body condition
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2022 ◽  
Vol 246 ◽  
pp. 106175
Shannon D. Bower ◽  
Petra Szekeres ◽  
Rajeev Raghavan ◽  
Andy J. Danylchuk ◽  
Steven J. Cooke

Anitha Alapati ◽  
Sarjan Rao Kapa ◽  
Suresh Jeepalyam

Background: Body condition score (BCS) system is a subjective method to assess the body fat reserves particularly over the bony prominences like back and pelvic region. It is based on evaluation of the outer appearance of the animal that interacts with its body fat reserves and therefore is directly influenced by energy balance. Studies on the relationship between BCS and postpartum performance were meager in buffaloes. Hence, the present work was carried out to study the relationship between BCS at calving and postpartum performance in Murrah buffaloes. Methods: The effect of body condition score at calving (BCSc) on the postpartum performance was studied in 24 Murrah buffaloes grouped based on BCS, maintained at Buffalo Research Station during 2018-19. Result: The study showed that buffaloes of BCSc above 3.5 with significantly (P less than 0.01) higher body weights showed better reproductive performance compared to buffaloes of BCSc groups below 3.5 with less body weights. The prepartum and weekly postpartum changes in BCS studied showed that the buffaloes gained a BCS of 0.57 from 3 months prepartum to one week prepartum, lost 0.17 BCS due to calving, further showed a decline in BCS up to 9 weeks of postpartum and then started regaining BCS gradually until 18 weeks postpartum. The mean LBCS over the period of 18 weeks postpartum was comparatively higher (0.75±0.05) than BCS restored in the early lactation which was shown as GBCS (0.34±0.02). Buffaloes of BCSc group 3.5-3.99 showed the best reproduction performance among the four BCSc groups with less postpartum estrus period (46.66 days), service period (58.83 days), number of service per conception (1.50) and high rate of 1st service conception (66.66%).

Ornis Fennica ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 98 (4) ◽  
pp. 162-174
László Bozó ◽  
Yury Anisimov ◽  
Tibor Csörgő

Different elements of weather, such as wind speed, wind direction, precipitation and temperature are very important regulators of bird migration. Weather conditions also play role on the body condition such as body mass and the deposited fat. In this study we selected four warbler species to examine the impact of different weather variables on their spring and autumn migration timing and their body condition in one of the most extreme weather areas of the Earth, at Lake Baikal in Siberia. We also studied the changes in body mass and fat reserves during the spring and autumn migration periods of these species. For the analyses, we used ringing data of 2471 birds from five spring and five autumn seasons during 2015–2019. According to our results, it can be stated that the weather did not have a significant association with the migration timing of the studied warblers, perhaps due to the geographical location of the study site. However, the body mass and the fat reserves of the birds increased during unsuitable weather conditions because of the increased energy requirements. Birds generally migrate with low fat reserves, which is due to the fact that this area is not an important stopover site for these species.

Amanda M. McGraw ◽  
Daniel J. Storm ◽  
Dustin R. Bronson ◽  
Teresa Pearson

Taylor D Harrison ◽  
Elizabeth M Chaney ◽  
Kiernan J Brandt ◽  
Taylor B Ault-Seay ◽  
Liesel G Schneider ◽  

Abstract Bulls often experience various levels of nutrient availability throughout the year. Nutritional management is a critical factor on overall ejaculate composition and the ability to get females pregnant. We hypothesized that differing nutritional levels and body condition score (BCS) affects reproductive fertility parameters in bulls. Mature Angus bulls (n = 11) were individually housed and randomly assigned to one of two dietary regimens: 1) over-fed (n = 5) or 2) restricted (n = 6). Bulls were fed the same ration at different volumes to achieve desired effects resulting in 8 individual treatments: gain to an over-fed body condition score ([BCS]; GO), gain after nutrient restriction (GR), loss after an over-fed BCS (LO), loss from nutrient restriction (LR), maintenance at ideal adiposity (BCS = 6) after overfeeding (IMO), maintenance at ideal adiposity after nutrient restriction (IMR), maintenance at an over-fed BCS (BCS = 8; MO), and maintenance at a restricted BCS (BCS = 4; MR). Body weight (BW) and BCS were recorded every two weeks to monitor bull weight and BCS changes. Scrotal circumference was measured every 28 d. Body fat and sperm motility and morphology were evaluated every 84 d. Scrotal circumference, motility, and morphology were normalized to the initial value of each bull. Thus, allowing the individual bull to serve as a control. Statistical analyses were conducted with PROC GLIMMIX of SAS as a complete randomized design to determine if treatment influenced BW, BCS, scrotal circumference, motility, morphology, and adipose thickness. Scrotal circumference (P < 0.001) had the least amount of deviation from initial during the LR (0.29 ± 0.44) treatment and the greatest during the MO (3.06 ± 0.44), LO (2.28 ± 0.44), MR (2.43 ± 0.44), GR (3.03 ± 0.44) and IMR (2.91 ± 0.44) treatments. Sperm motility was not affected by nutritional treatments (P = 0.55). Both head and total defects of sperm differed (P = 0.02) due to nutritional treatments. Increased head abnormalities occurred during the LO (37.60 ± 8.61) treatment, with no differences between the other treatments. Total defects increased during the LO (43.80 ± 9.55) treatment with similar increases in bulls during the GR (29.40 ± 9.55) and IMR (35.60 ± 9.55) treatments. In conclusion, male fertility was impacted when a deviation from a BCS of 6 occurred which could be detrimental to reproductive and beef production efficiency.

