adult mortality
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Ana Maria Nogales Vasconcelos ◽  
Lenice Ishitani ◽  
Daisy Maria Xavier Abreu ◽  
Elisabeth França

ObjectiveThis study aimed to analyze the chain of events and contributing causes associated with COVID-19 adult mortality (30–69 years old), based on qualified data on CoD from three Brazilian capitals cities, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, and Natal, in 2020.MethodsData of all deaths among residents in the three capitals in 2020 were provided by these municipalities' routine Mortality Information System (SIM). Mentions B34.2 with the markers U07.1 and U07.2 in the death certificate identified COVID-19 deaths. We used a multiple-cause-of-death approach better to understand the complexity of the morbid process of COVID-19. Conditions that appeared more frequently in the same line or above the COVID-19 mentions in the death certificate were considered a chain-of-event. Conditions that occurred more often after the codes for COVID-19 were considered as contributing.ResultsIn 2020, 7,029 records from COVID-19 as the underlying cause of death were registered in SIM in the three capitals. Among these, 2,921 (41.6%) were deceased between 30 and 69 years old, representing 17.0% of deaths in this age group. As chain-of-events, the most frequent conditions mentioned were sepsis (33.4%), SARS (32.0%), acute respiratory failure (31.9%), unspecified lower respiratory infections (unspecified pneumonia) (20.1%), and other specified respiratory disorders (14.1%). Hypertension (33.3%), diabetes unspecified type (21.7%), renal failure (12.7%), obesity (9.8%), other chronic kidney diseases (4.9%), and diabetes mellitus type 2 (4.7%) were the most frequent contributing conditions. On average, 3.04 conditions were mentioned in the death certificate besides COVID-19. This average varied according to age, place of death, and capital.ConclusionThe multiple-cause analysis is a powerful tool to better understand the morbid process due to COVID-19 and highlight the importance of chronic non-communicable diseases as contributing conditions.

Genus ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 78 (1) ◽  
Helena Cruz Castanheira ◽  
José Henrique Costa Monteiro da Silva

AbstractThe production, compilation, and publication of death registration records is complex and usually involves many institutions. Assessing available data and the evolution of the completeness of the data compiled based on demographic techniques and other available data sources is of great importance for countries and for having timely and disaggregated mortality estimates. In this paper, we assess whether it is reasonable, based on the available data, to assume that there is a sex difference in the completeness of male and female death records in Peru in the last 30 years. In addition, we assess how the gap may have evolved with time by applying two-census death distribution methods on health-related registries and analyzing the information from the Demographic and Health Surveys and civil registries. Our findings suggest that there is no significant sex difference in the completeness of male and female health-related registries and, consequently, the sex gap currently observed in adult mortality estimates might be overestimated.

2022 ◽  
Vol 289 (1966) ◽  
Craig F. Purchase ◽  
Anna C. Rooke ◽  
Michael J. Gaudry ◽  
Jason R. Treberg ◽  
Elizabeth A. Mittell ◽  

Senescence—the deterioration of functionality with age—varies widely across taxa in pattern and rate. Insights into why and how this variation occurs are hindered by the predominance of laboratory-focused research on short-lived model species with determinate growth. We synthesize evolutionary theories of senescence, highlight key information gaps and clarify predictions for species with low mortality and variable degrees of indeterminate growth. Lake trout are an ideal species to evaluate predictions in the wild. We monitored individual males from two populations (1976–2017) longitudinally for changes in adult mortality (actuarial senescence) and body condition (proxy for energy balance). A cross-sectional approach (2017) compared young (ages 4–10 years) and old (18–37 years) adults for (i) phenotypic performance in body condition, and semen quality—which is related to fertility under sperm competition (reproductive senescence)—and (ii) relative telomere length (potential proxy for cellular senescence). Adult growth in these particular populations is constrained by a simplified foodweb, and our data support predictions of negligible senescence when maximum size is only slightly larger than maturation size. Negative senescence (aka reverse senescence) may occur in other lake trout populations where diet shifts allow maximum sizes to greatly exceed maturation size.

