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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 509-522
Author(s):  
Luciana Nunes Cordeiro ◽  
◽  
Riselane de Lucena Alcântara Bruno ◽  
Lucas Kennedy Silva Lima ◽  
Albericio Pereira de Andrade ◽  
...  

Seed quality is routinely assessed by direct tests, e.g, the germination test, or indirect tests like the tetrazolium test, which has shoown to be promising in the determine viability and vigor, allowing the diagnosis of the main problems that may affect seed quality, such as mechanic damages, field deterioration and storage. In this respect, this study was conducted to develop a tetrazolium test protocol to evaluate the viability and vigor of Tamarindus indica L. seeds. Before exposing the seeds to the tetrazolium solution, seed preconditioning studies were carried out in which seven soaking times were tested. The soaking time that did not cause damage to the seed embryo and allowed the removal of the seed coat to expose the seed structures to the tetrazolium salt was selected. Then, an experiment was set up in a completely randomized design with a 2x3x3 factorial arrangement involving two seed lots, three soaking times in tetrazolium salt (6, 12 and 16 h) and three salt concentrations (0.075, 0.1 and 0.5%), totaling 18 treatments with four replicates of 25 seeds, evaluated at 40 ºC. For each treatment, the seeds were divided into three classes, namely, viable and vigorous embryos (class 1); viable embryos (class 2) and non-viable or dead embryos (class 3). For a comparison with the tetrazolium test results, the two seed lots were analyzed for water content, germination, emergence, first count, germination speed index, emergence speed index, growth and seedling dry weight. The viability and vigor of T. indica seeds can be evaluated after a soaking period of 48 h and immersion for 6h in tetrazolium salt at the concentration of 0.1%, at 40°C, with provides results similar to conventional seed viability tests. The tetrazolium test proved to be adequate to differentiate T. indica seed lots in terms of viability.


2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
J. Rubert ◽  
S. H. B. Dornelles ◽  
U. R. Nunes ◽  
N. T. Pedrollo ◽  
M. Peripolli ◽  
...  

Abstract The low Brazilian productive index and the high demand have aroused interest in the cultivation of lentils, however the legume is little known and needs further studies. The objective of this study was to analyze and identify the effects of treatments with insecticides and fungicides on the physiological quality of lentil seeds, CA-1512 strain. The experiments were conducted in the seed laboratory in a completely randomized design with seven treatments and four replicates. Seed treatment with Thiophanate-methyl; Fluazinam® (180 ml) + Pyraclostrobin; Thiophanate-methyl; Fipronil® (150 ml) promoted higher levels of germination under accelerated aging, lower number of abnormal seedlings and longer lengths of shoot and radicle for the emergence in paper. Treatment with Carboxin; Thiram® (250 ml) + Imidacloprid® (150 ml) allowed a higher value in the first count of germination in sand, lower number of dead seeds under accelerated aging and longer root length, in the emergence in sand. Shoot length in the emergence in sand increased after seed treatment with Metalaxyl-M; Fludioxonil® (75 ml) + Pyraclostrobin; Thiophanate-methyl; Fipronil® (150 ml). Treatments with fungicides and insecticides considerably improved the physiological properties of the seeds, thus being able to guarantee greater phytosanitary qualities in the field, generating healthier seedlings and with protection against possible pests and diseases, and consequently guaranteeing greater productivity.


Author(s):  
Daniel J. Dall’Orsoletta ◽  
Gilmar L. Mumbach ◽  
Fernando M. Brignoli ◽  
Luciano C. Gatiboni

ABSTRACT The elemental sulfur (S0) application may reduce soil pH, benefiting plants adapted to acid conditions and lessening problems of overliming. Nevertheless, there is no official recommendation for its application. The objective of the study was to quantify the S0 doses required to reduce the pH of soils from Southern Brazil. The experiment was carried out in the laboratory in a factorial scheme (5 × 5), with a completely randomized design and three replicates. The treatments consisted of five soils, and five doses of S0, corresponding to 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200% of the estimated dose need to reach pH 4.0. The applied doses of S0 resulted in reduction of pH and base saturation (V%) and increase of potential acidity (H + Al). These effects, however, were reduced due to the low rate of oxidation of the S0 applied (0.76-3.36%). The soil variables correlated with S0 oxidation were Mg2+ (0.86***), Al3+ (-0.82***), H + Al (-0.89***), V% (0.68***) and aluminum saturation (m%) (-0.87***). In the evaluated soils the oxidation of 50 kg ha-1 of S0 was required to reduce one unit of pH in H2O.


2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
Author(s):  
F. E. P. Diógenes ◽  
S. R. C. Nascimento ◽  
C. Alves Junior ◽  
E. P. Paiva ◽  
S. B. Torres ◽  
...  

