compared training effects against those of other training methods, or been limited by small sample sizes, which are issues that can be resolved by pooling studies in a meta-analysis. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of WLT compared with traditional resistance training (TRT), plyometric training (PLYO) and/or control (CON) on strength, power and speed. Methods The systematic review included peer-reviewed articles that employed a WLT intervention, a comparison group (i.e. TRT, PLYO, CON), and a measure of strength, power and/or speed. Means and standard deviations of outcomes were converted to Hedges’ g effect sizes using an inverse variance random-effects model to generate a weighted mean effect size (ES). Results Sixteen studies were included in the analysis, comprising 427 participants. Data indicated that when compared with TRT, WLT resulted in greater improvements in weightlifting load lifted (4 studies, p = 0.02, g = 1.35; 95% CI 0.20–2.51) and countermovement jump (CMJ) height (9 studies, p = 0.00, g = 0.95; 95% CI 0.04–1.87). There was also a large effect in terms of linear sprint speed (4 studies, p = 0.13, g = 1.04; 95% CI − 0.03 to 2.39) and change of direction speed (CODS) (2 studies, p = 0.36, g = 1.21; 95% CI − 1.41 to 3.83); however, this was not significant. Interpretation of these findings should acknowledge the high heterogeneity across the included studies and potential risk of bias. WLT and PLYO resulted in similar improvements in speed, power and strength as demonstrated by negligible to moderate, non-significant effects in favour of WLT for improvements in linear sprint speed (4 studies, p = 0.35, g = 0.20; 95% CI − 0.23 to 0.63), CODS (3 studies, p = 0.52, g = 0.17; 95% CI − 0.35 to 0.68), CMJ (6 studies, p = 0.09, g = 0.31; 95% CI − 0.05 to 0.67), squat jump performance (5 studies, p = 0.08, g = 0.34; 95% CI − 0.04 to 0.73) and strength (4 studies, p = 0.20, g = 0.69; 95% CI − 0.37 to 1.75). Conclusion Overall, these findings support the notion that if the training goal is to improve strength, power and speed, supplementary weightlifting training may be advantageous for athletic development. Whilst WLT and PLYO may result in similar improvements, WLT can elicit additional benefits above that of TRT, resulting in greater improvements in weightlifting and jumping performance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Quanfei Zhu

Since the professionalization of basketball in China, the number of teenagers participating in basketball training has gradually increased, which has promoted the improvement of basketball level in China. Teenagers ‘love’ for basketball further promotes the improvement of basketball level in China. However, the reality of basketball in China still lags far behind that of developed basketball countries, in which backward training is an important aspect. This paper mainly makes a comprehensive overview of the training effect and classification of basketball players through particle swarm optimization, objectively evaluates the training effect of physical fitness, and proposes corresponding optimization measures, aiming at the scientific optimization of physical training for basketball players in China. In order to rationally arrange the training methods, control the training process, and make the training scientific, the effectiveness of the particle swarm optimization algorithm for the classification of basketball players’ training effects is analyzed, and a new population-based optimization method is proposed. The experimental results verify the superiority of the particle swarm optimization algorithm. It is an inevitable choice to enhance the physical strength level of basketball reserve strength by using appropriate methods to train basketball players.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 88
Alessandro Cuder ◽  
Marta Vidoz ◽  
Chiara De Vita ◽  
Sandra Pellizzoni ◽  
Maria Chiara Passolunghi

Early numerical abilities predict later math achievement and could be improved in children by using various training methods. As the literature on the use of training videos to develop numerical abilities is still surprisingly scant, the aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of a numerical training video on the development of counting and number line knowledge in 3-year-old preschoolers. Far transfer effects to cardinality and working memory were also examined. The study involved 86 children randomly assigned to two intervention groups: a numerical training group exposed to videos on counting and number lines; and a control group exposed to videos on colors and animal names in a foreign language. After the video training, there was an improvement in the numerical training group’s counting skills, but not in their number line knowledge, and this improvement persisted six months later. The numerical training group also showed a far-transfer enhancement of cardinality six months after the intervention. Based on our results, numerical training videos could be effective in helping to enhance early numeracy skills in very young preschoolers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Dong Wen ◽  
Jian Xu ◽  
Zhonglin Wu ◽  
Yijun Liu ◽  
Yanhong Zhou ◽  

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