2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
C. B. Santana ◽  
J. G. L. Souza ◽  
A. G. Toledo ◽  
L. F. A. Alves ◽  
D. S. Alves ◽  

Abstract The secondary metabolism products of plants have influenced great economic interest, given their chemical diversity and biological activities. Because of this, this study evaluates the phytochemical composition, antimicrobial activity, insecticidal, and antioxidant activity of plant extracts and oil of Myrcia oblongata. Saponins, steroids, triterpenoids, tannins, and flavonoids were detected. The extracts showed antimicrobial capacity on the tested microorganisms, except for the methanolic extract, which showed no activity for P. mirabilis and S. enteritidis. Regarding the analysis of antioxidant compounds, the hexanic, ethyl acetate and acetone extracts showed higher antioxidant activities and also higher insecticidal performance on Alphitobius diaperinus larvae, resulting in 80% adult mortality. The results reported here show that there may be a relationship between antioxidant potential and the insecticidal effect of Myrcia oblongata DC. The components present in both the extract and the oil can be used as natural alternative to synthetic compounds in the biological control of parasites and pathogenic microorganisms.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (6) ◽  
pp. 679-686
Tumma Mounika ◽  
S. K. Sahoo ◽  
D. Chakraborty ◽  

A study was carried out to evaluate the bio-efficacy of some botanicals against Callosobruchus chinensis L. in stored chickpea (Variety: Anuradha) in the year 2018–20. Different botanicals like Neem (Azadirachta indica), Melia (Melia azedarach), Datura (Datura stramonium) and Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) were used. Among all the botanicals Neem leaf powder @ 6% performed better with minimum egg laying (64 eggs 5 females-1) compared to the other botanicals except the standard check with Deltamethrin @ 0.04%. Thereafter, 6% Melia leaf powder and 8% Datura leaf powder recorded 87.50 eggs 5 females-1 and 91.25 eggs 5 females-1, respectively. With regard to adult mortality, the best result was also obtained from the treatment Neem leaf powder @6% with 96.67% mortality in 5th day. Following the same trend, 6% Melia leaf powder and 8% Datura leaf powder exhibited 90% and 83.33% adult mortality, respectively, in 5th day. The estimation of total phenols and total antioxidants (IC-50) contents in Neem leaf powder (345.69 mg g-1 and 207.77 μg ml-1), Melia leaf powder (273.40 mg g-1 and 383.68 μg ml-1) and Datura Leaf Powder (213.62 mg g-1 and 405.77 μg ml-1) also confirms the findings of the bio-efficacy trial of the botanicals. Tulsi leaf powder @5% was least efficacious both in terms of egg laying by the females as well as adult mortality. These botanicals are locally available, economic, bio-degradable and safe to the environment. Therefore, they may be fitted in the Integrated Pest Management strategies against stored grain pests as seed protectants.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 174
Wanich Suksatan ◽  
Sajjad Moradi ◽  
Fatemeh Naeini ◽  
Reza Bagheri ◽  
Hamed Mohammadi ◽  

We performed a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of observational studies assessing the association between UPF consumption and adult mortality risk. A systematic search was conducted using ISI Web of Science, PubMed/MEDLINE, and Scopus electronic databases from inception to August 2021. Data were extracted from seven cohort studies (totaling 207,291 adults from four countries). Using a random-effects model, hazard ratios (HR) of pooled outcomes were estimated. Our results showed that UPF consumption was related to an enhanced risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.30; I2 = 21.9%; p < 0.001), cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)-cause mortality (HR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.37, 1.63; I2 = 0.0%; p < 0.001), and heart-cause mortality (HR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.50, 1.85; I2 = 0.0%; p = 0.022), but not cancer-cause mortality. Furthermore, our findings revealed that each 10% increase in UPF consumption in daily calorie intake was associated with a 15% higher risk of all-cause mortality (OR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.21; I2 = 0.0%; p < 0.001). The dose–response analysis revealed a positive linear association between UPF consumption and all-cause mortality (Pnonlinearity = 0.879, Pdose–response = p < 0.001), CVDs-cause mortality (Pnonlinearity = 0.868, Pdose–response = p < 0.001), and heart-cause mortality (Pnonlinearity = 0.774, Pdose–response = p < 0.001). It seems that higher consumption of UPF is significantly associated with an enhanced risk of adult mortality. Despite this, further experimental studies are necessary to draw a more definite conclusion.