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of atmospheric plasma application on the inactivation of fungi on the surface of Erythrina velutina seeds and on isolated fungal colonies. Two experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design. First, plasma was applied to the surface of the seeds using helium gas and atmospheric plasma for 3, 6, and 9 min in addition to the control (untreated seeds), constituting seven treatments with five repetitions each. In the second experiment, Petri dishes containing the inoculum of different fungi were treated with atmospheric air plasma for 3, 6, and 9 min (Air-3, Air-6, and Air-9) and were compared with untreated fungi in Petri dishes without treatment (control), totaling four treatments and five repetitions each. We found that the application of atmospheric air plasma to E. velutina seeds for 9 min had an antimicrobial effect on the fungi Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium sp., Brachysporium sp., and Rhizopus sp. The formation of fungal colonies isolated from E. velutina seeds was also inhibited by 3 min of exposure to atmospheric air plasma, except for A. niger, whose inhibition occurred after 6 min of exposure to atmospheric plasma.


2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
B. Ahmad ◽  
S. M. Hussain ◽  
S. Ali ◽  
M. Zubair-ul-Hassan Arsalan ◽  
S. Tabassum ◽  
...  

Abstract The growth of aquaculture sector is strongly dependent upon the continuous supply of inexpensive fish feed with balanced nutritional profile. However, fish meal (FM) is unable to satisfy this demand due to its scarce supply and high cost. In order to test the potential of cottonseed meal (CSM) as a fish meal replacer, a feeding trial of 12 weeks was conducted to check growth performance and proximate composition of Labeo rohita fingerlings. The protein ration of the test feed was satisfied by replacing FM with CSM at 0, 25, 50 and 75%. Sixteen test diets viz., TD1 (control), TD2, TD3, TD4, TD5, TD6, TD7, TD8, TD9, TD10, TD11, TD12, TD13, TD14, TD15 and TD16 were supplemented with citric acid (CA; 0 and 2.5%) and phytase (PHY; 0 and 750 FTU/kg) in a completely randomized design with 3×3 factorial arrangement. The highest weight gain (11.03g), weight gain% (249.21%), specific growth rate (1.39) and best feed conversion ratio (1.20) were recorded by fish fed with TD12. Furthermore, the same level increased the crude protein (59.26%) and fat (16.04%) being significantly different (p<0.05) than that of control. Conclusively, the addition of acidified phytase (CA; 2.5%, PHY; 750 FTU/kg) in TD12 (CSM=50%) led to the improved growth and proximate composition of L. rohita fingerlings.


2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 911-918
Author(s):  
Edna Teles dos Santos ◽  
◽  
Flávio Ferreira da Silva ◽  
Fabrício Coelho Barbosa ◽  
Genilson Bezerra de Carvalho ◽  
...  

The objective was to evaluate three sources of acid insoluble ash (AIA) (celite, kaolin, and sand), as indicators, to determine the apparent metabolizable energy of corn on a natural matter (AME) basis, dry matter digestibility coefficient (DMDC), and crude protein digestibility coefficient (CPDC) using total and partial excreta collection methods. Two hundred and ten Ross broiler chicks of 18 to 27 days of age were used. Broilers were adapted to experimental the diet for four days, and excreta were collected for 5 days. A reference diet (RD) based on corn and soybean meal was prepared to meet the nutritional requirements of the birds. A test diet was prepared with 40% replacement of RD with corn. The formulated diets were: D1, 99% Reference diet + 1% celite; D2, 59.4% RD + 39.6 % corn + 1% celite; D3, 99% Reference diet + 1% kaolin; D4, 59.4% RD + 39.6 % corn + 1% kaolin; D5, 99% Reference diet + 1% sand; D6, 59.4% RD + 39.6 % corn + 1% sand. The treatments were distributed in a completely randomized design, with six diets and five replicates of seven birds each in a 2x3 factorial arrangement. There were significant interactions for all variables investigated. It was observed that the AME and DMDC values of corn were similar in the two methods of collection, and PDC values using kaolin and celite makers were similar. However, the AME and CPDC of corn using sand with partial collection method were underestimated by 17.70 and 15.53%, respectively compared to those with the total collection method. The AME values of corn with the collection methods using celite and, the DMDC using celite and sand were significantly different. It was observed that the DMDC using celite and sand provided significantly lower values (4.67 and 5.15%), respectively, and the AME using celite was 2.86% lower than that obtained by total collection. To determine the EMA, DMDC, and CPDC in broilers, it is more efficient to use celiteTM and kaolin as markers with partial collection of excreta. Sand should not be used with partial excreta collection method, because it provides lower values of AME and CPDC compared to with total excreta collection method.


2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 675-692
Author(s):  
Deise Silva Castro Pimentel Cardoso Cardoso ◽  
◽  
Herminia Emilia Prieto Martinez ◽  
Ariana Mota Pereira ◽  
Maria Catarina Megumi Kasuya ◽  
...  