2022 ◽  
Vol 289 (1966) ◽  
Craig F. Purchase ◽  
Anna C. Rooke ◽  
Michael J. Gaudry ◽  
Jason R. Treberg ◽  
Elizabeth A. Mittell ◽  

Senescence—the deterioration of functionality with age—varies widely across taxa in pattern and rate. Insights into why and how this variation occurs are hindered by the predominance of laboratory-focused research on short-lived model species with determinate growth. We synthesize evolutionary theories of senescence, highlight key information gaps and clarify predictions for species with low mortality and variable degrees of indeterminate growth. Lake trout are an ideal species to evaluate predictions in the wild. We monitored individual males from two populations (1976–2017) longitudinally for changes in adult mortality (actuarial senescence) and body condition (proxy for energy balance). A cross-sectional approach (2017) compared young (ages 4–10 years) and old (18–37 years) adults for (i) phenotypic performance in body condition, and semen quality—which is related to fertility under sperm competition (reproductive senescence)—and (ii) relative telomere length (potential proxy for cellular senescence). Adult growth in these particular populations is constrained by a simplified foodweb, and our data support predictions of negligible senescence when maximum size is only slightly larger than maturation size. Negative senescence (aka reverse senescence) may occur in other lake trout populations where diet shifts allow maximum sizes to greatly exceed maturation size.

The Auk ◽  
2022 ◽  
Ian L Jones ◽  
Fiona M Hunter ◽  
Sampath S Seneviratne ◽  
Jeffrey C Williams ◽  
Robert Montgomerie

Abstract Both sexes of Whiskered Auklets (Aethia pygmaea) display the most elaborate feather ornaments of any seabird: a slender black forehead crest, and 3 bilaterally symmetrical pairs of white facial plumes (superorbital, suborbital, and auricular). We studied patterns of ornament variation in 796 banded individuals (147 of known sex, 254 of known age from 1 to 16 years) during 1992–2009 at Buldir Island (principally), and 3 other Aleutian Islands (Davidof, Ulak, and Egg) in Alaska, USA. As expected for socially selected traits, ornaments were more variable across individuals than anatomical traits in size but with only slightly male-biased sexual dimorphism. Body condition index increased from age 1 to 3 years but changed little thereafter. Even within birds ≥4 years old, ornament size was positively related to body condition index. Subadults (one-year-olds) had smaller ornaments than adults (age 2–16 years) but there was no further change in ornament size as adults aged and no evidence of senescence even in the oldest birds (>8 years old). Nonetheless, overall ornament size varied from year-to-year at Buldir and was correlated with indices of both ocean climate and auklet productivity in the preceding 2–5 years. From Buldir to Egg Island (1,266 km), the size of both anatomical and ornamental traits increased by 5–15% except for bill depth, which was largest in birds from Buldir and Egg at opposite ends of the Aleutian breeding range. This study is one of few to examine patterns of ornament variation in a long-lived, socially monogamous bird, even though such patterns are crucial to understanding the relationship between sexual selection and life history.

2022 ◽  
Julia Tiede ◽  
Benjamin Iuliano ◽  
Claudio Gratton

Abstract Context: Agricultural intensification is contributing to a global species decline. Underlying mechanisms include toxic effects of pesticides on non-target organisms and reductions in habitat and food availability. However, the effects of agricultural intensification on body condition, particularly of ecosystem service providing arthropods, are poorly understood.Objectives: Here, we investigated whether variations in the body condition of common lady beetle species (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) can be explained by the composition and configuration of the surrounding landscape. Assuming strong seasonal variation in food availability in intensively farmed regions, we included the entire period of lady beetle activity in our study.Methods: Lady beetles were collected from April to September 2011 in 30 landscapes in southern Wisconsin, USA. We examined how body size, body density, and lipid content of the beetles responded to the percentage of intensive cropland, habitat diversity, and edge density in the surrounding landscape.Results: The strongest predictor of body condition was the percentage of intensive cropland. For every 10% increase in cropland, body density decreased by about 3.9% and fat content by 6.4%. Landscape diversity and edge density correlated with body condition of individual species.Conclusions: In agriculturally intensified landscapes, lady beetles with reduced body condition may produce fewer offspring, have lower survival rates, and exert less effective pest control. Thus, our results suggest a mechanistic link between landscape patterns and observed declines in lady beetle populations. Our results also show that the expansion of monocultures affects even common cropland-associated species such as Harmonia axyridis, suggesting a long-term decline in biocontrol services in simplified agricultural landscapes.

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