Ayo S. Adebowale ◽  
Adeniyi F. Fagbamigbe ◽  
Tubosun Olowolafe ◽  
Rotimi F. Afolabi

Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 25
Miriam Hancková ◽  
Tatiana Betáková

The number of obese adults and children is increasing worldwide, with obesity now being a global epidemic. Around 2.8 million people die annually from clinical overweight or obesity. Obesity is associated with numerous comorbid conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cancer, and even the development of severe disease after infection with viruses. Over the past twenty years, a number of new viruses has emerged and entered the human population. Moreover, influenza (H1N1)pdm09 virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have caused pandemics. During pandemics, the number of obese patients presents challenging and complex issues in medical and surgical intensive care units. Morbidity amongst obese individuals is directly proportional to body mass index. In this review, we describe the impact of obesity on the immune system, adult mortality, and immune response after infection with pandemic influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2. Finally, we address the effect of obesity on vaccination.

Horticulturae ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 2
Md. Shafiqul Islam ◽  
Vijay Kumar Subbiah ◽  
Shafiquzzaman Siddiquee

Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehntner (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a destructive insect pest of sugarcane that is responsible for reducing the quality, yield, and sugar content. Ecofriendly methods of pest control, such as the use of biological control, is encouraged since it does not exhibit the harmful effects that are usually seen when using chemical-based pesticides. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of several entomopathogenic fungi isolates against C. lanigera under laboratory conditions. A total of seven isolates were obtained from agricultural soils that were collected from various locations from Sabah, Malaysia, using the insect bait method. Among the seven, four isolates (TMS114, TMS623, TMS628, and TMS707) were positively identified as T. harzianum (Hypocreales: Hypocreaceae), two isolates (TMS45, TMS321) as T. asperellum (Hypocreales: Hypocreaceae), and one isolate (TMS633) as T. hamatum (Hypocreales: Hypocreaceae) based on a combination of morphological characteristics and molecular data using ITS 1-5.8 S-ITS 2 regions of the rDNA. Four different concentrations (1 × 105, 1 × 106, 1 × 107, and 1 × 108 mL−1) of conidia suspensions of the isolates were applied separately on nymphs and adults of C. lanigera. The results showed that mortality in both nymphs and adults was dependent on the conidia concentration and exposure time. Among the four concentrations, the highest mortality of C. lanigera was found to range from 59.99 to 75.70% for nymphs after 72 h and from 57.45 to 72.31% for adults after 6 days of treatments at the concentration of 1 × 108 conidia mL−1. Trichodermaharzianum (TMS623) showed significantly highest mortality of 75.70% for nymphs and 72.31% for adults among the seven isolates. . However, the nymph and adult mortality rates for the isolates were 70.00% & 68.00% for TMS114, 66.42% & 63.10% for TMS628, 67.85% & 65.24% for TMS707, 61.42% & 58.80% for TMS45, 59.99% & 57.45% for TMS321 and 63.56% & 60.91% for TMS633, respectively. For nymph mortality, T. harzianum (TMS623) showed a LC50 (lethal concentration) value of 6.30 × 105 conidia mL−1 and LC90 value of 3.01 × 109 conidia mL−1, respectively, and for adult mortality, the values were found of 6.16 × 105 conidia mL−1 for LC50 and 2.23 × 1010 conidia mL−1 for LC90, respectively. The lethal time (LT) values for nymph and adult mortality were found of 42.65 h and 3.89 days for LT50 and 93.32 h and 8.70 days for LT90 by T. harzianum (TMS623). Therefore, T. harzianum (TMS623) showed more pathogenic potential against C. lanigera and can be further applied to determine its efficacy under field conditions. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of T.harzianum,T.hamatum, and T.asperellum species that are used as entomopathogenic fungi against sugarcane woolly aphid, C. lanigera.

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