Tomato plants respond well to potassium fertilization, whose insufficiency leads to a drop in fruit production and quality. On the other hand, the association of growth-promoting fungi (GPF) with roots has been shown to be able to optimize nutrient absorption, which implies lower financial costs and a decreased risk of loss of K applied to the soil. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of inoculation with GPF and K rates on the postharvest quality of grape tomato hybrid ‘Mascot’ grown in a hydroponic system. The plants were cultivated in a hydroponic drip system using washed and sterilized sand as substrate. They were trained with two stems, leaving three bunches per stem. The experiment was carried out in a splitsplit-plot arrangement in a completely randomized design with three replicates. Ripe fruits were stored for 30 days in PET containers in storage chambers at a temperature of 25 °C. After 0, 10, 20 and 30 days of storage, five fruits were collected to determine the titratable acidity (TA) and soluble solids (SS), reducing sugars (RS) and vitamin C contents. The K rates provided an increase in the quality attributes. At low K rates, inoculation with GPF led to higher TA, SS, RS and vitamin C values. Inoculation of the plants with GPF improved the postharvest preservation of the fruits, especially when the plants underwent nutritional stress during cultivation.


2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 599-610
Author(s):  
Valéria Pereira Rodrigues ◽  
◽  
Dermeval Araújo Furtado ◽  
Neila Lidiany Ribeiro ◽  
Ladyanne Raia Rodrigues ◽  
...  

The objective was to evaluate the increasing levels of magnesium in the water supplied to laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica), kept in climatic chambers under thermoneutral temperature and thermal stress, on their performance and morphometry of their organs. The birds were distributed in a completely randomized design, 2x4 factorial arrangement, 2 temperatures (24 and 32 ºC) and 4 levels of magnesium in the water (50, 150, 250 and 350 mg L-1), with six replicates and eight birds per experimental unit. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and the means compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability level. The magnesium levels in the water did not affect (P > 0.05) the production performance and morphometry of the organs, with less water consumption at the magnesium level of 150 mg L-1, and birds kept at 32 °C had a reduction in feed consumption and feed conversion, but without affecting organ morphometry. Japanese quails in the production phase can consume water with magnesium levels up to 350 mg L-1 without having their production performance and morphometry of organs affected and raised in an environment with temperatures of up to 32 °C.


Author(s):  
Aérica C. Nazareno ◽  
Iran J. O. da Silva ◽  
Eduardo F. Delgado ◽  
Miguel Machado ◽  
Luiz O. Pradella

ABSTRACT The inclusion of environmental enrichment in conventional broiler rearing can increase mobility, bone mass and muscle. This research aimed to evaluate the use of environmental enrichment in the rearing of broilers at different ages and its influence on performance, morphometry, yield and weight of the parts. It was used the completely randomized design in split-plot scheme, being the plots the treatments presence (T1) and absence (T2) of environmental enrichment and the subplots the broiler ages (1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days), with 56 chicks in each treatment (T1 and T2). Data obtained were analyzed by the linear effect model of fixed effects and compared by Tukey’s test of means. The animals were raised in a controlled environment, divided into four boxes with dimensions: 1.5 × 1.0 × 0.7 m, containing rice straw bed. In T1 a ladder with a perch on top was used, distributed every 1.5 m2. Environmental enrichment used did not influence broiler’s zootechnical performance. Broilers’ morphometric properties, parts weight and body weight increased due to environmental enrichment and, improvement was observed in chicks rearing’s final phase. The environmental enrichment was beneficial for muscle and bone mass gain in the main commercial parts of the chicken carcass, in addition to reducing the allometric coefficient of the breasts in chickens.


2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
M. Usman ◽  
H. M. Ishaq ◽  
A. Mahmud ◽  
E. Bughio ◽  
M. Azhar ◽  
...  

Abstract The present trial explained the effect of alternative production systems on growth, morphometric and carcass traits of four different chicken genotypes. The second generation of two genotypes RNN (Rhode Island Red × Naked Neck) and BNN (Black Australorp × Naked Neck) obtained by two self-crosses (RNN × RNN = RR and BNN × BNN = BB) and two reciprocal crosses (RNN × BNN = RB and BNN × RNN = BR) were evaluated in three alternative production systems (conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary). At the 6th week of age after sexing, a total of 600 birds, comprising 150 from each crossbred with a total of 300 pullets and 300 cockerels were divided into conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary systems having 200 birds in each.Birds were organized into 3×4 factorial arrangements under Completely Randomized Design (3 production systems × 4 genotypes × 2 sexes × 25 birds = 600 birds). Regarding genotypes, RB and BR males showed higher (p < 0.01) carcass yield, drumstick weight, breast weight, and thigh weight than BB and RR genotypes. Females of BR genotype showed higher (p < 0.01) breast weight, thigh weight and drumstick weight. As far as production systems are concerned, higher (p < 0.01) liver weight, heart weight, breast weight, intestinal weight, drumstick weight, and thigh weight were observed in the males reared in enriched cages compared with conventional cages and aviary system. Females reared in enriched cages showed higher (p < 0.01) heart weight, breast weight, intestinal weight, drumstick weight, and thigh weight when compared with those reared in conventional cages and aviary. It is concluded that chickens (both sexes) of BR and RB genotypes had better morphological measurements and carcass traits than those of RR and BB genotype chickens. Among alternative production systems, chickens reared in enriched cages had better traits than those of reared in conventional cages and aviary during the growing phase.


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